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African migration: threat or benefit to the world community?
Material posted: Publication date: 06-04-2020
Political and economic transformations of the modern world has led to a significant increase of migration processes, which in the second half of the last century has acquired a mass character, becoming a matter of "high politics" [2]. Today migration can be observed in all regions of the world: they are not only the result of search for "a better life" immigrants from many countries, so-called "third world", but also an important resource of employment of the population of States, the labor market which is characterized by the imbalance between demand and supply of labour. In addition, an increasing number of those forced to leave their former places of residence due to armed conflict and the negative impact of various environmental factors.

There are opinions that these phenomena are anthropogenic in nature, due to which begs the question: is it possible to stop them stimulated migration process and what the consequences are for all the new flows of migrants from African countries?

According to the UN, in 2019 the total number of migrants in the world amounted to 272 million people, of which the share of immigrants from African countries accounted for 26.5 million people [4]. Taking into account illegal migration, the specified number may increase significantly.

The consequences of African international migration is ambiguous enough for both recipient countries and donor countries. The first act is usually a highly urbanized state, whose economy has a permanent need for the influx of cheap labor. The main migration flows from Africa sent to advanced countries with a high level of development of education, science, trade and business. In the first place is France, the USA, UK [1]. Worth noting is the appearance and education the African Diaspora in China, India, Russia, which in turn contributes to the development of the partnership of African-Eurasian relations.

In the short term, such engagement of African countries in the international migration process has a number of economic benefits to host parties. It is obvious that the developed countries are interested primarily in attracting qualified personnel and providing them with decent conditions of work and life, as it will not only stimulate the growth of national economies, but also reduce the cost of training its own young personnel. However, the reality is that only about 20 thousand highly qualified migrants leave the African continent each year. The rest of the refugees from Africa, particularly "illegals" who make up half of all living on territory of the countries of the West African migrants, become "burden" for recipient countries: the costs of the reception and content of much higher taxes that they are able to pay during the period of their stay. In addition, the influx of illegal immigrants contributes to the growth of social tension, increasing weight of right-wing parties in the political life of the recipient country. In this regard, today migration policy issues become one of the Central "pain" places in the relations of the West with the States of the African continent.

The negative effects of increasing migrations from Africa to European countries has led to the fact that today the majority of Europeans are not willing to put up with the uncontrolled movements of African migrants within the EU, which forced the government to tighten immigration policy [3]. So, in may 2016, the European Commission put forward a proposal to change the conditions of migration on the territory of the EU [3]. Under the new scheme, about 40 thousand refugees had to be resettled in European countries. The proposed quotas as of 2016 was as follows: Germany – 8763 person (approx. 22%), France – 6752 people (about 17%), Spain – 4283 person (approx. 11%) [3]. A significant number of migrants were supposed to place also in Italy and Greece. The proposal has caused widespread dissatisfaction of the European public and aggravated the alienation of minorities, which in turn led to the collapse of socio-cultural integration of migrants in host countries and attempts of implementation of the policy of multiculturalism.

Despite the prevailing tense situation of the donor countries remain interested in maintaining the migration process, while Africa remains one of the poorest and most conflictive regions of the planet. A natural consequence is the desire of Africans to leave the troubled region, providing a more decent living conditions. In addition, the migrations are also interested African governments, whose involvement in this process ensures, first, the additional source of replenishment of state budgets at the expense of payments, regularly coming from the migrant Africans, and, secondly, solving the problems of unemployment and social tension.

Thus, it seems reasonable to assume that African migration carries both positive and negative consequences for recipient countries and donor countries and, therefore, can be regarded and as a benefit and as a threat to the stability of developed States, which direct the main flow of African migrants. Given that Africa is one of the main sources of human resources to exclude her from the world of migration is not possible. However, the growth of migration flows requires governments to develop appropriate laws, regulations and measures for their effective regulation. Otherwise, the African migration may lead to widespread violation of human rights and increased social tensions in various regions of the world.

Catherine Zeiser

 

The list of used sources and literature

  1. Deitch T. L., Karandashov E. N. African migration: impact on international relations Africa // Vostok (Oriens). 2015. No. 6. P. 175.
  2. Commugny of Fongang D. P. Forced migration in Africa South of Sahara // Vestnik RUDN. Series: International relations. 2019. Vol. 19. No. 2. P. 264.
  3. Droits amputés // Libération. 5 novembre 2019. Mode of access: https://www.liberation.fr/france/2019/11/05/droits-amputes_1761791
  4. Migration // United Nations. Mode of access: https://www.un.org/en/sections/issues-depth/migration/index.html

Tags: assessment , Africa


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