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Ukraine in the geostrategic plans of the United States (in the late XIX – early XXI century)
Material posted: Publication date: 16-11-2014

In the twenty-first century, Ukraine is one of the participants in the geopolitical game between the West and the East. The illegal coup in the country (2013 – 2014) by unconstitutional methods of "color revolution" led to the Civil war that shocked the world. A coup, a split society – Euromaidan fills all news feeds and the media. Calm on the outside and a single state in one year has undergone drastic changes. Today the political crisis in Ukraine was the Ukrainian factor for the East-West confrontation.

The crisis began on 21 November 2013 when President Viktor Yanukovych refused to sign the Association agreement with the European Union and announced a political course for rapprochement with Russia. This statement raised the IRE of the supporters of the "West", which resulted in rallies, debates and protests in the following days. The President of the European Union expressed deep regret and commented this event as follows: "unfortunately, we were not able at this time to sign an Association Agreement including a deep and comprehensive free trade area with Ukraine... the Offer of signing the most ambitious agreement ever offered by the European Union a country that is not a member, still on the table.

We are ready to sign the agreement with Ukraine after the EU put forward conditions are met... It is time for courage, a time of decision" [1]. The Association agreement with the EU aimed at the implementation of both economic and social reform of society. The Ukrainian leaders in power, declared the extension of democratic freedoms, freedom of national and cultural identity, of individual rights, the new deal economy, the abolition of fees and the visa regime, security of employment, improved living standards with the support of Western countries. The reasons of the split in Ukrainian society, were laid in the 1990s.

The act of independence of Ukraine, adopted by the extraordinary session of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on 24 August 1991 the legally enshrined independence of the country and the creation of an independent state – Ukraine [2].
A new state in the international arena, did not have an independent power among actors and abiding in a state of economic crisis, while maintaining the status of a developed agricultural and mining region in the former USSR for decades have tried to come out to the new regional level, developing industry, agriculture, trade, agro, mechanical engineering. In connection with the problem of unemployment of the population, reducing standard of living increased the risk of the demographic crisis [3].

 

Fig. 1. "dynamics of population of Ukraine".
(Source: URL: http://ventus-ab-amico.livejournal.com/51280.html (accessed on 11.11.2014))
 The graph in Fig.1 shows a population decline since the 1990s for the current year. The economic crisis has affected the institution of the family.

The trade deficit, fluctuations in currency, political incapacity of the government, its corruption has led to political frustration and discontent in society has become widespread.
For decades, the US has carried out "covert policies of paternalism". Despite the fact that relations between Russia and the United States in the first half of the 90s have a friendly nature and is aimed at cooperation, the Clinton administration sought to strengthen its influence in the former Soviet Union, to prevent the strengthening of Russian positions, as well as having access to the resources of the country.

The Ukrainian region has rich mineral resource databases: deposits of oil, gas, coal, peat, oil shale, uranium; iron, manganese, chromium and Nickel, titanium, magnesium, and aluminum, copper, zinc, lead. In the depths of the country is gold, silver, mercury, beryllium, lithium, zirconium, hafnium, tantalum, niobium, cobalt, tin, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, yttrium and the lanthanides, and trace elements germanium, scandium [4].

The territory of Ukraine is strategically important for the West, as a provider and conduit of gas to Europe. Gas transportation system of Ukraine consists of pipelines, distribution networks, gas storage, compression and gas metering stations. For example, in 2007 through the Ukrainian gas pipelines to Europe reached 115 billion cubic meters of Russian gas. Today, this system is the second in Europe and one of the largest in the world [5].

 

Fig. 2. "Infographics. The gas disputes between Russia and Ukraine" (Source: http://ria.ru/infografika/20140602/1010307639.html#14160605016994&message =resize&relto=login&action=removeClass&value=registration (accessed on 11.11.2014)). This chart illustrates the richness and magnitude of the gas transportation system of Ukraine.

 

Fig. 3. "The structure of primary energy consumption in Ukraine". (Source: URL: http://esco-ecosys.narod.ru/2010_3/art160.htm (accessed on 11.11.2014)). As Western countries, and the state consumes more gas energy than alternative sources [6].

Note that on 5 December 1994 in Budapest took place the signing of the Memorandum on security assurances with Ukraine's accession to the Treaty on the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, which in article 4 States the following: "the Russian Federation, United Kingdom of great Britain and Northern Ireland and United States of America reaffirm their commitment to achieve immediate actions of the UN Security Council to aid Ukraine as a state party to the Treaty on the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, non-nuclear weapons, if Ukraine becomes a victim of an act of aggression or object of threat of aggression with use of nuclear weapons". In V. 1 it is also noted that the countries – parties to the Treaty undertake "to respect the independence, sovereignty and existing borders of Ukraine" [7]. The nuclear factor in foreign policy of Ukraine from 1991 to 1996 has allowed the country not to fall into isolation. USA, in turn, fully supported the Russian side on disarmament of Ukraine and expanded assistance to the country, highlighting it for about $ 400 million. as an aid for disarmament on the Nunn-Lugar program [8]. The American government also noted that this program really is a help and does not have selfish goals, but also aimed at "balance of power" in the world.

During the twenty years of U.S. policy in the black sea region can be compared with the image of the "destructive pendulum": "the more the pendulum has followers, the stronger he becomes" [9]. The US administration used a qualitatively-designed stages to achieve their own foothold in the Ukraine:

  1. A bilateral Agreement between the Government of Ukraine and the Government of the United States of America about humanitarian and technical economic cooperation dated 07.05.1992;
  2. Grant policy;
  3. The "orange revolution" of 2004;
  4. Language policy of Ukraine;
  5. Educational and NATO military bases on the black sea coast;
  6. The euromaidan.

The idea of national independence of the Ukrainian people by separation from the Russian Empire emerged at the turn of the 90s Classic example is the Doctrine about the rejection of Russia's Western territories" [10], formulated by Baltic German Paul Rohrbach.

Publicist defends the strategy of dividing Russia into "natural" components: Finland, Poland, Bessarabia, Ukraine, the Caucasus, Turkestan and Russia itself [11], in order to prevent the possible expansion of Russia to the West [12]. After the collapse of the USSR the idea of "German geostrategy" can be traced in the foreign policy of the United States of America.

In the period 1991-2004 has increased significantly the role of NGOs and public funds, which has built a wide network of funded organizations.

The first confirmed officially legal activities of the stage was a bilateral agreement between the Government of Ukraine and the Government of the United States of America about humanitarian and technical economic cooperation dated 07.05.1992 [13]. In the framework of this agreement was created the project "CIPA-Ukraine" which is implemented with the financial support of the U.S. Agency for international development (USAID) [14]. For this project professional accountants and auditors are trained in special program reporting in the sphere of international standards (IFRS). USAID considers the reform of the accounting profession one of the prerequisites for economic growth by attracting funds of domestic and foreign investors in the economy of the CIS countries. Specialist CIPA has professional knowledge and analytical skills in the field of financial and management accounting, Finance and audit, receive the corresponding certificate. At the same time during the Ukrainian crisis of 2014 on the issue of financial "recharge" of the Ukrainian society, the American side says that "internal inspection agencies shows that grants and contracts are not properly documented, which also officially impossible to monitor whether the money is spent properly" [15]. Thus, when there is a common for economists of Ukraine program IFRS – controlled by the US – the documentation is allegedly not transparent.

The second stage in the conquest of Ukrainian consciousness becomes the Grant policy of the United States, which grew almost a whole generation of social activists and experts. USA literally imposed on the Ukrainian people, the negative stereotypes of perception of Russian society and the state. United States Agency for International Development (USAID), National Endowment for Democracy (NED), International Republican Institute (IRI), National Democratic Institute (NDI), the Soros Foundation, the Foundation Charles Stewart Mott Foundation and the international Fund "Renaissance", founded as part of the network of the open society Institute, the Fund owned by George Soros, the international public organization "Internews-Ukraine", Ukrainian media project [16] – these and many other institutions were established since 1990-ies for the education loyalty to the West and a special consciousness of future leaders representatives of the media. The target audience of the media, funded by the America - is the Ukrainian middle class, a kind of "target group", young people, students that actively use Internet resources [17]. Institutions scholarships, grants, free cash grants, organize seminars, training programs, competitions, internships, awarded prizes and awards. Partly grant program to support science shaped the image of the enemy. Information war conducted by the Ukrainian media, shows accountability, and the Western funding parties: it creates a desirable line of events, introduced the image of the enemy – Russia. "Grant policy" is a kind of special operation of Washington to achieve paternalism.

The third stage is considered to be a color revolution in Ukraine 2004 For the period 1991 -2003. in Ukraine remained unresolved issues of payment of wages, the widening gap between rich and poor (social stratification), high inflation, public debt, which was used by the United States. The main phenomenon is not so much a political crisis and power struggle of the two opposition blocs, with the support of the elite and the oligarchs, and the presence of such a fact as part of the "American agents", acting in the role of the opposition. To some extent, based on today's events, a color revolution in Ukraine was a test case of the adjustment of foreign policy in accordance with the Western vector of reforms, and the emergence of trends "Russophobia". Whether openly stated about the different mentality between East and West? One observer S. Dawydiak notes: "...prior to 2004, the differences in worldview between East and West of the country was an invisible character: it was disadvantageous to the authorities to escalate the confrontation society. Now the protests on both sides provide a solid electoral base for the coalition and for the opposition" [18].

The pursuit of values of total democracy means rule of law, equality, freedom, the right to self-determination, human rights. Despite the declared democratic principles, in the state of Ukraine is the opposite policy concerning the rights of Russian-speaking people. In 2000/2001 the proportion of Russian-speaking secondary schools was lower than the share of Russian-speaking population (but much higher than Russian nationality): in the Donetsk region, there were 518 Russian schools (41,6 % of the total, where 38,22 % is Russian population); in the Zaporozhye region — 180 (26.9 %, the Russian population is 24.7 per cent); in Luhansk region — 451 (55.1 per cent, the Russian population is 39.0 %); in Odessa region — 184 (19.7% of the Russian population –
20,7%); in Kharkiv region — 157 (16.1% of the Russian population to 25.6 %) [19]. Although the number of Russian nationality is much less than the number of do Russian-speaking people, thereby creating the infringement of Russian as a nation. According to the Constitution of Ukraine of 28 June 1996 marked the rights of national minorities, Article 11 stipulates: "the state promotes the consolidation and development of Ukrainian nation, its historical consciousness, traditions and culture, as well as development of ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious identity of all indigenous peoples and national minorities of Ukraine" [20]. "The equality of languages ... in fact, the issues of freedom of speech, democracy, the rights of citizens. Ukraine, aspiring to European values, the very contrary to these values, denying the right of half the population on your tongue as a state," said Director of the Ukrainian branch of the CIS Institute Vladimir Kornilov political scientist, answering questions of readers of the Internet site "Great Ukraine" [21]. Language policy of Ukraine is the fourth stage in the revolution of mass perception of the world and the infringement of Russian-speaking population.

On the fifth stage Ukraine is considered as a subject of geopolitical rivalry in the black sea region, two countries the United States and the Russian Federation. Ukraine as a geopolitical entity plays an important role. Russia expresses justified concern about Ukraine's accession to the North Atlantic organization, which threatens national and regional security. By means of a military unit of the United States expands its influence, creating both military and training bases (Romania, Bulgaria, Turkey, and also military exercises held Sevastopol "SEA BREEZE 2013", which caused a sharp protest of the population [22]). If originally, NATO was created to prevent Communist aggression of the Soviet Union, today the purpose and the value of the units does not meet modern realities. The trend is the extension of spheres of influence in the Western world. With the accession to the military bloc Bulgaria and Romania, on the black sea region has led to increased tensions between the neighbors. Access for construction of the complex in Romania, at the military base of Deveselu city, which was agreed back in 2011, and is expected to be completed in 2015 involves the establishment of three batteries with 24 interceptor missiles, and the presence of military personnel will be 200 people [23]. Missiles are designed the day of the destruction of warheads of ballistic missiles of small, medium and Intercontinental actions. USA in turn comment on these actions as potential protection from Iran and North Korea. Then the next question, which under the agreement of 2006, the United States received the right to place military bases with more than 2,500 people? Polygon Novo Selo is one of the most important training facilities in Bulgaria [24]: the distance from polygon to the capital Moscow – 1650 km, to the border with Russia is 860 km, while the military threat will be 1.5 hours of achieving the goal through the air.

 

Fig. 4. "Map of the black sea region". (Source: URL: http://topwar.ru/5419-es-oglasil-strategiyu-po-zavoevaniyu-liderstva-v-chernomorskom-regione.html (accessed 12.11.2014) [25]).
On the map (Fig.4) shows how little the distance between the shores of its neighbors (Russia – Romania, Bulgaria).

The fifth stage in the conquest of space the Ukrainian – Euromaidan, where the American factor was important. The reason, marked the beginning of the crisis was the decision of the Ukrainian government in November 2013 to suspend the process of signing the Association Agreement with the European Union affected the political, industrial, visa and social sphere [26], [27]. The supporters of rapprochement with Europe took to the streets to demand the resignation of Yanukovych and early elections. On November 21-22 meetings were held in Kiev, which installed the campground, which received the name Euromaidan. As a result of a coup came to power is not legitimate policy, which was supported by the West. The current leaders of the state support and use the slogan "Land for the sake of European Integration", which proposes to give the West the natural, economic, labor resources in exchange for Europeanization. As mentioned earlier, Ukraine has economic ties with the European Union and Russia.

Rssiyskih the pipelines passing through Ukraine, gas supplies to many European countries. This fact is clearly evident in 2006, when Russia temporarily shut off the gas, and the EU immediately began to talk about energy security. The Russian side also repeatedly appealed to the Ukrainian government and reminded about possible financial problems, and problems with regional and national security.
Thus, the Ukrainian crisis 2013 – 2014 has two parallel conflict: outdoor internal Civil war, external hidden – Ukraine, as an object for the sphere of influence of the US and Russia. Made five step to create a democratic soil of America, the United States, as a destructive pendulum, once again created a point of instability in the black sea region have created new levers of pressure and influence, has created new realities for the implementation of geo-strategic concept for the weakening of the Russian Federation.

 

Khlyzova V. S.


List of references and Internet resources

  1. The world's response is not the signing of the Association Agreement with the EU. URL: http://blogs.lb.ua/lbua/243331_reaktsiya_mira_nepodpisanie.html
  2. The act of independence of Ukraine. URL: http://gska2.rada.gov.ua/site/postanova/akt_nz.htm
  3. Dynamics of change of population of Ukraine. URL: http://ventus-ab-amico.livejournal.com/51280.html
  4. Infographics. Gas disputes in Russia and Ukraine: what happens if "override" pipe. URL: http://ria.ru/infografika/20140602/1010307639.html#14160605016994&message =resize&relto=login&action=removeClass&value=registration
  5. Internal gas market in Ukraine: politics, economy, crime. ESCO "Ecological systems" № 3, March 2010. URL: http://esco-ecosys.narod.ru/2010_3/art160.htm
  6. Structure of consumption of primary energy in Ukraine". URL: http://esco-ecosys.narod.ru/2010_3/art160.htm
  7. Memorandum on security assurances with Ukraine's accession to the Treaty on the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. URL: http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G94/652/94/PDF/G9465294.pdf?OpenElement
  8. "The non-proliferation regime and reduction of weapons of mass destruction and national security." URL: http://www.armscontrol.ru/course/lectures03a/gkh30422.htm
  9. Vadim Zeland. Transerfing reality. Tier I: Prostranstvo variantov. 2007. S. 15.
  10. Andrey Dashkov. Secret mission of the Third Reich. // The myth of living space. URl: http://www.litportal.ru/genre215/author1803/read/page/11/book119828.html
  11. Ibid.
  12. Timoshenko V. P. the History in the subjunctive mood. Vestnik of the Ural branch of Russian Academy of Sciences. 2011. No. 1(35) http://www.iie-uran.ru/doc/35/103-115.pdf
  13. PLEASE mizh Uryadov Ukraine I. Uryadov Spolucheni Stats America about humancare I techno-Economie spivrobitnitstvo URL: http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/MU92168U.html
  14. The project "CIPA-Ukraine", the development of the profession of accountant and auditor in Ukraine. URL: http://www.capcipa.biz/index_rus.htm
  15. Gayane Chichakyan. Part of the documentation by the grants of the US state Department was lost. URL: http://russian.rt.com/article/55322#ixzz3InFu80w3
  16. Alexey Nicotin. Elements of information infrastructure in Ukraine. URL: http://ukraina.ru/analytics/20140819/1010211464.html
  17. The party of regions called on all enemy agents in the Ukraine (FULL LIST). URl: http://glavcom.ua/articles/16072.html
  18. Potapov, D. V., "the Phenomenon of Maydan and orange revolution in Ukraine" UDC 323.27(477). P. 144-147. URL: http://elibrary.ru/query_results.asp?pagenum=2
  19. The question of the status of the Russian language in Ukraine. URL: http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/ruwiki/852029#...
  20. The Constitution of Ukraine of 28 June 1996 No. 254к/96-BP (Adopted at the fifth session of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine). URL: http://online.zakon.kz/Document/?doc_id=30391155
  21. Vladimir Kornilov: the Introduction of a second state language is an act of democracy and freedom. URL: http://vu.ua/article/materials/komments/698.html
  22. The progressive socialists protest in Sevastopol against NATO
    17/07/2013 URL: http://www.vitrenko.org/article/16869
  23. Participating countries in the missile defense system the U.S. and NATO:Romania, USA. URL: http://anti-nato.com/map/pro/deveselu-rumyniya.html
  24. The interaction of Bulgaria and NATO. URL: http://нато.рф/ru/bulgaria.html
  25. "Map of the black sea region". URL: http://topwar.ru/5419-es-oglasil-strategiyu-po-zavoevaniyu-liderstva-v-chernomorskom-regione.html
  26. The draft agreement on Association Ukraine-EU: 10 key provisions. URL: http://news.liga.net/articles/politics/869219-proekt_soglasheniya_ob_assotsiatsii_ukraina_es_10_klyuchevykh_polozheniy.htm
  27. Document URL: http://comeuroint.rada.gov.ua/komevroint/doccatalog/document?id=56219

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