I'M TIRED, I'M
Resignation as President Yeltsin announced in his new year address to Russians, which aired on 31 December 1999. Six months before state Duma deputies made an unsuccessful attempt to remove the President from his duties. A parliamentary Commission prepared a document containing accusations against Yeltsin on five counts. The President was accused of the collapse of the Soviet Union, the war in Chechnya, the loss of the country's defense, dissolution of the Supreme Council and even the genocide of the peoples of Russia.
The already difficult situation in Russia deteriorated after the RAID of militants in Dagestan series of terrorist attacks in Moscow, Volgodonsk and Buynaksk that served as the reason for the operation in Chechnya. In December, Yeltsin's rating goes to zero, while the young Prime Minister Vladimir Putin gained a whole lot popularity. In his last address to the nation, Yeltsin was emotional. Before to announce the appointment of Putin as acting President, he asked citizens for forgiveness for mistakes.
"Today, on this extremely important day for me, I want to say a few more personal words than I usually do. I want to ask you for forgiveness because many of our dreams have not come true. And what we thought just happened painfully hard. I apologize for not justified some hopes of those people who believed we were in one spurt, in one fell swoop will be able to jump from the gray, stagnant, totalitarian past into a bright, rich, civilized future. One jerk did not happen. In some ways I was too naive. Where a problem was too complex. We pushed forward through mistakes, through failures. Many people in this difficult time was a shock. But I want you to know that I never said that, today, it is important for me to tell you this: the pain each of you spoke the pain in me, in my heart. Sleepless nights, painful experiences – what to do to make people at least a little, at least a little life was easier and better. I didn't have more important tasks. I have done all I could."
On the same day, Yeltsin was summoned to the Kremlin heads of security agencies and handed over the nuclear suitcase to Putin. At midnight the Russians happy New year is the head of government.
NO HARM IN TRYING IMPEACHMENT
"He, President Yeltsin, guilty is still not any mother, lost in Chechnya, the son has his grave where he can cry about the untimely innocent young son. He, President Yeltsin, is guilty of that instead of pride in service in the Soviet Russian Army today, and the soldiers themselves, and their parents before enlisting in the army of his sons feel the fear, who has brought individual parents to monstrous actions, to put their sons from military service in a psychiatric hospital."
These words may 14, 1999 from the rostrum of the state Duma by the Deputy from the party "Yabloko" Tamara Zlotnikova.
The next day a vote was taken on the removal of the President from power. Lawmakers began impeachment proceedings, however, failed to gain the 300 votes needed for the resignation of Yeltsin. Despite an unsuccessful attempt at resignation, it became clear that the President will have to make an effort to keep the post until the elections scheduled for 2000. In August, two days after the invasion of Basayev groups in Dagestan, Yeltsin sacked Prime Minister Sergei Stepashin and appointed in his place Vladimir Putin.
On the same day, Yeltsin called at the time a little-known FSB Director as his successor.
"DEVALUATION WILL NOT. FIRMLY AND CLEARLY"
This phrase knows every Russians who lived in the 90s. three days after Yeltsin said the Central Bank defaulted on the bonds and released to the exchange. Began a sharp rise of the dollar in a month he rose from six to 21 ruble. The crisis of August 1998 has become one of the most difficult in the history of Russia. Already on August 21, three days after the default, the state Duma adopted a resolution calling for Yeltsin to voluntarily resign. Against the document were only 32 deputies.
In those days the President has begun to change the composition of the government, dismissing the Prime Minister Sergey Kiriyenko. His replacement managed only 11 of September, when the state Duma approved the candidacy of Yevgeny Primakov. The August default not only caused damage to the Russian economy, but also hit the CIS countries. Shortly after the beginning of the crisis, the Prosecutor General Yuri Skuratov opened a criminal case, which became one of the major scandals of the 90s and marked the decline of the Yeltsin era. Defendants in the case were hundreds of reformers and officials from the nearest environment of Yeltsin. Employees of the office of the President of Russia has accused of excess of powers of office at the conclusion of the contract with the Swiss company Mabetex, headed by the future President of Kosovo, Behgjet Pacolli.
The witnesses who were relatives of Yeltsin turned against Skuratov. The President appealed to Parliament to approve the resignation of Prosecutor General, but the Federation Council three times refused to deprive Skuratov powers. The procedure for the dismissal of Skuratov was connected to the media. In March 1999, on TV was shown the famous compromising, memorable phrase "the person similar to Skuratov the public Prosecutor". The Minister has tried to achieve excitation of criminal case under article "Invasion of privacy", but in the end, he was under investigation. He was accused of abuse of office. The opposition believed that Yeltsin got rid of the unwanted attorney, because he went too far in his investigation. The President, however, stated that fully believe in their rightness. "Skuratov, and not he alone, trying to "get hooked" many business leaders, many representatives of the Russian elite.
Lessons Skuratovsky history in the fact that you can't leave for a long time, for years in limbo, neither dismissed the Prosecutor nor a criminal case, no high-profile investigation, no question of moral responsibility. If in a democratic country the law is not enforced, do not work the institutions of civil society — democracy is in danger to degenerate into its opposite". Boris Yeltsin "Presidential marathon".
WAR AND PEACE WITH CHECHNYA
"We signed a peace Treaty, who is destined to have historical importance, as a dot (in the event) of 400 years ago, when all the time there was a war. We are stopping, we will solve peacefully." This statement was made by Yeltsin on 12 may 1997 after them and the President of the unrecognized Chechen Republic Aslan Maskhadov signed a peace Treaty. The document was written pretty blurry, but the Russian chap claimed that it guarantees peace in the Caucasus.
This promise did not come true. In the following months, Maskhadov gave to understand that the Chechen leadership's dissatisfaction with the terms of the peace. In August, Chechen leader demanded that the government of Russia to pay 26 billion dollars compensation for the damage from the war. In the same month, Maskhadov brought Moscow a Treaty recognizing complete independence of the Republic. At this time in Grozny increasingly demonstrated independence. The situation escalated on September 3, when the square of Friendship of peoples was shot by a man and a woman recognized by the Shariah court, convicted of a triple homicide. The execution was documented on film, which was sent by the Russian Federal channels.
In Moscow has condemned the actions of the Chechen authorities, law enforcement authorities opened a criminal case under article "Murder". Two weeks later, a Sharia court handed down another death sentence, which was also executed on the Central square of Grozny. The Russian-Chechen peace agreement remained only on paper. "The fact that the situation in Chechnya is on the brink, we were all clear. March 5 in Grozny directly from the aircraft, which was a couple of minutes to fly to Moscow, have been brazenly, defiantly captured the General Shpigun, no less the Deputy Minister of internal Affairs!
Aslan Maskhadov, who until this episode continued to insist on the cooperation of its law enforcement bodies of Russia in the liberation of hostages have lost all control, all authority in the Chechen Republic. We knew that the situation could usher in a terrible new phase of open confrontation". Boris Yeltsin "Presidential marathon".
A RE-ELECTION WITH A SLIGHT ADVANTAGE
On the eve of the 1996 election the approval rating of the incumbent President was only 5%. The war in Chechnya and the terrible social situation questioned the issue of who will become the new President of Russia. Yeltsin's team had to make great efforts in order to mobilize Pro-government electorate. One of the best finds of the then PR Kremlin was an advertising campaign "vote or will lose". The main advertisers of the country Sergei Lisovsky involved in the promotion of the most popular stars of the 90s- from Mikhail Shufutinsky and Tatiana Ovsienko to the "Bachelor" and "Agatha Christie".
The agitators managed to secure a turnout of 70% — a phenomenal success for the country, so disappointed in their own leadership. But to win in the first round, Yeltsin failed – too great popularity at that time was used by the Communist party leader Gennady Zyuganov. Leaving behind the right-wing populist Vladimir Zhirinovsky, lavaliere Grigory Yavlinsky and nationalist Alexander Lebed, Yeltsin and Zyuganov went into a second round of presidential elections. The next stage of the election has put everything in its place: Yeltsin 54% of the vote, Zyuganov – 40%. Bright Communist past people preferred albeit unreliable, but a democratic future.
"Take as much sovereignty as you can swallow," said Yeltsin in 1990, when he headed the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR. So the press reported the words of the future President of Russia, said at a rally in Ufa. Speech against the infringement of the rights of small nationalities, individual autonomy was seen as a call to action. In the summer of 1991 the rebel General Dzhokhar Dudayev declared the Chechen Republic of the RSFSR. For some time Yeltsin turned a blind eye to what is happening in the Caucasus region. Moscow tacitly supported antijudaism opposition, but did not intervene in the civil war, which began in the autonomy. In the fall of 1994, the armed opposition made another attempt to storm Grozny, which failed, despite the support of Yeltsin's security services. After that, Yeltsin decided that Chechnya will be introduced by the Federal troops. Subsequent events in the Kremlin called the "restoration of constitutional order in the Chechen Republic".
SEPTEMBER BURNS (AND TIPS TOO)
The dissolution of Parliament angered not only left-wing and right-wing radicals, but also citizens who are far from politics. In Moscow for two weeks there was fighting, which killed dozens of people, do not agree with the dissolution of the democratically elected Congress of people's deputies. "A few days ago, the tanks shot Parliament — the Supreme Council. Beat really. The white house burned in some places — is black. They say there are victims among the population. Horror! And this is our President, whom Olga and I voted and was happy?
Media claim that Khasbulatov and Rutskoi — villains, they hinder true democracy. On TV showed their arrest is put on the bus. Handcuffs. Gloomy, overgrown beard face. The apotheosis of our democracy — the execution of the Parliament! According to people's deputies "Fire!" No printed words! And bastard on TV insist that everything is correct. Didn't believe a word of the reformers!". From the diary of a writer and screenwriter Dmitry Karalis To defend the White house stood the Democrats, liberals, nationalists and even anarchists, that does deny the institution of the state. The shooting of the White house was widely regarded as a symbol of the end of democracy in Russia.
Yeltsin, in his memoirs, tells about the events of September-October 1993 as a failed coup attempt. "After the men of "alpha" has learned that killed their comrade, no longer need to be persuaded. Almost the whole team went to the release of the White house. Badgers contacted by Erinys, Minister of the interior, drove a few armored cars. Under fire cover went inside the building. At the head of "alpha" was Mikhail Barsukov and head of presidential protection Alexander Korzhakov. He considered, and apparently correctly, that the greatest guarantee of my safety will be the arrest of the leaders of the coup — Khasbulatov, Rutskoi, Makashov, Achalov. The emergence of "alpha" has made the White house a crushing action. Everyone began immediately surrender. Had to shoot a little bit. The coup ingloriously ended". Boris Yeltsin, "Notes the President."
THE COUP INGLORIOUSLY ENDED
August 1991. A group of conspirators, headed by the Vice-President of the USSR Gennady by Anavim announces the seizure of power and Declaration of state of emergency throughout the country Councils. President Mikhail Gorbachev was actually placed under arrest in foros and lost the opportunity to lead the government. The participants of the coup, opposed to democratization, tapped the power, entering into Moscow's tanks and armored vehicles.
But the thirst for freedom was stronger than tanks, hundreds of thousands of Muscovites came to the defense of the White house. Three of them died, stopping a column of armored personnel carriers. Is Ilya Krichevsky, Vladimir Usov, and Dmitry Komar. They were all posthumously awarded the title hero of the Soviet Union. The protection of the constitutional order was headed by a promising politician Boris Yeltsin. The coup attempt was foiled. One of the leaders of the coup Boris Pugo committed suicide, the rest were sentenced to long terms for treason, but soon released. Pardon the conspirators, Russia has tried to give an example of democracy and tolerance of dissent.
WHO IS MR. YELTSIN?
In the yard in October 1987. To the glory days of defending the White house is far, but the head of the Moscow city party Committee already spoken of as a promising policy. The real sensation was his speech at the October Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist party, culminating in the resignation of Yeltsin. Speech, criticized the leaders of Perestroika, became a Soviet version of the famous speeches of Martin Luther king's "I have a dream". It was not published in the reports of the plenary but were widely distributed in samizdat.
Here's a snippet of the speech that were distributed underground publications: "I find it hard to explain to a factory worker, why on the 70th year of his political power he needs to stand for hours in a queue for sausages, in which the starch is more than meat, and your comrades, the tables have festive salmon, caviar and other delicacies, obtained without trouble where it would not let near. How am I supposed to explain this to the veterans of the Civil war, which remained on the fingers? Have you seen the list of food their festive order? And I brought, showed. It makes me feel to listen to them when they say it's scraps from the master's table?
And you know whose Desk they mean? How am I supposed to look them in the eye? Because it is they, not sparing the life, won and gave us the power. What can I say?". Even more poignant part of the speech Yeltsin, according to the transcript of walking in samizdat, was that on the war in Afghanistan. "One more question, comrades. Another hard question, maybe the most difficult question we have inherited. Is Afghanistan. About a third of the coming to us of the letters touch upon this issue. You all know the results of the survey of Muscovites in this issue French correspondent, and, I think, there cannot be two opinions.
This issue must be resolve as soon as possible. It is necessary to withdraw troops." It is still unknown whether the future President took such a strong stand on the Plenum, but self-publishing has done its job. A few years will pass, and people who read Yeltsin's speech, I'm going to build a new society, carrying the tricolors. Yeltsin was removed from his post as head of the Moscow city. Russia was waiting for a new future.
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