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The failure of a major overhaul and crime: who and why invented the renovation in Moscow?
Material posted: Publication date: 13-01-2018
The main event in 2017 in Moscow was the launch of a restoration programme. The authorities decided to demolish the 5 thousand houses, mostly five-story building. The project is designed for 15 years and is worth 3 trillion rubles., RBC found out nine main facts about the renovation programme.

1. The town Council decided to demolish the building after the failure of the program overhaul in the Khrushchev

In July 2015 in Moscow launched a program of capital repairs of apartment houses but in many houses the contractors just are unable to go. "We need to change the riser that passes through five apartments. Four apartments allowed, and fifth — no, her owners live far away, abroad. By and large, we generally will not come," — told RBC a source in city hall. In some houses 60% of the population refused to let the contractors, confirms a source close to the Metropolitan government. Residents of five-storey buildings, especially those that were built without basements and with the sewn in wall pipes, did not want to tolerate the repair and demanded to include them in the first place, Luzhkov, the program of demolition, which has been operating since 1999.

In the middle of 2016 in the mayor's office realized that "nothing can do", says the capital official. City hall has calculated what will be the condition of the five-story building in ten years, and realized that most of them still fall apart. The government realized the senselessness of reconstruction of five-story building after the start of the program overhaul, confirmed RBC Deputy mayor of Moscow on construction Marat Khusnullin. "It turned out that the money collected for the repair of these houses [in 2015-2016 is 15 rubles per 1 sq. m, today — RUB 17], is still not enough to do a comprehensive repairs. Would contributions to increase significantly," — says the official.

The five-story building was the first in the queue for repairs, but it turned out that two thirds of them cannot be rebuilt, said RBC HSE rector, Moscow city Duma Deputy Yaroslav Kuzminov. To change communications, would have to relocate the residents, and for pipes according to modern standards set in the apartments of a special frame, reducing floor space. According to Kuzminov, about six months officials "hard to decide what to do."

The approval of the officials that carried out in the five-story building overhaul was impossible and pointless, just to block Khrushchev, said the expert on housing law and housing movement "For human rights" Viktor Fedoruk. "These houses were indeed available for up to 50 years outdated. But there is a brick, thick-walled house with a solid Foundation that could be improved," says Fedoruk.

The question of how to deal with the five-story building, was raised during the discussion of the budget of Moscow in 2017, says a source close to the presidential administration. "There is a fork in the road: either renovate homes or demolish them. Some of them normally impossible to repair. A high probability that they would emergency. But then necessarily rise to the indignation that the authorities just "laundered" money on repairs, in fact, did not really making", the source explained. The question of the overhaul of dilapidated housing, including a five-story building considered in the budget discussions each year, confirmed RBC a source in the Moscow city Duma.

In March 2017, it was reported that in Moscow was repaired within the program of overhaul of 2 thousand homes. As of mid-September, in the capital's homes had replaced 10 thousand elevators. "The new program of capital repairs is very difficult, however last year we did a major overhaul of residential houses with a total area of 21 million square meters," — said Sobyanin at the beginning of January 2018.

2. The authorities decided to reduce crime through the demolition of five-story building

In the middle of 2016 the Moscow authorities have started to analyze the situation with the five-story building not only from the point of view of repair and quickly took to the idea of a restoration programme, the source said RBC in the city hall. It turned out that "of the building cover the entire city for crime." The reasons that Khrushchev affordable housing — hence the higher proportion of residents of "low social status", including alcoholics. In addition, Khrushchev built-up areas are poorly lit. If you relocate residents in large houses and landscaped areas, it "will dilute environment," according to city hall.

"If the house 300 apartments and 200 of them are people with low social status, they suppress all the others. But if the house is home to 3 million people and with low social status 200, then they start acting differently," the official explained. This motivation to demolish the five-story building was indeed from the city authorities, another confirmed RBC a source in city hall.

3. The decision to demolish was made personally by the mayor

The decision to launch a new program of demolition of five-story building was made personally by the mayor. When problems superimposed on one another, "the mayor said maybe it is easier all these houses to be demolished," says one of the officials of the municipality. The initiative came from the Federal government, the decision was not lobbied by developers, insists another source of RBC in the capital government. "This is a purely municipal idea," confirms an employee of the construction sector.

The idea of renovation belongs Sobyanin, told RBC Federal official. "It's been a long time, but was hesitant to run, because the program is complicated. Plus there was the question whether there is enough money on it", — he said. To run such a large program in an election year, insisted the mayor. "The mayor does not want to wait a year with the launch of the renovation", although he could "pass their elections" without this program, says the source.

4. The mayor tried to convince Putin of the need to demolish the five-story building

An ambitious program of demolition of five-storey buildings the mayor had to negotiate with the Kremlin. The mayor told subordinates that such a project "does not pull" no Federal law, but it needs a "political solution", and went to the President. Sobyanin told Putin most of his arguments in favor of renovation, and they are "absolutely coincided in opinion", said the source of RBC in the city hall.

Putin said Sobyanin, consider it at city hall, how much it will cost the program. He said that while the calculations are not started, to the authorities have not charged that they began to act "on the sly". According to a source in the mayor's office, with Putin, Sobyanin had previously discussed the renovation of two to four weeks before the program officially announced on 21 February.

The President discussed the renovation with the mayor several times, told RBC Federal official. Putin agreed that it is necessary to build new housing that the program is "good and right". "I decided to run because I realized that in ten years all these building become dilapidated housing", — said the source. Putin liked the idea of renovation, he "went into all the issues."

That in Moscow will carry all the rest of the building, it was officially announced on February 21 at the meeting of Putin and Sobyanin. Earlier, on February 7, deputies urged the mayor to demolish Khrushchev, February 13 for the demolition was made by the deputies of the city Duma. Then final approval from the President was not explained the source of RBC in the municipality, therefore, in public debate leaves space for maneuver. "The city Council was told that there is this idea, you need to discuss it, to practice," explained the official.

5. In the construction sector opposed

At the Congress of municipal deputies on 7 February against the new program of demolition of five-storey buildings were Khusnullin. He said that sites for starter homes there, the first program of demolition was delayed due to courts with the residents, 70% of the construction cost is spent on transport infrastructure. At a meeting in the Moscow city Duma, the employees of the construction sector also talked about the lack of resources for the new programme of demolition.

"Khusnullin was initially against the renovation. He believes that it will be able to make it as beautiful as we planned," — says the source of RBC in the city hall. According to an employee of the construction sector, Deputy mayor saw that Luzhkov's program of demolition ends hard. "Khusnullin said repeatedly that you will finish it — and thank God. About to continue, there was no question. Most likely, he was just presented with a fait accompli, and now he was given the task and I must perform," — said the source. One of the capital developers told RBC that the meeting in the spring Khusnullin told about the renovation of the following: "Yes, I'm going to die here!"

"I never opposed the renovation program. At the stage of discussion, I talked about the fact that the declared parameters require "enormous resources and creative solutions", — told RBC himself Khusnullin. No Federal law and reduce the approval procedures of the construction program of renovation would be more expensive by hundreds of billions of rubles and would take at least 30 years, said the official. "It is these issues and was dedicated to all of the first key meetings of the headquarters renovation. This is what I said", — concluded Khusnullin.

6. The mass protests came as a surprise to authorities, the cause of the riot, officials believe incorrect PR

The renovation programme has caused the most massive protests in Moscow over recent years. It was a surprise for the authorities. "The only thing we did not expect that input to be a negative," said RBC Federal official. "When arose the discontent of the Muscovites renovation and have begun meetings, [the first Deputy head of the presidential administration] Sergey Kirienko at a meeting in the Kremlin said that renovation is not the topic of the President and the Federal centre should not interfere in the story," said a source close to the presidential administration.

Mass discontent of the residents have arisen due to the fact that the municipality is poorly positioned the renovation, according to officials. "The leadership of the city decided that the program will be a gift for Muscovites, which all will applaud, so will have to go with this proposal to the Federal authorities," — said the source of RBC in the construction sector. It was necessary to first figure out the mood of the Muscovites, to calculate the magnitude of the programme, and then have to go to Putin and to publicly announce the renovation.

Muscovites intimidated by the number of demolished houses, large-scale building and forced eviction, instead of from the beginning to talk about specific advantages of the program, says a source in the Moscow city Duma. The mayor did not explain that the renovation is a long process. Many residents perceived the situation so that bear will all at once, says the source RBC, close to the presidential administration. "You had to start the discussion from below rather than down from the top. But the media accompaniment was entrusted to [the Deputy mayor Anastasia] Cancer. She is a person capable, but not about PR," — says the Federal official.

As stated in the beginning of the 8 th house, or 25 million square metres, was a preliminary estimate of the volume of housing built in Moscow in the 1950-1970 years, said RBC Khusnullin. "It was the maximum, which is determined by the parameters of our preparation for the start of the program," the official added. The Moscow authorities first wanted to obtain the political support of the President, and then to design the programme and frightened Muscovites of forced displacement under the impact of the information campaign, according to the mayor's office. "We zatrollit like cats", — concluded the source of RBC in the city hall.

7. The municipality was asked to adopt a law faster

March 14 the state Duma was introduced a bill on the demolition of five-story buildings — amendments to the law "On the status of the capital", which gave the Moscow government the broadest powers. The document was mostly written in the mayor's office, says one of the capital's officials. The Moscow government wanted the amendments quickly passed first reading — then the status of the document increases, the government takes it under control, lurid time. Therefore, Sobyanin told Putin that the bill is necessary to "faster given the status of first reading" to "get away from the senseless loss of time," says another source at city hall.

The first reading was created by the "design" of the bill, says one of the deputies of the state Duma. "When developing the amendments took into account the opinion of residents, including protests. The writing of the law was joined by all factions, the lawyers of the presidential administration and the government", — said the MP. In the state Duma held a working group with participation of deputies and representatives of the city hall. In the first few sessions consisted of Rakov, which was the main opponent of changes of the bill, says another source of RBC in the lower house.

The second reading of the document has been rewritten. The city authorities originally wanted to accelerate the implementation of the program, reducing a procedure, "but later the appetites of the municipality clipped," says the source RBC, close to the presidential administration.

8. Two-thirds of the protesters were residents of the five-story building

May 14, on Sakharov Avenue in Moscow held a rally against the renovation program, which became the largest protest in the capital over the past few years. Among the participants of the rally on Sakharov Avenue, the residents of the five-story building was 65%. These are the results of the research at the laboratory for political research that was read by RBC. Most of the protesters called themselves indigenous Muscovites (79%) and homeowners (84%). The average age of the protesters was 46 years, two-thirds of participants were women. Three-quarters of the opponents of the renovation had higher education, the pensioner was every fifth participant of the rally. Almost half the participants (47%) procession at the Sakharov Avenue was the first rally in their lives.

After the law has prescribed the various safeguards for the residents of demolished houses, the composition of the protests has changed, says Yaroslav Kuzminov. The number of participants decreased, mainly on the stock began to leave opposition-minded citizens, says Kuzminov. "As far as I know, in the presidential administration also conducted surveys of the protest movement, and the results have been similar," said Kuzminov RBC.

We will remind, on may 27 and 28 demonstrations against the renovation of approximately 6 thousand people. In June, during the adoption of the law held a rally near the state Duma.

9. Developers were asked to disown

Immediately two officers of the Metropolitan real estate companies told RBC that in the course of working meetings with developers, the construction required that when dealing with the press, those confidently stated that in no way interested in participating in the renovation programme. The program will be fully public, developers will not be able to participate as private developers, only as subcontractors, said RBC's Vice-mayor. Three major developer has refused to participate in the program, because there is supposed low profit "of 1-2%," says the Federal official.

Interviewed by RBC, the developers have stated that they do not yet know on what terms they will be able to join the renovation. However, this does not prevent developers to prepare for it. The concern "Krost" has declared that is ready to increase capacity twice to build 300 thousand square meters of housing annually. DSK-1 home designs specifically for the renovation, said CEO Dmitry Kapyrin. In the group PIC said that can increase the production of panels up to 1.5 million sq m per year. Overall, about 70% of new homes built under the program of renovation will be monolithic, and 30% — panel, promised earlier Khusnullin. Used to be only modernized panel house-building factories. Such, in particular, have PEAK Sergey Gordeev, was noted. RBC in March reported that the company Gordeeva may become the main developer on the renovation programme.

The renovation programme was approved on 1 August. It is designed for 15 years. The program includes more than 5.1 thousand houses, which are home to 1 million people.

Sofia Sarjveladze, Natalia Galimova, Aleksei Pastushin


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