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The price of juvenile justice
Material posted: Publication date: 25-10-2012

Juvenile justice is chosen for Russia, all closer. One of the key bills in this system – social patronage — recently passed its first reading in the state Duma. However, the battle of his supporters and opponents is not over yet. On the one hand, the law can be costly for the subjects of the Federation, which will have to include in their budgets the new articles in social spending. On the other, the document creates a new feeder for bureaucrats and opens a loophole for illegally taking money and property from the population.

In Russia the phrase "juvenile justice system" has become almost a dirty (read more about this here). Meanwhile, it is the judicial form of protection of children. Such a system is necessary because the Russian legal norms regarding children outdated. For example, the Commission on minors ' Affairs and protection of their rights so far as the legal bases are Regulation from 1967.

The principles of the juvenile justice system were first legislated in Russia in the mid-1990s. In 2008 was adopted by the head of the Family code, which provides for withdrawal of families of children "in difficult situations" with their subsequent placement. Appeared article 156 of the criminal code for "default of duties on education of minors".

However, other "juvenile" laws were moving "creaking", causing a storm of public condemnation. Opponents of the juvenile justice system believe that its purpose is not the adjustment of the rights of adults and children, and the presumption of guilt parents. Supporters of "juvenance" are convinced that children's rights are violated, and minors must be kept secure even from their own moms and dads.

The adoption in first reading of the draft law on social patronage has also given rise to a wave of indignation. The fact is that today the bodies of trusteeship and guardianship may not interfere in family life, if there's a verifiable threat to the life and health of the child. The provisions of the new bill actually allow officials to inspect any of the family on the subject of "social welfare". The state represented by the inspectors will decide how well the citizens look after their children, and, if necessary, to take the family under surveillance and to carry out rehabilitation. However, if the job fails, the social workers could remove children from the family. The court, in turn, will decide on the exchange of housing owned by parents, in favor of the child.

In fact, to withdraw the child from the family in Russia will become almost as easy as in some countries of Europe. Russians are well known examples of juvenile technologies, for example, in Finland. There the workers directly interested in the increase of boarding — because they each get a lot of money. According to data for 2011, in Finland there were about 16 thousand children isolated from their parents, and every year their number increases by 2 thousand For the maintenance of children boarding out up to 400 million euros annually.

More Sweden spends. In the report of the World Foundation says the Reasons that this country was formed this business on the sale of children: social workers openly offer money to the citizens for the opportunity to place the child with a foster family. According to the Fund, almost 500 thousand of the Swedes were faced with gross government interference in the lives of their families. Annually for the maintenance of foster families goes to 1% of the state budget.

Europe's social spending, on average 40% of budget spending. Russia has allocated for the social sphere is much smaller — 15% of the budget. However, as noted by Ph. D., the rector of the educational center "Finam" Yaroslav Kabakov, to compare solely the figures of budget expenditures is incorrect. "In some Western countries orphanages in our understanding is not, and the emphasis is on adoption. Somewhere still holds strong positions in Church shelters and private charitable institutions," notes the economist. According to him, in recent years, Russia seeks to optimize social articles of the budget: in particular, boarding schools actively merge decreases the proportion of small children's homes.

However, the draft law on social patronage does not fit into this strategy. According to the Commissioner for the rights of the child in St. Petersburg Svetlana Agapitova, the document opposite, provides a new, illogical spending. For example, the law stipulates the salary of a caseworker who performs the function of the inspector in dysfunctional families, — 16800 roubles a month, plus another 5 thousand rubles for transport expenses. Under the new law, the social worker needs to spend with her family 3 months. "A thousand families have 34 social worker per year. It turns out about 8 million roubles each subject of the Russian Federation should allocate the budget for implementation of the law," according Agapitova.

However, according to the children's Ombudsman, the draft law is underfulfilled, and the deputies still have to figure out what is more profitable: to pay the salaries of social workers with vague functions, or to help the families directly. "In addition, the social obligations of supervisors is now carried out by other organizations, and do it for free. For example, in St. Petersburg successfully operates the Center for families and children, and this new social worker would virtually duplicate its functions", — said Agapitova.

There are other items of expenditure, which entails the introduction of juvenile justice. For example, you need to create juvenile courts and pay for their activities. According to the estimates of the author of the draft Federal law "On juvenile courts in the Russian Federation" Nodari Khananashvili, costs for their creation (estimated in 2003) will be 500 million rubles annually.

The society is strongly opposed to the introduction of juvenile justice, and it is not clear why the state is so aggressively "pushing" unpopular and, moreover, costly laws. Your answer to this question is the opposition. They believe that the law simply gives the government another tool in the fight against undesirable citizens. According to the leader of the faction "Fair Russia" Sergey Mironov, the juvenile justice system will lead to the fact that social services are forcing children to inform on their parents. And the state will have the opportunity to select children little to no reason. "The juvenile justice system, if she shows up in the country, will bring all the controlling and repressive mechanisms in a single system," — says Mironov.

The leader of the movement defenders of the Khimki forest Evgenia Chirikova said earlier that social workers have tried to pick up her children. According to activists, in this way the state takes revenge for her citizenship. Publicised history is gone, and the children Chirikova is not selected. However, if bills are included in the juvenile justice system, will be taken, the next attempt of social workers to establish order in someone else's family can be more successful.

Mary Kovalenko



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