"Here lie Leningraders.
Here the townspeople - men, women, children.
Beside them the soldiers of the red army
... Know hears these stones
Nobody is forgotten, nothing is forgotten", - the sorrowful and proud words of Olga Berggolts, carved on granite slabs Piskarevsky, familiar to everyone since childhood.
Today at the Piskarevsky memorial cemetery - the largest burial of victims of the Second world war - will come hundreds of people. On the day of the 70th anniversary of breakthrough of the siege of Leningrad the monument to Motherland, covered with snow on a mass grave will lay down fresh flowers. Here will remember those who did not live to see the day when the fatal ring was open, who was not destined to meet the full lifting of the blockade a year later on 27 January 1944 and everyday courage who defended his native city.
In town today there will be many solemn and memorable events: the meeting of the Presidium of the Council of the Russian historical society with the participation of its head-the Chairman of the State Duma Sergei Naryshkin in the Museum of defense and blockade, meeting in the Society of inhabitants of blockade Leningrad, the opening of thematic exhibitions in museums and presenting the long awaited full version of "Blockade book" by Ales Adamovich and Daniil Granin.
The book, published nearly thirty years ago, was mutilated by the censor. On the 70th anniversary of breaking the siege the edition was published without notes, and in addition - with a detailed Foreword, dedicated to the dramatic history of its creation and of the ban in the city, the martyrdom and heroism of which it is dedicated. Amid a huge number of serious documentary, journalistic, memoir literature about the siege, published in the last two decades, its natural appearance is perceived not as a documentary sensation, but as a symbolic act. And the sentence of the power, the helplessness and unscrupulousness which with all the ruthlessness brought to light the truth of war. Power, usurped the right to a genuine memory of the tragedy and the feat of the hero city that hid the awful truth from the very first days of the blockade and decades later after it ended.
The ring around Leningrad has been closed on 8 September 1941. But the Rate was not reported for almost two weeks, hoping that the Soviet troops will soon break through the blockade, and it will be possible to report to the Supreme commander Joseph Stalin about the "successful repudiation of the fascist provocations". This distrust has cost the city hundreds of thousands of lives - the decision of the Commission of the state defence Committee on the urgent import of food to the Northern capital in connection with the threat of siege was made too late - at the end of August. Of course, the blockade has not been reported and the population. Moreover, on September 13, the newspaper "Leningradskaya Pravda" published the message of the Soviet information Bureau: "the Assertion of the Germans that they managed to cut all of the railway linking Leningrad with the Soviet Union, is the usual command of German exaggeration".
In the Leningrad bread flour was 40%. The rest of the meal, cellulose, malt. The temperature in the apartments, heated "stoves", winter has rarely been positive
Olga Bergholz wrote that day in his diary (first published in 2010): "the Pathetic efforts of government and the party, who painfully embarrassing... How was brought to the fact that the Leningrad besieged, besieged Kiev, Odessa besieged. After all, the Germans are still coming... Artillery strands continuously... don't know what in me more hatred of the Germans or irritation, mad, nagging, mixed with wild shame, to our government... It was called: "We are ready for war." About the scum, adventurers, ruthless bastards!"
In the besieged city of 2 million 544 thousand civilians, including more than 100 thousand refugees from the Baltic States, Karelia and Leningrad region. Together with the residents of suburban districts in the besieged ring there were 2 million 887 thousand people.
On 21 June 1941 at the Leningrad warehouses were flour at 52 days, groats - 89 days, and meat at 38 days, animal oil - by 47 days, vegetable oil - by 29 days. On the first day of the siege the city was mercilessly bombed, and fires were burning everywhere. The largest fire in this day appeared in grocery stores. Badaeva, where burned a significant portion of available in the city's food reserves of the city for 1-3 days, on prevailing norms. The Soviet version that the fire was the main cause of the famine of 1941-1942, is untrue, as the food reserves in them by that time was a maximum of ten days in pre-war consumption. Because by September we operated a card system of distribution of products, the remaining reserves are stretched for a month. No NC contrary to all the rules of ensuring the life of the metropolis before the war in Leningrad was not. (No less a violation was and what all the food was concentrated in one point.)
From 20th November, Leningraders began to receive the lowest rate of bread for all the blockade - 250 g on the working card and 125 g serving and child. Working card in November - December 1941, received only a third of the population. In the Leningrad bread flour was 40%. The rest of the meal, cellulose, malt. Winter 1941-1942-th was very harsh: the temperature fluctuated in December - February from minus 20 to minus 32 degrees, in the apartments, heated only the "sticking", in winter it rarely was positive. The electricity was disconnected, the drain hasn't worked since December of 1941.
Urban and regional management issues with food have not experienced: "In government dining room (Smolny. - Y. K.) everything was absolutely without restrictions, as in the Kremlin. Fruits, vegetables, caviar, pastries. Milk and eggs are delivered from farms in the Vsevolozhsk district. Bakery baked different cakes and buns", is a diary of employee dining room of the Smolny. From the memoirs of the Leningrad engineer-hydrologist: "was Zhdanov (first Secretary of the Leningrad party Committee. - Y. K.) for the water supply. Barely came, staggering from hunger... it was the spring of 1942. If I saw a lot of bread and even sausage, I wouldn't be surprised. But there were in a vase cakes".
In this context, it seems absolutely logical telegram of Andrei Zhdanov to Moscow with the requirement "to stop making gifts to organizations in Leningrad... it causes bad mood." Moreover, in Moscow, in particular, of party-nomenclature manual of the writers ' Union, had formed the opinion that "Leningraders themselves object to these assumptions". Bergholz on this occasion, exclaimed in his diary: "This Zhdanov "Leningrad"?!"
And here's a snippet (the entry dated December 9, 1941) diary of an employee of the Smolny, the instructor of the personnel Department of the city Committee of the CPSU(b) Nicholas Rubcovskaja: "nutrition now special needs do not feel. Morning Breakfast - pasta or noodles, or porridge with butter and two glasses of sweet tea. Afternoon lunch - first the soup or the soup, the second meat every day. For example, yesterday I ate the first green soup with sour cream, the second is chicken noodle, and today for the first soup with vermicelli, the second one pork with braised cabbage". In the spring of 1942 Rybkowski was sent "for my health" in the party sanatorium, where he continued to keep a diary. Another passage, the entry of 5 March: "it's been three days I'm in hospital of the city party Committee. This seven-day holiday house in Mill Creek (a resort suburb of the city. - Y. K.). In from the cold, somewhat tired, bursts into the house, with warm comfortable rooms, blissfully nothing... Every day meat - lamb, ham, chicken, goose, Turkey, sausage; fish - bream, Baltic herring, smelt, and fried, and boiled, and jellied. Caviar, salmon, cheese, pies, cocoa, coffee, tea, 300 grams of white and as much black bread a day... and to this 50 grams of wine, good wine to lunch and dinner... I and two comrades get extra Breakfast: a couple of sandwiches or a muffin and a glass of sweet tea... the War is not felt almost. About it resembles a rumble of guns...". Data on the number of products, daily delivered to the Leningrad regional Committee and city Committee of the CPSU(b) in wartime, unavailable to researchers until now. As information about the content of spetsakov party bureaucracy and the menu of the canteen of the Smolny.
"I don't know what in me more hatred of the Germans or irritation, mad, nagging, mixed with wild shame, to our government," - wrote in her diary Olga Bergholz
In the spring of 1942 Leningraders were happy to collect grass for urban lawns. Harvesting and processing herbs led packaging and food factory. Items were created to receive plants. Collectors were given additional cards for a loaf of bread for no less than 25 kg of grass. Grass sold in the Yeliseyevsky store on Nevsky. Leningrad Botanical Institute published a booklet with a list of edible plants that could be found in urban parks and gardens, and recipes, dandelion salad, nettle soup, sautéed sniti.
"Poll" statements sent for inspection to the people's Commissar of internal Affairs Lavrenti Beria on March 13, 1942: "Our government and Leningrad leaders have thrown to the mercy of fate. People die like flies, and measures against does not want it".
From the help of the NKVD in the Leningrad region on the mortality of the population as of 25 December 1941:
"If in the prewar period in the city per month on average die up to 3500 people, in the last month mortality is:
- in October - 6199 persons
- in November - 9183 people
- 25 days of December - 39 073 cel...
In the month of December the mortality rate was increased:
- from 1 to 10 December died - 9541 people,
- from 11 to 20 December - 18 447 people,
- from 21 to 25 December died - 11 085 persons".
In February in an average day died 3 thousand 200 people - 3 thousand 400 people. In February of the same year for cannibalism has been convicted more than 600 people in March - more than a thousand. "Forbidden word "degeneration" - death occurs from other causes, but not from hunger. Oh, scoundrels, scoundrels!" - in despair at the monstrous lie of power recorded Bergholz.
"Unfortunately, there is no organization that could give a precise figure of the dead in the city of Leningrad people during the period 1 December 1941 to 1 June 1942", - reported in 1943, the city Department of the public utilities on the work from June 1941 to June 1942. The document says that "...in view of further increasing mortality and the weakening of living, the number of people willing to take the registry offices and their own to bury the deceased fell, and tossing the dead rose..." was Possible only on account of the cemeteries but their workers were involved in the first place, but it seems to coming to bury the dead, so the cemetery did not conduct an accurate record. According to cemeteries of the city, far from accurate, for the period from 1 July 1941 to 1 July 1942 buried more than a million people. Accurate accounting of the dead was not conducted until 1943.
Only at Piskarevsky cemetery buried by more than 400 thousand citizens of Leningrad. (Preserved fragmentary statistics gives impression about the scale of the tragedy - 15 February 1942 brought the dead 8452, February 19 - 5569, 20 February - 10 043.) After the lifting of the siege in 1944 to bring together and make publicly available data on mortality in Leningrad was strictly forbidden.
For the first time data on the number of deaths (called "exact") appeared in the book by the former Commissioner of the ICT food in Leningrad by Dmitry Pavlov: 641 803 people. This information until the 90s, it was thought "only right". In fact, this is the number of deaths from hunger from November 1941 to October 1942, According to recent data, the number of victims of the siege - one million two hundred thousand to half a million people.
After the first winter of the siege the party leadership tried to send the 'right' way the collective memory of the people of Leningrad. It was decided to make a film about the siege. At all stages of filmmaking - from script writing to release it to the screen - there was continuous work on removal of layer upon layer of fragments, indicating the depth of the Leningrad tragedy and manifested the weakness of the authorities. In the discussion prepared to show documentary film "the defense of Leningrad" in the Studio of a newsreel was attended by all the leaders of the city. The General opinion was expressed by the Chairman of the Executive Committee Pyotr Popkov: "About the dead. Where are they taking them? And a lot of them shown. Depressing experience... I believe that many do not need to show why a string?.. Or, let's say there is people and rocks. It is unknown why he is swinging, maybe he's drunk. This thickens the paint and creates a bad impression". It complements the second Secretary of the Leningrad regional and city CPSU(b) Alexey Kuznetsov, clearly identified the true cause of the ban access work: "it Turns out too many difficulties. Ruined city that had been bombed, cluttered, range fires, all covered with ice, people barely moving, and the fight is not shown. Is it a defense. That is to say, the rulers who brought the city to this state. The direction taken is wrong." The result, summed up Zhdanov: "the Picture is not satisfying."
Visited in 1942 in Moscow Bergholz was shocked: "About Leningrad all disappeared, did not know the truth, as well as the Yezhov prison. I tell them about it, as once talked about the prison is uncontrollably, with blunt, outsiders wonder... Trumpeting about our courage, they hide from people the truth about us. We are isolated, we play roles of the "heroes" of the film "Bright path". Then she bitterly confessed to herself, "For the words - the truthful words about Leningrad yet, apparently, it's time to... Come?"
The truth about the blockade, the authorities had always feared, and the attitude of the inhabitants of the city, where during the war, in the words of Daniil Granin, intelligence merged with the nation. "Now we have a taste of its power!" exclaimed Olga Bergholz in the radio broadcast of the Leningrad on 18 January 1943, the day of breaking the siege. But it is the strong people to the authorities was not needed. They did not trust the city unconquered. The city, the resilience of the residents who could not recognize even the Nazi command. In the Central archive of the FSB of Russia is stored in the circular of the commander of army group "Vistula", the Reichsfuhrer SS Heinrich Himmler. "Wisła" in the spring of 1945 was covering the approaches to Berlin, and Himmler invincible on the example of Leningrad describe the quality coming to the capital of the Reich opponent.
The generals and commanders of divisions of armies of group "Wisla". 19.2 1945.
Real send for the study materials on the defense of Leningrad... Let everyone know how rude, cold as ice enemy.
...The duty of every inhabitant of the city was the only such works that stood in direct connection with the defense of the city in order to drop the enemy, or just the work associated with the conduct of the war. Residents were trained in military science, was digging the trenches and worked for the industrial defense companies. The will of the people to resist was not broken. The defence activities, was universal. These activities were carried out fully even with the countless attacks of the German troops. Suburban areas and the city itself cut anti-tank ditches and trenches. Every house was turned into a fortress, a basement connected to the line of defense. The hatred of the population became the most important motor of defense".
This unbroken will to resist, as the price of incredible sacrifices won the right to honest memory, the party leadership after the war he feared most. And "to edification" organized the first pogrom a resolution on the journals "Zvezda" and "Leningrad" in 1946, and then, in 1949, the "Leningrad affair". In 1949, he was discovered and destroyed during the war, the Museum of defense and blockade, the exhibits for which were collected by the people of Leningrad. His leadership was subjected to repression by the "Leningrad case". The creators of the Museum, as summed up arrived with the inspection Commission of the Central Committee of the CPSU(b), "unfairly attributed" the feat of the soldiers and the townspeople, "have created a myth about a special "blockade" fate of Leningrad" and even "have downplayed the role of comrade Stalin in the defense of the city." The siege of Leningrad, now information, continued. "They settled in case of victory, they will reckon exactly what they do," even during the war had a presentiment of Bergholz. And again no mistake - "they" have been strengthened, and "them" really made activity killing the truth. One of those "entrenched" was began his party career after the "Leningrad affair" and grew to the post of first Secretary of the Leningrad regional Committee of the CPSU Grigory Romanov. It was he, despite requests from Leningrad, were not allowed to reopen the Museum of defense and blockade: the Museum was opened only after the departure of Romanov in Moscow, in the mid 80's. He also, despite the letters of blockade, forbade burying Olga Bergholz at Piskarevsky. And comrade Romanov has vetoed the publication in Leningrad "Blockade book" - even with censorship bills (first, magazine, publication was held in Moscow in the 70s). And already in 2004 in an interview "RG" he was not ashamed openly to answer the question of why the negative view of "Blockade book", "You know, I still don't like Granino, or rather to what he says and writes about the siege. This is all wrong, biased... city Leaders, including Zhdanov, did everything to save Leningrad". (See The "RG" on 27.01.2004.) There are strangely close - in 2010, a few days before the celebration of the 100th anniversary of Olga Bergholz, Smolny headed by the previous Governor, despite the protests of artists and ordinary citizens, made the decision "in order to perpetuate the memory of a statesman Grigory Vasilyevich Romanov," on the establishment of a memorial plaque on the house where he lived. The residents of St. Petersburg have named it the "Board of unconsciousness". Later the government of St. Petersburg recognized emergency monument of architecture of XIX century - the House of writers on Nevsky Prospekt, 68. Literary club began to restore immediately after breaking the blockade of Leningrad. He became the first restored historic building in the city-hero, and revived thanks to the heroism of the inhabitants, voluntarily came to help the restorers. Trying to save the legendary mansion, cultural figures (among them Mikhail Piotrovsky, Sokurov and Alexander) and was reminded about it, considering it a monument to the spiritual heroism of the townspeople. To no avail. Him, not flinching, was demolished. Now on a place of historical memory is erected garish architectural remake.
Who is not forgotten and that not forgotten?
Industrial production in Leningrad 1941-1942
On the defensive works organized in the city by the end of June 1941 were occupied by the vast majority of women, adolescents and the elderly. In the construction of fortifications near Leningrad worked more than 475 thousand people. It was dug 626 km anti-tank ditches, built 15 thousand concrete pillboxes and bunkers. In the Leningrad 110 nodes defense was built 25 km of the fence, 570 artillery pillboxes, about 3,600 machine gun pillboxes.
Only from 15 December, 1941 to 15 March 1942 in Leningrad, was renovated tank 53, 43 artillery pieces, 37 aircraft, 700 of optical devices, a large number of mortars and small arms. The main focus is on new products. During the same period, was made and passed to the front 88 of the regimental guns, 2657 machine guns, mortars 479, 95 thousand of cases of shells and bombs filled 256 thousand rounds of shells and mines produced 435 thousand fuzes, primers 29 million.
In 1942, Leningrad's industry has mastered the production of more than 50 new types of weapons and ammunition, issued over 3 million shells and mines, 40 thousand bombs, 1260 thousand hand grenades. At the same time were sent to the front 713 tanks, 480 armored vehicles, 58 armored trains, released in the besieged city.
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