2 February 2013 the peoples of the former Soviet Union will celebrate the 70th anniversary of the battle of Stalingrad, complete with anxiety and hope was expecting the peoples of not only the Soviet Union but all over the world.
In order to understand this disturbing expectation and importance of the battle of Stalingrad, should be aware of the conditions in which it was conducted and in which at the time was our nation, our state – the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
At the end of the winter campaign of 1941-1942 the enemy was in 160-180 km from Moscow. Kept in blockade Leningrad. Far penetrated into our country in the South. Went to the industrial area of Donbass. Went up to Rostov. Kept The Crimea. The enemy was still strong. He outnumbered the Red Army in the weapons and vehicles. The economy of the Country of the Soviets did not have time to fully adjust to a war footing. Evacuated in July-December of 1941 to the East of the industrial enterprise, including 1360 military, did not complete the arrangement. In the red Army lacked weapons. Especially tanks, aircraft, automatic weapons, vehicles, tractors. Not enough manpower to fill the army and war workers. Millions of people were evacuated together with enterprises. Many people in droves to the East to escape the atrocities of the Nazi occupiers.
After defeat outside Moscow in December 1941 – April 1942, the enemy did not abandon their plans. In the summer campaign of 1942, the Nazi command's main task was to finally defeat the Soviet Armed Forces and end the war against the Soviet Union. It was planned to seize the territory of the Soviet Union up to the line Arkhangelsk – Volga, including Moscow. First of all, to seize Stalingrad and the Caucasus with its oil fields. To interrupt the communications of the Soviet Union with the outside world through the Caucasus – Iran and through the Northern ports of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk. To involve Turkey and Japan in a war against the USSR.
Focusing on the southern wing of the Soviet-German front a considerable force of the German army and armies of its allies – Italy, Romania, Hungary, the German command undertook in the summer of 1942. a major offensive on Stalingrad and the Caucasus directions.
The lack of a second front in Europe enabled Hitler's command from March to mid-November 1942 to transfer on the Soviet-German front more than 80 divisions. This enabled the German command to create two large strike force: Stalingrad – army Group "B" and the North-Caucasus Group of armies "A". These groups may 1, 1942. began the offensive. Having moved two and a half months to 450-500 km, 17 July 1942 at Stalingrad they went to the direction of the don river in the 140-200 km from Stalingrad.
The troops of the southwestern, southern and the newly-created July 12, Stalingrad fronts of the red Army stubbornly defended. But the forces were unequal. On 23 August the 14th Panzer corps of the 6th army of Nazi troops reached the Volga at n Market (Northern outskirts of Stalingrad) and D. p. Lotoshino (9 km North of the town) that threatened to strike at the flank 62 of the army along the Volga river to the South. On the same day – the 23rd and on the second day of the 24th of August the enemy was dealt a massive air RAID on Stalingrad. A city with 600 thousand population was reduced to rubble. Were destroyed or severely damaged industrial enterprises, residential quarters, hospitals, schools, kindergartens. Significantly damaged river port and tank farm. Partially broken water pipes, power plants, transport. Many people died and injured, including children. Were evacuated from the city of 100 thousand to 23 August, and after the airstrike 300 thousand Remaining worked in factories, went to the militia in their areas, the destruction battalions, the troops of the boom, built the engineering boom in the city, and equipped the 4th defensive line on the outskirts of the city.
August 25, Stalingrad declared a state of siege. And on 13 September began to assault the city. If we consider everything South of Stalingrad the enemy approached the Sarpinsky lakes, and by mid-October reached the Volga in the city center and in the southern part, we can understand in what difficult conditions the Soviet soldiers and civilians had to defend Stalingrad. All supply and combat and logistical support, evacuation of wounded and civilians were held across the Volga forces of the Volga military flotilla (rear Admiral D. D. Rogachev) and the lower Volga river shipping company.
I had the opportunity to participate in defensive battles in the city of 200 TB 84 FRT, which became part 62 of the army in August 1942. I was the commander of the tank T-70. After unloading at a railway station at night, its course came to the Volga from the East. Depressing impression. Stretches 30km in the West Bank city burned. On the ferry crossed to the West Bank. 84 FRT took up defensive position in the Northern part of the city at the turn of the Market-Spartanovka-tractor factory and the village. The position of my tank is 150-200m North-West from the fence STZ. Behind rail tracks with cars, and 1.5-2km – Volga. Daily air raids, attacks by enemy infantry and tanks kept us in constant tension. In repelling the attacks of the enemy from your tank I destroyed 3 tanks and 2 guns of the Germans, a lot of infantry. Participated in the counterattack during the capture the Germans occupied the house. Successfully!
During this period our troops were fighting in the city small assault teams: infantry battalion (infantry company), reinforced by tank or gun, sappers, attacked the object that captured his and held. The same tactics followed by the Germans. During the fighting the Central railway station 13 times passed from hands in hands, Mamaev Kurgan a few times. Pavlov's house was defended by 11 soldiers of 8 nationalities in the centre of the city surrounded by the enemy. Battles were fought on the shop floors, for the important object, for the residential quarter. A special role, and military and psychological, had a sniper group. They were created at all joints and parts of the front edge. They tracked the enemy, especially officers and destroyed. 400 snipers 62 army (including women!) destroyed 6 thousand Germans.
Despite all the difficulties in the defensive period of the battle of Stalingrad the objective is to weaken the enemy, stop its advance and thereby create the conditions for a subsequent transition to the offensive – was solved. By the end of the 62 defense army held the area North of the tractor plant, the plant "Barricades", the North-East districts of the Central part of the city, and 64 the army the approaches to the southern part of the city. In this situation, our troops were preparing for the transition to a decisive offensive with the purpose of destroying the enemy at Stalingrad.
The idea of counter-attacking arose during the fierce defensive battles. First outline of a future offensive operation was developed in a Rate in August 1942.
This was the period when the enemy had already crossed the don river in the lower and middle reaches, seized Rostov, Yeisk (120 km South-West of Rostov), Salsk, went to Kotelnikovsky (120 km South-West of Stalingrad), tied the battle on the first turn of the defense of Stalingrad. August 23, 1942, reached the Volga on the Northern outskirts of the city, and the South was already in the area Sarpinsky lakes.
This is the period when the staff of the Stavka and the General staff of the red Army and their leaders, given the miscalculations in the planning of hostilities in 1942, realizing the need for urgent action based on the availability of opportunities, looking for the surest option to defend Stalingrad and the Caucasus. It was clear that the fall of Stalingrad is the signal to declare war on the Soviet Union, Turkey and Japan, which could lead to the loss of our state of war. The exit was one – to hold Stalingrad, amass power and deliver a powerful blow to the enemy for the purpose of his defeat.
In late September, the Stalingrad front was renamed the don (Commander Lieutenant General K. K. Rokossovsky), and the South-West of Stalingrad (Commander Colonel General A. I. Eremenko). 29 October between Voronezh and don fronts formed South-Western front (Commander, Lieutenant-General Vatutin N. F.).
The final version of the plan, based on careful study of the enemy, his state of defense, evaluation of the combat capabilities of its troops, the forthcoming operation, code named "Uran", which contrasted with their sense of purpose, boldness of conception and on an enormous scale, approved in October 1942. The offensive was conceived as a strategic operation three fronts – Western, don and Stalingrad. It was deployed on a 400-kilometer front. Soviet troops took under control the enemy forces on the territory of a radius of about 100 kilometres. To surround a larger number of troops of the enemy. The red Army had to break through enemy defenses, destroying his troops to the North-West and South of Stalingrad, and then, stepping on a converging path, to reach the area of Kalach-on-don – Soviet, encircle the 6th and 4th Panzer German army, to create internal and external front of an environment, to destroy the environment and to develop the offensive to the West.
By the beginning of the counterattack on the boundary: Upper Mamon, Cribwork, Northern and Eastern outskirts of Stalingrad, (the lawsuit.) Beketovka, West of the Sarpinsky lakes, Dede-Lamin the enemy were only 50 divisions. 26 German divisions, 18 – Romanian, 6 Italian). Supported aircraft of the 4th German air fleet and 8th air corps. Active offensive actions of the enemy led only in Stalingrad, where they were concentrated the main forces of the Germans(and 4ТА 6A). The rest of the front from October the enemy moved to defense. 8A(I.), 3A(R) – North and South of 4A(R.).
From our side was preparing to attack three fronts: South-West, don, Stalingrad. Total: General military armies – 10; tank armies – 1; air army – 4; Panzer corps to the beginning of the attack – 4, added to 6; mechanized corps to the beginning – 3 added – 3. All tanks, taking into account the tank brigades and regiments, attached to the combined links, to the beginning of the operation – 1500, guns and mortars 13540, installations and RAM 1250 rocket artillery, anti-aircraft guns 1100, 1115 aircraft (without U-2).
November 19, 1942, troops of the South-ZAPADNOGO don fronts attacked. Breaking through the defense of the 3rd Romanian army in the South-West of Serafimovich and Cribwork at 140-180 km North-West of Stalingrad, the movable group of the 5th tank and 21st armies began to rapidly develop the offensive in the South-East. November 20, went on the offensive the troops of the Stalingrad front. Mobile teams of the 51st and 57th armies after the breakthrough of the 1st and 18th infantry divisions of Rumanians began successfully to develop the offensive in a North-westerly direction towards the troops of the southwestern front.
4th mechanized corps (In,T,Wolski) 51A (S. F. Trufanov) the Stalingrad front on 22 November seized n of Soviet (article Krivorozhskaya) and kept it. 26 tank corps (G. I. S.) 5 (P. L. Romanenko) South-Western front on the night of 22 November, captured the only remaining bridge over the don river near Kalach on the don, which successfully crossed 4 armored corps (A. G. Kravchenko) 21A (M. P. Chistyakov) South-Western front. Breaking after crossing the don river over 100km, 4 tank corps entered n of Free (60 km West of Stalingrad), where on 23 November, met the troops with 4 mechanized corps of the Stalingrad Front. Environment 6A 4ТА troops and Nazi troops was completed.
For the conquest of the bridge through the river don to the commander of the vanguard of the 26 tank corps Lieutenant Colonel G. N. Philippi was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union. 26 tank corps reorganized into the 1st guards don tank corps. 4 armored and 4 mechanized corps has the title of honorary guards and the names of Stalingrad. The honorary title of Stalingrad has received and 13 mechanized corps (T. N. Tenascin) 57 army (major-General F. I. Tolbukhin).
30 November created a dense inner front of the encirclement. External front pushed at 60-150 km from surrounded near Stalingrad the enemy. In December 1942, the 2 guards. And (Malinovsky),reinforced 7 tank corps (captains A. P.) and 6th mechanized corps (S. I. Bogdanov) in a counter battle defeated centradenia groups Manstein on Kotelnikovo direction and Thermosensory in collaboration with 5th shock army.
7 armored corps at Kotelnikovo the successful defeat of the enemy factions, mastering and Kotelnikovo airfield with enemy aircraft converted into a 3rd Kotelnikovsky guards tank corps. P. A. Rotmistrov promoted to the rank of Lieutenant General and assigned to form the 5th guards tank army of the new composition.
During this period the troops of the southwestern front and part of the forces of the Voronezh front in cooperation with the troops of the Stalingrad front defeated the enemy troops to the West and North-West of Stalingrad, breaking them to pieces, surrounding and destroying. Pushed the front from the enemy troops surrounded near Stalingrad on 240-320 km into the Eastern areas of the Voroshilovgrad oblast of the Soviet Ukraine.
For successful operations and the mastery of the railway station Italska 24th tank corps was renamed 2nd guards tank corps Tatsinskiy. The corps commander, major General V. M. Badanov first In the red Army he was awarded the order of Suvorov.
Don front after the double presentation of the ultimatum to Paulus 2 February 1943 completed the liquidation of the surrounded in Stalingrad the enemy group of forces.
So on 2 February 1943, which lasted over six and a half months of the battle of Stalingrad. At the time of liquidation of the surrounded grouping destroyed or captured 22 of the division, the several parts of the gain and special troops. On the battlefield chosen 147200 killed German soldiers and officers. Soviet troops captured more than 91000 people, including 2,500 officers and 24 generals headed by field Marshal Paulus. In the report Glavnokomanduyuschego Supreme Military Council don front reported: "in Fulfilling Your orders, the troops of the don front at 16.00 on 2 February 1943 completed the rout and destruction of the encircled Stalingrad grouping of the opponent. In connection with the complete liquidation of the surrounded enemy troops fighting in Stalingrad and in the area of Stalingrad stopped."
The defeat of the red Army major Nazi troops decisively influenced the change of the course of the great Patriotic war and the Second world war in favor of the Soviet Union and the anti-Hitler coalition, marking the beginning of fundamental change during the great Patriotic war.
During the Stalingrad battle the armies of the fascist bloc has lost more than a quarter of all forces acting at this time on the Soviet-German front, one and a half million soldiers and officers killed, wounded and captured. The Nazi rulers declared three days of mourning in Germany and in all countries of the fascist bloc.
The peoples of the world embraced the victory of the red Army as a guarantee of the inevitable defeat of fascism. It is understood and many heads of States that were in Alliance with Nazi Germany. Even made since 1936 in the "Antikomintern the Covenant" (the fascist unit – Berlin – Rome – Tokyo) Japan is militaristic, previousa to the former Soviet Union a third of its land forces, and having 25 divisions on the borders of the Soviet Union, Turkey refused to join in a war against the USSR in Alliance with Nazi Germany.
The defeat of Nazi Germany at Stalingrad left a negative imprint on the morale of enemy troops. The leaders and peoples of the Hitlerite block.
Offensive of the red Army strengthened the morale of not only their troops but also the entire Soviet people in the rear and on the occupied territory. Improved economic situation in connection with the liberation from the enemy of a large part of the Soviet Union, industrial and agricultural areas. Liberated from Nazi oppression, a large number of the Soviet people. Increased the authority of the USSR. Strengthened the anti-Hitler bloc. Intensified the liberation struggle of Western countries behind enemy lines.
During defensive and offensive operations of the red Army improved Soviet military art, management, ways of fighting troops. Grew young and talented lessons learned with the commanders of fronts, armies, commanders of corps, divisions, brigades and lower-level managers.
By the autumn of 1942 in the East of the country created a well-coordinated military economy. In 1942, released 24700 tanks, aircraft 25400, 127100 guns, 230000 mortars and other weapons. Appeared armored and mechanized corps. Created tank and air armies.
All this created the conditions Rate of WMC and General staff to plan, prepare and carry out a major counter-offensive operation with the environment and destruction for the first time in the history of warfare – large (more than 330-thousand!) the grouping of enemy troops.
Continuous increase in military superiority was a logistical prerequisite for a turnaround in the fighting at Stalingrad in favor of the red Army. The main winner was a man. It was the Soviet people in the battle of Stalingrad under the leadership of Joseph Stalin marked the beginning of fundamental change during the great Patriotic war and the Second world defeated fascism, and its main nest of Nazi Germany.
Difficult inherited the Soviet Union, our people victory in the battle of Stalingrad. But we found it! And got thanks to the wise leadership of the state and its Armed forces Supreme Commander I. V. Stalin. He was able to organize and direct the struggle against fascism not only the people of this country, but the peoples of the world, to create anti-Hitler coalition, to direct the minds of leaders even of capitalist States to fight against fascism. We won through hard struggle of soldiers and war workers, partisans and underground fighters, to the cohesion of the peoples of the Soviet Union, the high patriotism, selfless devotion to the Motherland, courage and heroism. Heroism was shown not only individuals, but whole connections on the front and labor in the rear. In 1942 for the successful execution of the tasks on production of tanks and just keep tank factories No. 76 and No. 112 was awarded the order of Lenin, and the plants of No. 38 and No. 183, order of the red banner of Labor.
Of particular note heroic feats of Komsomol members and youth. In front of the troops joined thousands of scouts. For the shown heroism of the Komsomol organization of Stalingrad was awarded the order of red banner.
All this confirms the fact that the victory at Stalingrad was implemented cohesive as a monolith, the entire heroic Soviet people. And proud of it. About the battle of Stalingrad know and remember the peoples in all corners of the globe.
The world situation is complicated. There is a struggle for supremacy in economic development, for supremacy in governing the world. A different kind of "Obama", "Sarkozy", and joined them, can't live without war, to live, for they do not know what it is, not experienced it for yourself (big or small). Color revolutions, sanctions, double standards, the continuing struggles between former allies (USA, UK, France) for the championship in the Victory in the Second world war, the imposition by military action of the "democratic" regimes, pleasing the U.S. and NATO – all the machinations of fascism we defeated in 1941-1945. And a good start to put in the battle of Stalingrad. Active and truthful coverage of events we must not allow the distortion of history and the revival of fascist ideas.
As it is written in the history of the great Patriotic war of the Soviet Union: "take decades, centuries will pass. And mankind with gratitude will be stored in the memory of the great feat of the Soviet people, has taken at Stalingrad".
About the author
In 1942 he graduated from the Samarkand 2nd Kharkov tank school, received the rank of Lieutenant and sent to the army. The first "baptism of fire" received, as a tank commander of the 84th tank brigade in Stalingrad. From March 1943 until the end of the great Patriotic war he served in the 31st tank brigade 29th tank corps 5th guards tank army in the following positions: tank platoon commander, Deputy chief of staff, (January 1943) chief of staff of the 2nd tank battalion.
Participated in the battle of Stalingrad (battles in the city, the defeat of the Kotelnikovsky controlarnos enemy group), in the battle of Kursk (Prokhorovka counter tank battle, the liberation of Belgorod and Kharkov), in the battles on the right Bank Ukraine (piatykhatky, Krivoy Rog, Kirovograd, Korsun-Shevchenko, Uman-Dniester operation) Byelorussian strategic offensive operation "Bagration", liberated the capital of the Byelorussian SSR Minsk, liberated the Baltics, participated in the destruction of the Hitlerite grouping in East Prussia, liberated Poland. He ended the war on the Baltic sea near Gdynia, Poland to the post of Deputy commander of the 2nd tank battalion 31st tank brigade (captain).
During the war years personally destroyed 12 enemy tanks, 4 times wounded, twice burned in the tank.
After the war he continued service in his team (FRT 31 29 TC 5 GW.THAT). In 1946, sent to study, and in 1951 graduated from the command faculty of the Military Academy of Armored and Mechanized forces.
He served in the following positions: assistant chief of the operational Department of the 3rd guards tank division (Zaslonovo), officer, senior officer of control of armored and mechanized troops of the district, a senior officer of operational management of the headquarters of the Belarusian military district, chief of operations branch (10th, reformed in 34 HDT) armored division, then commander of 38 GW. heavy tank regiment. In 1963 sent to the southern group of armies to the chief of staff of the 35th infantry division.
In 1964 he graduated from the evening University of Marxism-Leninism. In 1968, the order of the Minister of defense appointed commander of the 11th guards motorized rifle division in Transbaikalian military district.
In 1969 he graduated from advanced courses for the preparation of the division commanders at the Military Academy named M. V. Frunze. In the same year, when visiting the 11th guards. the DPA the Minister of defense announced the division commander verbally thanks. In 1970 the Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 295 promoted to the rank of major General.
In 1973, major-General A. F. fen appointed as a Deputy commander of the 5th guards tank army of the red banner Belarusian military district, and in 1974 sent for further service in the Group of Soviet forces in Germany as Deputy Commander of the 2nd guards tank army.
1 January 1979 at the age of 55 years discharged from military service. Moved to permanent residence in Minsk. Adopted Belarusian citizenship. Before the collapse of the Soviet Union led the party organization of the PBC under the military dispensation (VES – 13), an elected member of the Bureau of the PBC Central district of Minsk.
As since 2004 a member of the Military science society at the Central House of officers, conducting extensive survey and research work, often performs with scientific reports and reports on operations during the war. Working on heroic-Patriotic education of preinduction youth and cadets of military educational institutions. He is the author of many publications on the history of the great Patriotic war, the book "the Liberation of Minsk". In them on the basis of archival documents, describes the steps of tank formations of the 5th guards tank army (3 GW. TC 29 TC), the 2nd and the 1st guards tank corps during the capture Minsk in cooperation with military connections during the period of the Belarusian strategic offensive operation "Bagration".
He was awarded the order Alexander Nevsky, order of Patriotic war 1-St and 2-nd degree, three orders of red Star, order "For service to Motherland in the USSR Armed Forces" 3rd class, medal "For bravery", medal "For military merit", medal "For defense of Stalingrad", medal "For victory over Germany in the great Patriotic war 1941 – 1945", many other medals.
Since 2012 – member of the Board of the Military-scientific society at the Central House of officers of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Belarus.
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