Stalin's contribution to the development of our country is so huge that still does not stop the flows of lies and dirt from the haters of the Russian people and of the destroyers of Russia in his address, and a lot that was created under his rule.
Pouring dirt on Stalin by Khrushchev in his time marked the beginning of degradation of the elite of the USSR, a flurry of false myths in the restructuring was needed for the collapse of the Soviet Union, now lies on Stalin the USSR needed to somehow distract people's attention from complete ruin. Personality now the powers that be and their lackeys are so shallow, their purpose of life so insignificant, and the harm to the country by their actions is so huge that nothing else remains to do but yelp, like the pug on a dead lion. However, it is all the more perverse effects. A blatant lie being exposed and given more objective evaluations that era. Former liars and scoundrels, begin to cling to the glory and respect of the people to Stalin.
But it's the lyrics, and now just the facts.
a) the Number of Russian (great Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians) during the reign of Stalin increased in census data on average 1.3-1.5 million per year.
1926 – 113,7 mln (146,6 million – the total population of the USSR)
1939 133 million (170,6 million)
1959 – 159,3 million (208.8 million)
For comparison: during the rule of Yeltsin, the Russian population in Russia has decreased by 6.8 million people, during the reign of Putin – 6.4 million people.
b) as a result of declining mortality in the USSR, life expectancy retrosla significantly compared with the pre-revolutionary period, reaching the average European level (70 in 1971-72, compared with 32 in 1896-97).
in) Overall mortality rate in Russia under Stalin has decreased almost 3 times (10.1 per 1 thousand people. in 1950 compared with 29.1 in 1913). At the same time decreased and the birth rate 1950(26,9 per 1 thousand people. in 1950 and 45.5 in 1913), which is associated with the effects of war, with the increasing number of elderly persons, growth of urban population, the involvement of women in the sphere of production. However, the natural increase of the population even increased slightly and amounted in 1950 to 16.8 per 1000 inhab. (16,4 – 1913).
g) If the infant mortality rate amounted in 1913 — 268,6 per 1000 live births in 1950 — already 81 per 1,000, a decrease of 3.3 times. The average number of children born per woman in 1950 was 2,89 in 2006 to 1.38.
e) Under Stalin, alcohol consumption was more than 2 times less (max 1,9 l on B. of pure alcohol per year — 1952) than in tsarist Russia in 1914 — the 4.7 l and more than 10 times less than now (20-25 l). Russia leads in the incidence of child abuse.
Drug under Stalin was not, because there was no drug mafia. In 20 years the number of drug addicts has increased more than 10 times now according to the Russian Federal service for drug control is $ 5.1 million From the drug annually are killed from 70 to 100 thousand people. Russia is one of the leaders in the extent of drug abuse among children.
g) Prostitution under Stalin was seen as a form of parasitic existence, and its organized forms had been completely destroyed. And now Russia is one of the first places on the prostitution, child prostitution, sex crimes, sex trafficking.
h) Immediately after the war, in 1945 in, all the Stalinist Soviet Union there were 678 thousand children-orphans. Today in Russia such children 850 thousand, of which 760 thousand "social orphans", i.e. children abandoned by their parents.
I) If in 1956, the coefficient of differentiation of incomes of the population accounted for 3.28, and in 1986, -3,38, then, according to Rosstat, it increased from 13.8 (1998) to 16.8 times (2007). This means that the official income, excluding shadow and criminal, 10% of the richest 16.8 times higher than the incomes of the poorest citizens. Many experts, taking into account the shadow economy, believe that the real numbers break up to 25-40 times.
Now the share of population with incomes below the subsistence minimum is 15%. Under Stalin, managed to achieve a level of income above the minimum for all citizens.
K) During the Putin's rule the number of oligarchs-billionaires with whom he claims to be fighting for and who benefit at the expense of the looting of the national wealth of Russia, grew from 8 in 2000 to 53 in 2007 — almost 7 times! And their overall condition, according to the magazine "Forbs" has increased from 12.4 billion dollars to 282млрд.$ — 23 times!
As research by the Institute for socio economic population problems of RAS, 15% of Russia's population accounts for about 85% of all savings, 57% of diningdhall, 92% of income from property. According to the late head of the economic section of the Russian Academy of Sciences Dmitry Lvov, in the hands of a small group of oligarchs (approximately 1,500 persons, representing 0,001% of the total population of Russia) are more than 50% of the national wealth of Russia, 85 percent of the population,that is, in fact, the whole of Russia, do not have a penny of income from the wealth that went from God – oil, gas, timber, gold and other resources – and should belong to all people by definition.
And under Stalin the national wealth belonged to the people and the income from them was used in the interests of all citizens. If people used to pay for many essential services of a penny or just anything (the state took over the bulk of the cost), now they are forced to pay for the full program and for housing services and communication services, transport, culture, recreation, nutrition, education, etc. – for everything! Despite the fact that I'm sort of constitutionally-mandated free health care, more than half the population actually pay for it, and these costs are approximately equal to budget.
l) the population of the Russian Empire, 79% were illiterate (according to the census of 1897), that is, could not even read or write. Under Stalin, illiteracy has been eliminated. The literacy rate has risen to 89.1% (1932).
Primary schools (in brackets — students): 1914 – 106 thousand (5.4 million); 1940 – 192 thousand
Secondary school (students): 1914 — 4000; 1940 — 65000 (13 million)
Universities and colleges: 1914 - 400; 1940 — 4600
Before the October revolution of 1917 in Russia 159 million people had 290 thousand specialists. The total number of employees, mostly engaged in mental labor, in the USSR in 1973 reached about 33 million people. During the years of Soviet power in 90 times increased the number of researchers, in 1972 there were 1055,4 thousand people
Under Stalin, the economy was ruled by intelligent planning methods as a single body, which has managed to implement large-scale projects and achieved its high efficiency and growth rate.
After the war, having been refused the West in the credits for the restoration of the USSR, Stalin was able to rebuild the country in terms that no European country — participant of the war failed to repeat even with the us loans.
The country has prepared and won in the war, was twice recovered after devastating wars and became the second world power thanks to the planned method of farming.
Soviet planning was successfully introduced at the enterprises of the billionaires of many countries. In 1991 in Moscow, at the Academy of labor and social relations held the Soviet-American Symposium on which were the Japanese. That said there is a Japanese billionaire Herosi Taravana in response to the rhetoric of Soviet economists and sociologists about the “Japanese miracle”: “You are not talking about mainly. Pervenstva about your role in the world. In 1939 you Russians were smart, and we Japanese fools. In 1949, you became more intelligent, and while we were fools. And in 1955, we have grown wiser, and you turned into five year olds. Our entire economic system is almost completely copied from yours, with the only difference that we have capitalism, private producers, and we more than 15% growth never reached, and you are under public ownership of the means of production reached 30% or more. In all of our businesses are hanging your slogans of Stalinist times.”
Now the system of planning the economy at the state level is completely destroyed and Russia eventually Ekes out a miserable existence raw colony of the West. In Russia there are 2 parallel economy: unplanned (brainless) and criminal. According to the Academy of economic security Ministry of internal Affairs of the Russian Federation at the end of 2005 uring the criminalization of the economy in Russia is "critical" and the level of shadow economy "surpasses 40% of GDP" (1991 — 11%). The transfer of data from 09.2007 to the Centre of anticorruption researches Transparency Int (TI) index of perception of corruption in Russia is 2.3 points, the 143rd place out of 180. At the same level, the Gambia, Indonesia and Togo. Rated criminalization and corruption of power at the end of 2005 is below Kenya and Zimbabwe and occupies the 25th place in the world.
In modern Russia the volume of corruption market exceeds $ 240 billion. According to the estimates of the INDEM Foundation, this value is even higher: only in business sphere of Russia the volume of corruption has increased between 2001 and 2005, from approximately 33 to 316 billion dollars. per year (in 9.6 times)
a) national income per capita of the USSR was ($, in prices of 1980):
1913 – 350 (15% aturova USA)
1920 – 120 (5%)
1929 – 365 (13%)
1938 – 640 (24%)
1950 – 1100 (26%)
in 1987 3900 (57% of the US level), that is, under Stalin managed not only to fully restore the well-being of citizens after 3 devastating wars and several times to increase it, but, in spite of war, in 2 times to overtake the Americans in the growth rate. And it's in harsh external conditions and without any help, as the toga, for example, by 1913 the share of foreign capital (French,Belgian, English and German) in investments in the Russian economy reached 72%.
For comparison, in 2007 the GDP per capita calculated at purchasing power parity, Russia accounted for 28% of the US level. That is, compared with the Americans we are for 20 years about 2 times degraded – and that's without any wars!
Public productivity in 1950 increased compared to 1913 by 3.2 times.
b) the Total volume of industrial production per capita for 1913-1950. in the USSR increased by 4 times. Share of world industrial production of the USSR:
1913 – 3,6%
1920 – 0,6%
1938 – 5,6%
1950 to 6.9%
1986 – 14,6%
In 2007 Russia's share in world GDP – 3.2 per cent.
The growth of production of agricultural products to 1938 amounted to +45% in comparison with 1913, and+100% compared to 1920.
C) the Gold reserves.
On 16 July 1914 in the storerooms of the state Bank of Russia, there were approximately 1240 tons of gold. About 110 tons were kept abroad. A total of approximately 1350 tonnes.
In 1914-1917 listed banks in new York, London, Paris, Japan, about 690 tons of gold, first in payment of deliveries of weapons and then just to make it nedostalo the Bolsheviks. In 1920, the reserves amounted to 317 T.
By the end of Stalin's rule in 1953 gold reserves have increased 6.5 times and reached 2050 T.
On the eve of perestroika in 1985, the ash reserve of the USSR was approximately 2,500 tons, but by 1991 had decreased by 10 times!
Gold reserves in the state reserve of Russia on 01.12.2008 amounted to about 445 T.
g) 1933, unemployment in the USSR did not exist. Estimates from sample surveys of Rosstat, the total number of unemployed is at 01.2008 about 4.6 million ( 2000 – 7.1 million). However, the number of officially registered unemployed (another indicator) has increased to 1.6 million persons
e) the Real incomes of workers by 1940, increased in comparison with 1913 in 2.7 times, peasants – B2,4 times.
e) In 1947, the USSR, the first after the war, the state of our planet, was canceled card system. And с1948 year in, year out — until 1954 — reduced prices on food and consumer goods. For example, here the ratio of the price levels as ha1.01.51 G. G. 1.01.46 prices: bread (39%), meat (42%). Now inflation, hold by the owners of public corporations at the expense of growth of tariffs, hits the purse of ordinary citizens.
g) the Housing Fund in the cities and towns of the mountains. type amounted in 1913 180 million m2 and for the period с1918-1956 was introduced 953 million m2 of total (usable) area of dwellings. In the USSR housing was provided by the state free of charge, in perpetuity. Now the provision of free housing fell by almost 10 times. A young family? you need to either accrue ten years on the flat, subject to postponement all their income or go into debt yoke and eventually pay even longer.Housing prices are growing (in 2006 – 50%), and it is becoming less accessible to the majority of the population (only about 12% of Russians can afford to buy housing, about 5% — to get a mortgage)
h) the Number of physicians in 1950. increased compared with 1940 1,5, at times.
The number of researchers in 1950 increased compared to 1940 by 1.5 times.
The number of scientific institutions in 1950 increased by 40% compared with 1940.
The number of students v1950 city increased by 50% compared with 1940.
and) Nuclear bomb the U.S. did in 1945, and experienced by residents of Japanese cities. We made an a-bomb in 1949; the US hydrogen bomb tested in 1952, we — in 1953. Thus was laid the necessary capacity to maintain nuclear parity and thus security of Russia. The nuclear shield of Russia, created in the Soviet Union, is now actively being destroyed. Yeltsin destroyed 3807 components of the strategic nuclear forces of Russia (10271 in 1990. to 6464 in 2000), and Putin spent more 3380 strategic nuclear forces of Russia (in the end leaves us with a third of Soviet armaments (3084), and the destruction is continuing), in particular and primarily the most powerful and invulnerable missiles in the world – Satan (Putin destroyed their 105 and was 75).
And nothing new is created. Even the "latest" missiles Topol-M and RS-24 is only a modification of Soviet missiles.
K) From 1946 to the USSR were also deployed:
1) air defense
2) missile technology;
3) automation of technological processes;
4) to implement the latest computer technology (in 1950 created the first electronic computers);
5) on space flight (in 1957 we've launched into space the world's first Earth satellite, 1961 - first man);
6) for gasification of the country;
7) household appliances it.d.
3.The army and the war
On the eve of the German attack on the USSR in 1941, Stalin was elected Chairman of the Council of people's Commissars (the Soviet Government) and the people's Commissar of defense. With the beginning of the war, Stalin becomes Supreme commander of the red army. The main questions in this theme are: preparedness for war, and loss in it. In the West were convinced that Germany will be able to defeat the USSR for 2 months, but I was mistaken in the estimates shinnogo power of the Union. Stalin and Victory in the war is not separable.
a) the balance of forces on the eve of war.
The combat and numerical composition of the armed forces of Germany, its allies and the USSR before the great Patriotic war at Western border of the USSR:
Personnel (million): Germany — 5,5; USSR — 2,9 (1,9:1)
Guns and mortars (thousand units), Germany — 47,2; USSR — 32,9 (1,4:1)
Tanks (thousand units), Germany — 4,3, USSR — 14,2 (0,3:1)
Combat aircraft (thousand units), Germany — 5,0; USSR — 9,2 (0,5:1)
Total (total) forces and funds of Germany, its allies and the Soviet Union (1,2:1)
Therefore, you cannot say that Stalin allegedly prepared the country for war.
b) Losses in WWII.
+ To the beginning of the war the army and Navy and other departments — 4901,8 thousand people.
+ During the war aims, mobilized — 29574,9 thousand
Total: 34476,7 thousand
Irrevocable losses of the armed forces of the USSR
+ Killed and died of wounds on the stages of evacuation — 5226,8
+ Died of wounds in hospitals — 1102,8
+ Died of disease, died as a result of accidents, sentenced to death (not in combat)- 555,5
+ Was missing,was taken prisoner — 4559,0
Total deadweight loss is 11444,1 (33,2% of the total number. troops)
- Returned from captivity -1836 (40% captured)
- Designed in liberated territory and sent in troops from the soldiers earlier had been surrounded or missing — 939,7
Total irrevocable demographic losses – 8668,4 (25.1% of the total number. troops)
All the years of the war involved the armed forces of the served until March 1, 1939 -21107
Irretrievable human losses armed forces of Germany army and its allies on the Soviet-German front, 22.6.1941 with 9.5.1945 G. (thous.)
+ Killed, died from diseases Rani, has gone missing, not combat losses — 4273,0
+ Captured -4376,3
Total deadweight loss is 8649,3
(including Germany -7181,1 (34,0% of the total num. troops Germany))
- Returned from captivity -3572,6 (82% captured)
Total irrevocable demographic losses — 5076,7
(including -4270,7 Germany (20.2% of the total number. troops))
As you can see, deadweight loss troops of Germany and her allies were too huge (8.6 million people), not to mention their complete defeat and capitulation. Plus, we must remember 1,59 soldiers and officers of the Wehrmacht, surrendered after may 9, 1945, just before the Soviet Army.
The ratio of irrevocable losses of armies of the USSR and Germany (with allies)
The irreversible demographic losses: 1,71:1
The difference can be explained by the fact that from Nazi captivity returned 2 times less prisoners of war than our (40% vs. 82%), which is not surprising given the goal of the Nazis to enslave and destroy the Russians.
b) About the heroism.
In WWII deserted -588,7 thousand (1.7% of the total number of troops). For comparison, in the First world deserted 1865,0 thousand (12.1% of the total number of troops) – in 7 times more!
In the first world war, the army of tsarist Russia lost officers (killed, died of wounds, gassed, shell-shocked and wounded, prisoners and missing) more than 72 thousand(14.6% of the number of officers). In the second world war only in the battles were killed, died from wounds and disease, has gone missing and taken prisoner 1023,1 thousand people (35% of the total number of officers). The irreversible demographic losses of the Russian army in the war of 1914-1918 was 2.25 million (14,7% of the total raised in the army and Navy during the war), however, Russia was unable to bring the war to a victorious end. In WWII we won, despite the fact that irretrievable human losses were even more than the enemy (25% versus 20.2%), suggesting the unity and heroism of the Soviet people under Stalin's leadership.
g) About the alleged repressed command of the red Army from may 1937 to сентябрь1939 year in the amount of 40 thousand people. It is such a round figure named for the first time the Ogonyok magazine (No. 26, 1986), the “Moscow news”, etc. Where did this figure? And here is how.
The fact that 5 мая1940 G. head of the Main Directorate of personnel of the people's Commissariat of defense, Lieutenant-General E. Salenko presented to Stalin, “Report on the work of the office” for the year 1939 it stated that during 1937-1939 from the ranks of the red army 36898 commanders was DISMISSED. Of them in 1937, released 18 658 people (13.1% of payroll number of command-command and political staff), in 1938, dismissed 16 362чел. (9,2%), in 1939, dismissed 1878 people (0.7 percent).
The motives were: 1) age; 2) health; 3) disciplinary offences; 4)moral instability; 5) dismissed for political reasons 19 106 (after complaints and conducted inspections 9247 restored in 1938-1939.); 6) arrested, that is arrested, 9579 people have been received (of which 1457 was restored in 1938-1939.).
Thus, the number of officers arrested in 1937-1939 (without the air force and Navy), is 8122 people(3% of the total ohms.composition in 1939). Of them sentenced to death, about 70, shot 17 — basically the highest, for example, two out of five marshals (Tukhachevsky for organizing a Trotskyist military conspiracy, Egorov for their participation in espionage, preparing terrorist acts and participation in K. R. organization), another Marshal Blucher was arrested for participating in the military-fascist conspiracy that led to unnecessary losses and the deliberate failure of the operation on the lake. Hassan, but died in prison. Also dangerous for the same crime were shot 5 of 9 commander of the 1st rank (Belov, Yakir,Uborevich, Fedko, Frinovskii) and other representatives of the "fifth column".
"...The Wehrmacht just betrayed me, I perish at the hands of his generals. Stalin did a brilliant thing by staging a purge in the red Army and getting rid of the rotten aristocracy" (from an interview by Adolf Hitler journalist K. Speidell at the end of April 1945.)
d) prisoners Of war. Another false myth of perestroechniki-dermokratov that almost all Soviet soldiers liberated from German captivity were sent to the GULAG.
Actually they were internment camps to check released from captivity, which was then a necessity. On March 1, 1944 through the organs of the NKVD were tested 312 594 former red Army soldiers, who had been in captivity or surrounded by. 75.1 per cent of former prisoners successfully passed the test and were sent to the army who is who in the national economy who are on treatment. Another 0.6% died, which is not surprising, given the living conditions in German concentration camps, where they were released. Was subjected to the same repression (arrested or sent to Shtrafbat) only 6.2%.
e)detachments. Supposedly in the detachments, was Packed with Jews on the spot shot all who fled from the front and specially shot in the backs of the soldiers. Is this true?
From the memo: From the beginning of the war on 10 October 1941 Special departments of the NKVD and defensive squads of the NKVD troops for the protection of the rear of the detained servicemen 657 364, otstavat their units and fleeing from the front.
Among the detainees, Special departments arrested 25 878 (4%), the remaining 632 486 formed in parts and sent back to the front.
Among those Special departments:
spies — 1505
saboteurs — 308
traitors — 2621
cowards and fear mongers -2643
deserters — 8772
distributors provocative rumors — 3987
samostrelova — 1671
other — 4371
Only 25 878
For decisions of Particular departments and on the number of convictions of Military tribunals were shot 10 201 people (1.6% of detainees), one shot before the troops — 3321 people.
g) About the penal battalion. The entire war in penal battalions and companies were sent 427 910. On the other hand, through the Soviet Armed forces during the war were 34 476,7 thousand people. It turns out that the proportion of soldiers who had been in penal companies and battalions is only 1,24%. Thus, contrary to the assertions of unscrupulous publicists, the contribution of the penalty box in the Victory seems to be relatively modest. The average monthly loss and alternating the personnel of all the fine parts for the year amounted 14191 people, or 52 % usednamespaces their number (27326 people). This is 3-6 times higher than community average monthly loss of personnel in the conventional forces in those offensive operations 1944
and) Terrorism. According to official data of the Ministry of interior and prosecutors ' offices, the number of terrorist attacks committed in Russia 1994 — 18, 1999 — 20, 2000 — 135, 2001 — 327, 2002 — 360, 2003 — 561, 2004 — 265, 2005 -257, 2006 — 112, 2007 — 41. As can be seen, from the beginning of the "antiterrorist" operation in Chechnya in 1999, the number of terrorist attacks has increased tenfold. The impression that the problem of terrorism was created and inflated the Putin's power to intimidate and rallying around itself the population. This proves the involvement of the FSB for the apartment bombings in 1999 in Moscow, Volgodonsk and attempted explosions in Ryazan and other terrorist attacks.
Meanwhile, in 1943, Lavrenty Beria in a few weeks provides complete disarmament and Kazakhstan in the eviction of ALL Chechens, Ingush, and other peoples of the Caucasus, moved EN masse to the side of the occupiers. Terrorism under Stalin for the problem are not considered and successfully fought against it.
4.On crime and prisoners
a) Thanks to declassified archival data lies about "billions of innocent victims" elementary unmasked.
According to official occlubrush for the period from 1921 to the beginning of 1954 for counter-revolutionary and other especially dangerous state crimes was sentenced to death 642.980 person, to imprisonment — 2.369.220, to exile and expulsion — 765.180 (total: 3.777.380 people).
Another archival document, the number of convicted for counter-revolutionary and other especially dangerous state crimes for the period from 1921 to 1953 are:
- the highest measure – 799455
camps, colony of iturbi – 2634397
- exile and expulsion -413512
- other measures – 215942
Just convicted -4060306
*GARF, f.9401, op.1,d. 4157, l. 201-205
Under "other measures" refers to the classification of custody, involuntary treatment, and refoulement at the border. But it should be noted that in the table "wormed" a fair amount of criminals. The fact is that one stored in the archive of certificates on the basis of which compiled this table, there is a pencil note: "Total convicted за1921-1938 — 2944879 people, of which 30% (1062 thousand) — criminals". In this case, the total number of "repressed" does not exceed 3 million.
b) In the composition of the Gulag prisoners for example in G. 01.01.1951 convicted of counter-revolutionary and especially dangerous state crimes was 23% (the most frequent of the article: high treason, participation in anti-Soviet conspiracies, anti-Soviet propaganda, espionage,sabotage, etc.), the rest are criminals.
b) Mortality of Gulag prisoners (average): 1931-1940 directed, at 5.1%, 1941-1945 – 12,7%,1946-1952. Is 1.7%.
About red and white terror: 1918-1921 red were convicted of civil 356655 people, including sentenced to death 6543; white during the same period, were killed only in the court of civil 111730 people.
The number of all prisoners simultaneously in all places of deprivation of liberty (prisons,camps, colonies, etc.) on average for 1935-1953, was $ 2 million (1.13 percent of the population)
In Russia on 1 ноября2008 in institutions in places of deprivation of liberty contained 0.9 million people (0.64% of the population). In the USA at the beginning of 2008 inmates was 2.3 million people (0,77%of the population).
g) the Percentage of acquittals in 1937-1953, in the USSR amounted to 9-10%.
In 2007, according to judicial Department at the Supreme court the acquittal rate was 0.8%, got on the dock (in Moscow – 0,3%). In the U.S., the acquittal rate is 17-25%.
d) In 1946, when the West country is still being wielded gang of Bandera, has not yet been liquidated military homelessness in the USSR was committed 0,546 million crimes of all types (detection rate 90%). For comparison, the data of the Prosecutor General in Russia, in 2007 there were 6.6 times more crimes than under Stalin in 1946 - 3,58 million (the clearance rate 50%).
Murders in the USSR in 1946 was 10.3 thousand (1940 — 6.5 thousand). Murders in Russia in 2007 made more than 2 times higher than in the first postwar year — 22,2 thousand
a) the History of Russia is a long line of hungry, with the steady increase in the number of crop failures and hunger strikes until the XX century. The fact that the crop failures in Russia are repeated every 6-7 years, continuing for two years. For the second polovinoj century special cruelty differed in years of hunger, generated by poor harvests 1873, 1880, 1883, 1891, 1892, 1897 and 1898 In the twentieth century in particular stand out famine 1901, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1911 and 1913, when from hunger and hunger related diseases were a huge mortality rate. But for some reason prefer to keep quiet, broken only about the "Holodomor".
b) In 1921-1922. hunger and epidemics were 23 province with a population of 32 million people. Yes, hunger was, but the Soviet government organized the fight against the scourge. Were collected 120 million pounds of food. From the starving regions moved into the grain in the USSR and abroad 5,053 million, This magnitude of loss on relocation and “play” liars, presenting them as definitely dead from hunger. But most of all the lies around the so-called "Holodomor".
b) the Bolsheviks Allegedly seized from poor farmers all the bread and they began to starve. In fact, the grain procurements, say in the Ukraine, in 1932 were smaller than in 1931,when no famine was not. In 1930 the volume of grain procurement in Ukraine amounted to 6.92 million tonnes (30% of total production), in 1931 — 7.39 million tons(40%), and in 1932 – to 4.28 (29%). That is, all the bread no the Bolsheviks not seized, on the contrary, even reduced the volume of purchases. But what actually caused the fall gathering of grain by 1932 almost 35% compared to 1930. and the ensuing famine? And why the famine affected mainly Ukraine and don? But the fact is that in 1932 in the Ukraine and the don had planted almost a third of arable land, and is the undisputed cause of hunger. Why has not sown? In Ukraine and don't plow the land with horses, as in Central Russia because the soil they are quickly exhausted, and the oxen. And the ox is beef, eat them. Now the herd of oxen in the Ukraine decreased from 593.7 thousand (1929) до105.2 thousand (1932), almost 6 times! Reasons: sabotage, anticolana propaganda and greed. As a result, the population was scored and ate his cattle, not wanting to hand over to the collective farms.
g) Stalin's Fault in this is definitely there. First, it was necessary to take effective measures to save working animals. But most importantly more. Today, based on his article "Dizzy from success", consider that a collectivization was needed "gently" is to create model farms and to lure them in others. Collectivization began in 1929, and in March 1930 he published the decree of the Central Committee on the prohibition of forced collectivization, part of the newly minted farmers began to leave the farms back, and was restored to half of the dispossessed households. But "soft" collectivization — a direct path to the division of rural societies, and the separation is war. The massive corral of people in the collective would cause the waterfalls matukov, but all through the year and forgotten by everybody. Refraining from immediate embracing of mass collectivization was a major mistake.
e) you must Now tackle the question of the number of victims of the "Holodomor", which, as we have seen, gave the Ukrainians and the Cossacks themselves. The number of deaths from malnutrition have been minimal. But, of course, the famine had an impact on morbidity and life expectancy, and consequently on mortality and fertility of the population.
According to the results of the all-Union census of the actual population of Ukraine on 1 January 1927 was $ 29043 thousand people on 1 January 1939 — 30 946 thousand people (the territory of the Ukrainian SSR declined during this period by 2%). Such a small population growth (+6.6 percent) over the 12 year period was partly due to a significant outflow of the population in the newly formed industrial and manufacturing centers. But at the same time, the population growth of neighboring Belarus that hunger is not affected, during this period amounted to 11,76%. So we can agree that according to published data in 1938 the population of Ukraine dolino was to be more than 32 million people.
The birth rate of the population of the USSR average for 1927-1931 amounted 1080,4 thousand, mortality 521,8 thousand,the increase In 558,6 thousand 782 thousand born 1932, died 668 thousand (increase 114тыс. – on 444,6 less than the previous five years) were born in 1933 359 thousand, died 1309 thousand (decrease of 950 thousand – to 1508,6 less). That is, the population losses of the USSR in 1932-1933, famine-related, can be estimated at about 2 million people.
Of course, this is with many today. But say the U.S. caused great депрессией1929-1933, with its 15-million army of unemployed and thousands queue for free soup the famine resulted in a demographic loss of about 7 million people.
and) In 1946, when the country only began to recover after the war and stock was to do nothing, the USSR suffered a terrible drought in the South dried up the river. As a result, in 1946 the harvest was only 39.6 million tons of grain is 2.4 times lower than in 1940 And began Xia famine of 1947, But in 1947 only in the RSFSR received 35.7 million tons of grain, and goodis the USSR is gone forever.
to) However, so far the problem of hunger is still relevant: according to the food and agriculture organization of the United Nations in 2000-2002 in Russia were suffering hunger 4% of the population (5.2 million people).
6.Great about Stalin
Sometimes you have to meet a judgment about Stalin, people who are nothing but his wife's life is not ruled, but with a hint of absolute knowledge of the subject and of historical realities, broadcast on the evil that is heard on TV.
Yuri Mukhin noticed an interesting pattern: the lower the moral man, the farther he is from the real Cases and control, the worse he gets Stalin.
In my opinion, an objective assessment of such personalities as Stalin, could be given only a more or less equal — the same leaders of great empires. So let's hear them.
Winston Churchill (UK)
"The greatest happiness for Russia was that in the years of severe trials country was headed genius and unwavering commander Stalin. He was the most outstanding personality that appeals to our changing and cruel time of the period which held all his life.
Stalin was a man of extraordinary energy and indomitable willpower, sharp, cruel, merciless in conversation, which even I, brought up here, in the British Parliament, could not oppose. Stalin, above all, possessed a great sense of humor and sarcasm and ability precisely to perceive thoughts. This power was so great in Stalin that he seemed unique among the leaders of all times and peoples.
Stalin gave us the greatest impression. He had a deep, devoid of any panic, logically meaningful wisdom. He was the invincible master to find difficult points a way out of the stalemate. In addition, Stalin in the most critical moments, and moments of triumph was equally restrained and never succumbed to the illusions. He was an extraordinarily complex personality. He created and subjugated vast Empire. This was the man that his enemy destroyed by his enemy. Stalin was the greatest, unparalleled in the world, a dictator who took Russia with a wooden plough and left it with nuclear weapons.
Well, the history, the people such people do not forget"
(H e R h l l y W. Speech in the house of Commons on 21 December 1959, on the day of the 80th anniversary of Stalin).
Adolf Hitler (Germany)
The strength of the Russian people consists not in its numbers or discipline, and in his ability to generate personality scale of Stalin . For its military and political qualities far superior to Stalin and Churchill, and Roosevelt. It is the only world politician worthy of respect. Our goal is to shatter the Russian people so that the people of the scale of Stalin did not appear.
Charles de Gaulle (France)
"Stalin Omel of enormous authority, and not only in Russia. He was able to "tame"their enemies, not to panic at a loss not to enjoy the victory. And more wins than defeats.
Stalinist Russia is not the old Russia, the deceased along with the monarchy. But the Stalinist state without worthy successors to Stalin is doomed...
... Stalin was there talking (in Tehran. — Ed.) as the person entitled to claim the report. Without opening the other two participants of the Russian plans, he has ensured that they give him their plans and made amendments according to their requirements. Roosevelt joined him to reject the idea of Churchill on the widespread occurrence of Western armed forces through Italy, Yugoslavia and Turkey in Vienna, Prague and Budapest. On the other hand, the Americans are in agreement with the Soviets refused, despite the insistence of the British, a proposal for the conference to deal with political matters relating to Central Europe.
Beneš informed me about Poland, where you were just about to join the Russian army. about his talks in Moscow. He described Stalin as a person, restrained in speech, but firm in purpose, having in respect of European issues of their own thought, the hidden, but quite definite.
Wendell Wilkie made it clear that Churchill and Harriman came back from his trip to Moscow is not satisfied. They came to a mysterious Stalin, his mask remained impervious to them"
(L e G o l l y W a R l y. Military memoirs. KN.II. M., 1960, p. 235-236, 239, 430).
Harriman, the U.S. Ambassador to the USSR.
“I. V. Stalin has an intimate knowledge and a fantastic ability to delve into detail, vivacity, and strikingly delicate insight into human nature. I found him better informed than Roosevelt, more realistic than Churchill, and, in a sense, the most effective military leaders.”
Ribbentrop, German foreign Minister
"Stalin from the first moment of our meeting made a strong impression on me: a Man of extraordinary scale. His sober, almost dry, but so clear a way with words and a firm but generous style of negotiation showed that his name he wears on the right. The course of my negotiations and conversations with Stalin gave me a clear idea about the strength and power of this man, one wave of the hand which became the order for the remote village, lost somewhere in the vast spaces of Russia, the man who managed to unite duchatellier the population of his Empire stronger than any king before."
25 facts about Stalin
1. The usual norm read Stalin literature was about 300 pages a day. He is constantly educating himself. For example, being on treatment in the Caucasus, in 1931, in a letter to the Hope of Allilueva, forgetting to inform about his health, he asks him to send books on electrical engineering and ferrous metallurgy.
To assess the level of education of Stalin at the number of read and studied his books. How much he read, set, apparently, will not succeed. He was not a collector of books — he is not collected, and were selected, i.e. in his library were the books that he intended to use in the future. But even those books that he selected, it is difficult to take into account. In his Kremlin apartment library contained, according to witnesses, several tens of thousands of volumes, but in 1941 the library was evacuated, and how many books she returned is unknown, as the library in the Kremlin were not restored. In his subsequent books were on summer residences, and Near the library was built outhouse. In this library Stalin were collected 20 thousand volumes.
To estimate the range of education possible from the following data: After his death from the library Near the country's books with his notes were transferred to the Institute of Marxism-Leninism. They were 5.5 thousand!
2. According to the current criteria for Stalin achieved scientific results was a doctor of philosophy in 1920 is Even more brilliant and still has not surpassed his achievements in the economy.
3. Stalin's personal archive was destroyed soon after his death.
4. Stalin always worked ahead of time, sometimes for several decades ahead. Its efficacy as a leader was that he set a very distant goal, and decisions today has become a part of the ambitious plans.
5. Stalin vodka not fought, he fought for the free time of people. Amateur sport was developed and it is extremely Amateur. Every company and institution had sports teams and athletes from their employees. Little bit of the big companies had to own and maintain the stadiums. Played all and in all.
6. Stalin preferred wine "Tsinandali" and "Teliani". Happened, drank the brandy, and vodka just wasn't interested. From 1930 to 1953 the guards saw him "weightlessness" only twice: on the birthday of S. M. Shtemenko and at the funeral of A. A. Zhdanov.
7. In all the cities of the USSR of Stalin's time is parks. They were originally meant for mass entertainment. They definitely have been reading and games rooms (chess, Billiards), beer and ice cream makers, dancing and summer theatres.
8. Under Stalin were freely conducted discussion on all fundamental questions of existence: on the foundations of the economy, public life, science. Criticized basmanovskoye genetics, Einstein's theory of relativity, Cybernetics, collective farms, viciously criticized the authorities of any country. It is enough to compare what he wrote satirists then and than began to write after the twentieth Congress. 9. If the Stalinist planned system was maintained and reasonably refined, but Stalin understood the need of improving the socialist economy (for good reason in 1952 appeared his work "Economic problems of socialism in the USSR"), if the first task was to further improve the lives of people (and, in 1953, is no obstacle to this was not), we have by 1970 would be in the top three of countries with the highest standard of living.
10. Groundwork of Economics, which was created by Stalin, his plans that he had prepared people (both technically and morally) were so outstanding that this resource can't waste any daft Khrushchev, nor Brezhnev apathy.
11. During the first 10 years of being in the first echelons of power of the USSR, Stalin three times tendered his resignation.
12. In the ideological struggle of Stalin against the Trotskyists never had a chance. When Stalin invited Trotsky in 1927 to hold all-party discussions, the final results of the referendum were all party to the Trotskyists stunning. Of 854 thousand party members voted 730 thousand, of them for the position of Stalin voted 724 thousand and Trotsky — 6 thousand.
13. Stalin was the greatest connoisseur and authority in the party of the Bolsheviks on the national question.
14. Not the last role in creating the state of Israel was played by the support of Stalin on the voting on the resolution at the UN (and the Israelis remember it still).
15. Stalin broke off diplomatic relations with Israel only for the fact that on the territory of the USSR mission in Israel was blown up something like a grenade. This explosion injured the mission. The Israeli government rushed to the Soviet Union to apologize, but the Stalinist USSR, such attitude did not forgive anyone.
16. Despite the severance of diplomatic relations, the day Stalin's death in Israel has been declared national mourning.
17. In 1927 Stalin had spent the decision that giving bureaucrats too can't be more than 3-4 rooms.
18. Stalin very much and to the protection of, and facility staff. Quite often invited them to the table, and seeing one day that the time on the post getting wet in the rain, ordered to immediately build on this post fungus. But it had nothing to do with their service. Here Stalin any relief would not tolerate.
20. During the war Stalin, as expected, sent their sons to the front.
21. After the war Stalin "spur of the moment" gradually reduces the role of the Politburo only to the authority for the leadership of the party. And at the XIX Congress of the CPSU(b) the abolition of the Politburo was registered in the new Charter.
22. Stalin said that he sees the party as the order of the sword, numbering 50 thousand people.
23. Stalin wanted to remove the party from power, leaving the care of the party only two cases: agitation and propaganda and involvement in recruitment.
24. His famous phrase "cadres decide everything" Joseph Stalin said in 1935 at a reception in honor of graduates of military academies: "Too much to say about the merits of the leaders, about the merit of leaders. Ascribed to them all, almost all our achievements. This, of course, wrong and wrong. It's not just the leaders.... To bring machinery in motion and use it to the bottom, we need people who have mastered technique, we need cadres capable of mastering and utilizing this technique according to all the rules of art... That's why the old slogan "the technician solves all"... must now be replaced by a new slogan, the slogan that "frames solve all".
25. In 1943 Stalin said: "I know that after my death my grave will cause a bunch of garbage, but the wind of history cruelly dispel her!".
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