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"If the Russian people went over to the Bolsheviks, then I'm with him. Because people are not wrong"
Material posted: Publication date: 02-11-2017
The Soviet government during the years of Civil war and foreign intervention 1917-1921 was forced to resort to professional knowledge and combat experience of the former tsarist officers and generals. The pragmatism of the leaders of the revolution, turned a blind eye to the identity of the officer caste alien to the workers and peasants of class and social status, was due to the difficult situation on the fronts and the absence of the red army's own command and staff personnel. However, the tolerance of the military experts who volunteered to cooperate with the new government, was manifested from time to time. One of the most striking examples of this was the tragic fate of the representative of the military elite of the Russian Empire General Andrei Snesarev.

"I always worked with full voltage and not sparing their strength for the government, which has voluntarily chosen..."

65-year-old Snesarev was arrested by the OGPU in January 1930. 12 years ago he voluntarily entered into the worker-Peasant Red Army (RKKA), headed the North Caucasus military district, Western area of defence and commanded the Western army. In the fall of 1919 snesareva put at the head of the General staff Academy of the red army (later – the Military Academy of the red army). For several years he turned it into an elite military school, his efforts in high school appeared Oriental faculty, where he studied Turkish, Persian, Hindustani, Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Mongolian languages, and a course of Islamic law, regional geography, military geography, commercial law, history and practice of diplomatic relations. Peru snesareva belonged to the course of lectures on "Fire tactics" and "Modern strategy". In 1921, he focused on scientific and teaching work, I became one of the founders of the Institute of Oriental studies and was appointed its rector, and later the military leader. He also taught at the Military-air and Military-political academies of the red army.

In 1928 Snesareva was among the first has established in the USSR, the title of Hero of Labor. In the order of the revolutionary military Council of the USSR of March 21, 1928, stated that the military head of the Institute of Oriental studies. Narimanov Snesareva Andrew Paton was awarded the title "Hero of Labour" on the basis of the Decision of the CEC of the USSR of 22 February 1928, for many years of useful activity in building Armed forces (incompatible with GWP No. 3383 – 37 in the case Snesarev A. E., etc., p. 40; CA FSB, d. 554 672, vol. 78, 247-248 L. (later periactine – f. R–40164., 4-b, case Snesarev A. E.). Shortly before his arrest, the nomination of Professor snesareva was nominated for election to the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

The indictment drawn up in case No. 546 836, was charged with Snesareva belonging to the Moscow monarchist Union of RNS ("Russian national Union"). The investigation and judicial documents are among the "monarchists" varies from 45 to 51 people, including 13 "organizers", 26 "active participants" and about 10 "accomplices and concealers", among them representatives of scientific and technical intelligentsia, former officers and generals dorevolyutsionnoi Russia, taught at the Military Academy of the red army. According to the indictment, Snesarev "from 1920 to 1926 was one of the organizers and active participants of the counter-revolutionary monarchist organization "Russian national center", aims to overthrow the Soviet government and the establishment in the USSR of the monarchy" and in 1926 after the death of General Alexei Brusilov, who led the eponymous circle of officers he headed the ideological center of this organization.

During the interrogation on March 13, 1930 Snesarev once again rejected the accusations of the OGPU and said: "I have always worked with full voltage and not sparing their strength for the government, which voluntarily chose 12 years ago and I could never be and don't owe her a criminal" (incompatible with GWP No. 3384-37 in the case of Snesareva.E. etc., p. 45; CA FSB RF, f. R-40164., 4-b, p. 86).

"Our gallant, fearless eagle commander with an angel's heart..."

Snesareva biographers are unanimous that the son of a priest of one of the parishes of the Voronezh province was remarkably talented and versatile man, subjecting all its forces to the service of Russia. He with a silver medal and a commendation for excellence in the study of ancient languages, he graduated from Novocherkassk school them. Platov and entered the physico-mathematical faculty of Moscow University. In 1888, the 23-year-old Snesarev, released from the University with honors, he defended the degree of candidate algorithms. Thesis on "Study of infinitesimal magnitudes" promised him a future as a scientist. Snesarev, however, to the surprise of many friends, he entered the Moscow infantry cadet school. And again scored a success in school: his name was listed on a marble plaque in the school building. But 10 years after this Snesarev graduated from the Nicholas Academy of the General staff.

After receiving higher military education he served as a senior officer for orders in Turkestan. Instructions that perform a staff-captain Snesarev, were of a reconnaissance nature: he undertook the study of military-geographical description of the Middle East, travelled through India, Afghanistan, Tibet and Kashgar (now in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous region of China). Known for his undercover alias – "Musafir" (Traveler). At the end of 1900 Snesarev made a trip to England, where for four months he worked in the library of the British Museum reading up on the issues of Oriental studies. In 1902-1903 he commanded the Pamir detachment of the Separate corps of border guards (with this period of service was associated with his marriage to the daughter of the chief of the Khorog post mohrenstra Evgenia Zaitseva). And in 1904, Snesarev was an officer of the General quartermaster of the General staff, which in addition to military transportation and quartering of troops was the intelligence service. At the same time he taught military geography at several St. Petersburg military schools. In August 1908 Snesarev made two presentations at the XV International Congress of Orientalists in Copenhagen: "Religion and customs of the highlanders of the Western Pamirs"; "the Awakening of national consciousness in Asia" (both in German, just as Snesarev in varying degrees, possessed fourteen languages).

During the First world war Snesarev was chief of staff of the various parts, consistently commanded the – regiment, brigade, division and corps, and distinguished himself, according to military assessments of his superiors, with rare honesty to the service, courage, self-control "in any situation." And while the wires snesareva to a new place of service of the officers of the division presented him with Gergiev piece with the inscription: "to Our valiant, fearless eagle-the commander of the angelic heart, major-General Snesareva in memory of the glorious battles of the 64th division in the Wooded Carpathians, 1916". In Lieutenant General Snesarev was commissioned by the Provisional government in October 1917.

"It is difficult to immediately understand everything that's happened..."

On the side of the Soviet power in spring of 1918 Snesarev moved without hesitation. "It is difficult to immediately understand everything that's happened... But if the Russian people went over to the Bolsheviks, then I'm with him. Because people are not wrong" – later recalled the words snesareva one of his colleagues at the Military Academy of the red army. At the Lubyanka in the sincerity of the arrested snesareva not believe. At that time in his secret dossier had been waiting several denunciations. One of them entered the OGPU 21 Feb 1927. It was reported that Snesarev, along with former major-General Vladimir Gatovsky, senior Executive of the Department of tactics at the Military Academy of the red army, and former rear Admiral Boris Dolivo-Dobrovolsky, head of the Department of foreign languages at the naval Academy (both were later arrested), was gathered on the Brusilov apartment under the pretext of helping him in the writing of memoirs (Military archives of Russia. M., 1993. Vol. 1. S. 382). An even earlier date marked operational materials agents of the OGPU, in 1924, Brusilov and Snesarev staged in the apartment of the last meeting of the knights of St. George, then another such meeting was held in the apartment of the chief of Military Academy of the red army Alexander Verhovskogo, a former major General and war Minister in the Provisional government. In approval snesareva that at these meetings, the Cavaliers says the front-weekdays, drank and sang songs, the KGB also did not believe, in the case of the meeting was described as "a secret meeting of conspirators".

13 Aug 1930 Snesarev and other defendants in the case "RNS" appeared before Kolegia OGPU – on extrajudicial repression. More than ten people were sentenced to death (Supervising production GWP No. 3384-37, p. 45; CA FSB RF, f. R–40164., 4-b, p. 86). "In the historical literature can be found mention of snesareva also condemned this day to be shot, writes in the book "the Tribunal of academics" well-known author of historical research trials Vyacheslav Zvyagintsev. – However, in the case it is awarded to capital punishment, commuted to 10 years imprisonment, based on the decision of the Board of the OGPU on January 13, 1931". The researcher explains that "by this time Snesarev was held as a Central figure on new business, was spun off from "PCH". It was necessary for security officers alive, because the figurative expression of the historian J. Timchenko, became the "locomotive" of the new Soviet process loud romantic [code] the name "Spring".

"Klim! I think that it would be possible to replace Snesareva the highest measure of 10 years..."

To the old charges snesareva added attempt to overthrow the Soviet power with the help of foreign interventionists. The beginning of a new case was the arrest of the assistant chief of the 3rd office of military transportation staff of the red army of the former General Vladimir Serebryannikov, which the KGB made a few days before the beginning of the process in the case of "RNS". During interrogation pieces of silver "remembered" about the counterrevolutionary activities of the former head of the military posts of the Ukrainian military district and the former captain of the General staff Vladimir Sergeev.

After his arrest on 16 October 1930 Sergeyev gave "grateful" indications on snesareva: "Being familiar with 1919 with b. the General staff Snesareva inimical to Soviet power in 1925, I was recruited Snesareva in the wrecking organization. Who personally was a part of this organization, I was not known. When hired, I was asked because the organization was considered that the existence of the Soviet regime – temporary that power is seized by the usurpers, that all its activities are utopian experiments, leading to the destruction of Russia... to use my appointment to an independent position of the chief of military communications SVR and implement a number of subversive activities, the consequence of which would be the failure of mobilization and concentration, to relieve the poles and the Romanians their task to defeat the red Army, operating in the HEA..." (Testimony from the case Sergeeva V. V., which is stored in the state Archives of the security service of Ukraine (GASBU, FP., 67 093, t-175 (3133), p. 855-860) is quoted on the book by J. Y. Timchenko "Golgotha of the Russian officers in the Soviet Union 1930-1931 years," the Moscow scientific Fund, 2000).

A copy of this interrogation showed Snesareva, and 21 of October the prisoner pulled out the following confession: "After the death of Brusilov, who was associated with my name the counter-revolutionary hopes, I like double Gergiev a knight of the former army, as the founder of our Military Academy, as a person in General authority and his scholarship, and his personal qualities, and finally as a man with a European name, was considered one of his successors as a leadership position, and hopes that with him was connected the counter-revolutionary officers" (TSA FSB RF, f. R 40 164., 4-b, case Snesarev A. E., p. 95). In this case Snesarev was a second time sentenced to "the highest measure of social protection". However, the shooting was changed to 10 years of concentration camps after Stalin (Joseph Dzhugashvili), who ruled the country single-handedly, wrote the people's Commissar for military and naval Affairs, Chairman of the revolutionary military Council of the Soviet Union Voroshilov Clement: "Klim! I think that it would be possible to replace Snesareva high as 10 years. Joseph Stalin" (in 1989, this note was sold at an international auction "Sotheby's").

This decision of Stalin and Voroshilov put an end to the conflict with Snesareva that happened between them 13 years ago in Tsaritsyn (now Volgograd).

"Military instructor Snesarev, in my opinion, very skillfully sabotaged the work..."

Snesarev in the spring of 1918, joined the red army, was designated "military district Commissariat for military Affairs" in the North Caucasus military district, created in the South of Russia by the decree of the Council of people's Commissars on may 4, 1918. "Tsaritsyn was infested, writes Zvyagintsev, – disparate armed groups – from the first Soviet divisions Kikvidze and planarchists Ukrainian "army" Voroshilov to Cossack parts and Mironov V, and SR of the revolutionary regiments. In addition, under the guise of revolutionary banners, acted in numerous bands, one of which was commanded by the notorious Maria Nikiforova (Black Mary)". The former Lieutenant General of the General staff of the Russian army mandate, signed by Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin), was given wider powers for their Union to repel the don white army of General Pyotr Krasnov, which occurred at Tsaritsyn. However Snesarev himself a former General, was not considered and was the only person in the red army who not took chase. Take the "red district" under my command, he came in full General's uniform.

One of the generals of the Civil war Semyon Budyonny, coming from the Sergeant's environment, wrote in his memoirs about Snesareva: "When we, a group of officers presented by A. E. Snesarev, I saw a tall elderly man with impeccable military bearing, in full uniform of Lieutenant-General of the old Russian army. I, like others, first of all was surprised, why Snesarev in a General's uniform, because the red army belonged to the "zolotopogonnyh" with undisguised hostility and carry straps was unsafe. Someone even told him about it. Andrew E. said "shoulder Straps – badge of military merit for the Fatherland. Besides me, no one demoted" (sm Budyonny Word about the older friend // Andrey E. Snesarev. Life and scientific activity. Moscow, Nauka, 1973. P. 5-9).

The people's Commissar (Minister) for nationalities, member of the Central Executive Committee Joseph Stalin arrived in Tsaritsyn a month after snesareva as head of the food Commission, invested with extraordinary powers for purchase in the South of Russia of grain and its transportation in the Central industrial areas. Stalin did not trust the military experts, moreover, appointed by the order of people's Commissar for military Affairs and his political opponents in behind-the-scenes Kremlin power struggle with Leon Trotsky. The intervention of Stalin in military Affairs led to conflict. "The food question is naturally entwined with the military question. For business use I need military powers. I wrote [Trotsky] about this, but received no response. Very good. In this case, I myself, without formalities, to overthrow those commanders and Commissars who are ruining the business. So tell me the cause, and of course, no piece of paper from Trotsky won't stop me" – cabled Commissar Lenin. In another message he called the name of the person who "destroys the case": "Military instructor Snesarev, in my opinion, very cleverly sabotages the matter" and demanded to "remove snesareva that can not, can not or do not want to wage war against the counterrevolution." Lenin agreed with the energetic Commissar.

Snesarev, who in soul were against the fratricidal civil war, was in a difficult position. One of the motives for joining the Red Army for him, as for many officers of the old army, was the occupation by German troops in many regions of Russia, however, the fight he had with the yesterday's comrades in the German front, with classmates at school, Academy of the General staff, and friends of the family. These moral oscillations, obviously, and got a future leader. Although Snesarev has completed the task to consolidate the fragmented military forces and devised a plan of defense of Tsaritsyn, Stalin called it "sabotage", carrying the "seal of defensism," he removed the military from office and took him into custody. Trotsky dispatched to Tsaritsyn an angry telegram which Stalin wrote: "do Not take into account".

From shooting snesareva and some military experts at the district headquarters of the former officers saved on the Supreme Military Council (on the strategic management of the red army under the chairmanship of Trotsky), sent to the Empress all-Russia Central Executive Committee. Snesarev was recalled to Moscow for a new assignment. Having freedom of action, Stalin created a Council of war, IN the UK, which itself and has headed a command of the United forces instructed Voroshilov. Developed by Stalin and Voroshilov offensive plan of operations, which calculation was made of the numerical advantage the Reds, was amateurish. The defenders of Tsaritsyn although the city defended, but lost 60 thousand in killed, wounded and captured. However, Stalin managed to blame and this is already set aside snesareva. 4 Aug 1918 telegraphed to Lenin: "the Situation in the South is not easy. The military Council got totally frustrated inheritance, frustrated partly by the inertness of the former military instructor [snesareva]" (documents on the history of the Civil war in the USSR. Vol. 1, Moscow, 1940. P. 240). Trotsky did not fail to take advantage of the situation to tripped Stalin and demanded to withdraw it from the southern front. October 19, the future Generalissimo of the Soviet Union, laid under the Empress the main principle of his military strategy: not to draw attention to the loss of human resources in the USSR, enough – was withdrawn.

Distrust of military experts, Stalin harbored life. In the years 1920-1930 through spaccalegna OGPU and military tribunals held more than 10,000 military experts. "For example, in the case of "On kontrevolyutsionnaya subversive activities in the military industry of the USSR", the investigation is led personally by G. Berry, writes Zvyagintsev, was arrested on 18 military engineers – the former generals and colonels in his time graduated from the Mikhailovsky artillery Academy. The head of a non-existent conspiracy was recognized as a major military leader of the former tsarist army General V. S. Mikhailov, sentenced collegiums of the OGPU to death. In 1931, before the "judges" in KGB uniforms appeared a group of "military topographers headed by former generals I. I. by Seliverstova and G. N. Lachowice. All these scientists were pupils of an outstanding Russian surveyor and surveyor, Professor of the Academy of the General staff Lieutenant General V. V. Vitkovskiy. They were accused of creation bears his name the science club, which in the case somehow figured as a counter-revolutionary group..." In the same years under the shooting left 8 chiefs of military academies, 40 professors and several hundred teachers...


In late September 1931 snesareva was transferred to sub-camp in the Leningrad oblast, and a year later was sent to Solovki. Then for health reasons he was taken to the mainland – in a camp at Kem. Here Snesarev had a stroke. His wife, after receiving permission, came to nurse her husband. In the summer of 1934, the medical Commission made the conclusion that Snesarev needs parole. On the way home from the camp he caught the second blow and the third happened in Moscow. 4 Dec 1937, of the person abroad was considered a scientist of world level, a great geopolitical and called the "Russian sun Tzu", is not.

Full rehabilitation snesareva took place on 28 January 1958 through the efforts of his daughter Eugenia Andreyevna.

In preparing the material used in the book the Colonel of justice in reserve, a military judge in resignation Vyacheslav Zvyagintsev (Zvyagintsev V. E. the Tribunal for academics. TERRA – Book club, 2009. P. 17-38).

Alexander Pylypchuk


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