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Geopolitical prospects of Latin America in the XXI century
Material posted: Publication date: 29-05-2017
At the end of the last century of profound political and economic transformations swept Latin America and changed the face of countries in the region, as well as their place and role in the world. The relevance of the chosen topic is caused by large-scale processes in Latin America. Coming out of the shadows of its Northern neighbor at the end of the last century, Latin America started to be an important entity in the international arena. Under the influence of favorable market conditions, increased economic and political relations with important centres of power in the world. In search of a counterweight to US pressure, Latin American countries actively build mutually beneficial relations with China, Russia, Iran, etc., which are struggling to expand its influence in the region.

The States of the region started to pursue a relatively independent policy and to influence decision-making on a global scale, which determined its geopolitical status as an emerging independent power. Nevertheless, the region should not be regarded as a single center, despite the apparent unity of the countries of Latin America. The main dividing lines in the region are differences in the civilizational matrix, the level of socio-economic development and the dominant ideological currents, although this is kompensiruet desire for the full integration (indicative in this respect was the second half of the twentieth century) and numerous other institutions of multilateral cooperation.

However, after the "Golden decade" of Latin America has entered a period of serious challenges to overcome, which requires a series of difficult decisions. Instability, increased activity of previously passive sections of the population, as well as information permeability are the main characteristics of this period. Many unresolved acute socio-political and economic issues again became a major topic of discussion concerning the future of Latin America.

The resolution of these problems is the task of a strategic order. Required-designed structural reforms, reduction in the level of social differentiation, and the revision of national models of economic growth and the system of foreign economic relations that have a significant impact on the economic situation of the region. Thus in the rapidly changing international situation, it is necessary to maintain a balance in relations with the world centers of power.

It is from the resolution of these priority tasks and the ability to develop a unified and consistent policy with the most efficient use of available resources will determine the future of Latin America as a geopolitical center.

A list of sources of information on this subject can be divided into 3 main groups: domestic and foreign sources, and official documents.

The domestic sources. In the study of the topic should pay attention to the materials SLUDGE (RAS journals "Latin America", "Iberoamérica" and the series "Analytical notebook SLUDGE RAS"), which discussed in detail various aspects of the subject (integration and crisis processes, the political-economic connection of countries in the region, security issues).

The Magazine "Latin America":

  1. Degterev, D. A., Moiseev V. B. Dividing lines in the foreign policy of South American countries. – Latin America, No. 3, 2017. – S. 29-42;
  2. Karg H. M. Ten hypotheses about the situation in Latin America. – Latin America, No. 10, 2016. P. 5-8;
  3. Klochkovskaya L. L. Latin America and global centers of power. – Latin America, No. 8, 2016. C. 8-27;
  4. Martynov B. F. Latin America: new times, new perspectives. – Latin America, No. 4, 2017. With 23-33;
  5. Serbin A. a New cycle of Latin American regionalism in the XXI century? – Latin America, No 1, 2016. S. 25-38;
  6. Yakovlev p. P. Latin America in the context of global instability. – Latin America, No. 5, 2016. P. 12-29;
  7. P. P. Yakovlev Before any call is Latin America? – Latin America, No. 1, 2017. Pp. 5-21;
  8. P. P. Yakovlev, Which hampers the development of Latin America? – Latin America, No. 5, 2017.

A series of "Analytical notebook IL ran":

  1. The changing geopolitical situation in the Latin American region. Analytical notebook No. 21, 2009. – 102 p.;
  2. Integration processes in Latin America: status and prospects. Analytical notebook No. 22, 2012. – 120 p. URL: http://www.ilaran.ru/pdf/2012/Libros/2012_AT_22.pdf;
  3. Organized crime – a challenge to security in Latin America. Resp. ed. by B. F. Martynov. Analytical notebook No. 24, 2014. – 96 p. URL: http://www.ilaran.ru/pdf/2014/Libros/2014_AT_24.pdf.

The magazine "Iberoamérica":

  1. Astakhov E. M. the BRICS: prospects for contemporary world order (Spanish) – Iberoamérica, No. 2, 2016. – S. 33-50. URL: http://www.ilaran.ru/pdf/2016/Iberoamerica/IA_2016_2/Astakhov.pdf;
  2. Bezerra M. World of polarity, and point of view Brazil. – Iberoamérica, No. 2, 2016. – S. 74-91. URL: http://www.ilaran.ru/pdf/2016/Iberoamerica/IA_2016_2/Bezerra.pdf;
  3. Davydov V. M. development Agenda of Latin American countries today and tomorrow. The imperatives of national, regional and global order (Spanish) – Iberoamérica, No. 4, 2016. – P. 7-33. URL: http://iberoamericajournal.ru/sites/default/files/2016/3/davydov.pdf;
  4. Davydov V. M. Rusia – Latinoamérica hace 70 años y 7 décadas después. Intercomunicación de los tiempos. – Iberoamérica, No. 3, 2015. – S. 5-15. URL: http://www.ilaran.ru/pdf/2015/Iberoamerica/IA_2015_3/Davydov.pdf;
  5. Krasil'shchikov V. A. vía en América Latina para el desarrollo independiente. – Iberoamérica, No. 4, 2014. – From 64 to 84. URL: http://www.ilaran.ru/pdf/2014/Iberoamerica/IA_2014_4/Krasilshchikov.pdf;
  6. Martynov B. F., Simonova L. N. Brazil is facing a difficult choice (Spanish) – Iberoamérica, No. 2, 2016. – S. 51-7. URL: http://www.ilaran.ru/pdf/2016/Iberoamerica/IA_2016_2/Martynov_Simonova.pdf;
  7. Martynov B. F. Cuestiones de la seguridad regional y global. –Iberoamérica, No. 2, 2014. – P. 37-49. URL: http://www.ilaran.ru/pdf/2014/Iberoamerica/IA_2014_2/Martynov.pdf;
  8. Yakovlev p. P. Latin America in the midst of a "perfect storm" (in Spanish) Iberoamérica, No. 4, 2016. – S. 5-32. URL: http://iberoamericajournal.ru/sites/default/files/2016/4/yakovlev.pdf;
  9. P. P. Yakovlev, "the Effect of trump's" Latin America (Spanish) – Iberoamérica, No. 1, 2017. – P. 5-27. URL: http://iberoamericajournal.ru/sites/default/files/2017/1/yakovlev.pdf.

Studying the above issues, you should also pay attention to the following work, considering the deep political and economic problems of Latin America at the present time, and prospects for their resolution and the future of the region:

  1. Davydov M. V., Bobrovnikov A.V. the role of the rising giants in the world economy and politics (the chances of Brazil and Mexico in the global dimension). – Moscow: ILA RAS, 2009. – 234 p. URL: http://www.ilaran.ru/pdf/2009/Libros/2009_Davydov_Bobrovnikov.pdf;
  2. Martynov B. F. "West" and "non-West": past, present... future? – Moscow: ILA RAS, 2015. – 166 p.;
  3. Latin America in modern world politics./Resp. edited by V. M. Davydov. – M.: Nauka, 2009. – 581 s.;
  4. Sir V. P. Latin America: new geopolitical challenges. MOSCOW: MGIMO, 2015. – 292 p.

Foreign sources, considering the region in a global context, as well as the geopolitical processes taking place in it:

  1. Brzezinski Z. Great chess Board: domination of America and its geostrategic imperatives. – M.: AST, 2015. – 702 p.;
  2. Cohen S. B. Geopolitics: The Geography of International Relations. – Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2009. – 504 p.
  3. Hepple L. W. South American heartland: the Charcas, Latin American geopolitics and global strategies. – The Geographical Journal, Vol. 170, No. 4, 2004. – P. 359-367. URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0016-7398.2004.00137.x/pdf;
  4. Horwitz B., Bagley M. Latin America and the Caribbean in the Global Context: Why Care about the Americas? – N. Y.: Routledge, 2016. – 273 p.
  5. Merino G. E. Tensiones mundiales, multipolaridad relativa y blocks de poder en una nueva fase de la crisis del orden mundial. Perspectivas para América Latina. – Geopolítica(s): Revista de estudios sobre espacio y poder, № 7(2), 2016. – P. 201-22. URL: https://revistas.ucm.es/index.php/GEOP/article/view/51951/49687;
  6. Nolte D. and Hoffmann B. Latin America's New Geopolitical Position and Its Implications for Europe. – Hamburg, 2007. – 26 p. URL: https://eulacfoundation.org/en/system/files/Latin%20America’s%20New%20Geopolitical%20Position%20and%20Its%20Implications%20for%20Europe.pdf;
  7. Ruvalcaba D. M., Valencia A. R., González T. D. Las potencias subregionales en el sistema internacional de posguerra fría: ¿nuevos actores en la política internacional? – Geopolítica(s): Revista de estudios sobre espacio y poder, № 7(1), 2016. – p. 25-56. URL: https://revistas.ucm.es/index.php/GEOP/article/view/50877/48708;
  8. Tambs L. A. Geopolitical factors in Latin America in Bailey. Latin America: politics, economics and hemispheric security. N.-Y.: Praeger, 1965. P. 31-49.

Official documents help to analyze the economic situation in Latin America as well as the priorities in the field of foreign and security policy of the States of the region.

  1. Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional para el Desarrollo. La Integración Regional en América Latina: Nuevos y Viejos Incertidumbres de Futuro. – Madrid: Noviembre, 2015. – 31 p. URL: http://www.aecid.es/Centro-Documentacion/Documentos/Eficacia%20y%20calidad/Documento%20de%20trabajo%207.pdf;
  2. Anuario Estadístico de Cuba 2015. Capítulo 6: Cuentas Nacionales. Oficina Nacional de Estadística e Información. URL: http://www.one.cu/aec2015/05%20Cuentas%20Nacionales.pdf;
  3. Oficina de Información Diplomática. México. Estados Unidos Mexicanos. Noviembre 2016. URL: http://www.exteriores.gob.es/documents/fichaspais/mexico_ficha%20pais.pdf
  4. OCDE/CEPAL/CAF. Perspectivas económicas de América Latina 2017: Juventud, competencia y emprendimiento. Paris: OECD Publishing, 2016, 338 p. URL: https://www.oecd.org/dev/americas/E-book_LEO2017_SP.pdf
  5. Política Nacional de Defesa (Brasil). URL: http://www.defesa.gov.br/arquivos/estado_e_defesa/END-PND_Optimized.pdf
  6. Programa para la Seguridad Nacional 2014 – 2018. Multidimensional Una política para México en el siglo XXI. URL: http://cdn.presidencia.gob.mx/programa-para-la-seguridad-nacional.pdf
  7. Resolución No.169/2016. Oficina Nacional de Estadística e Información. 08.11.16. URL: http://www.one.cu/resoluciones/2016Res169.pdf;

 

Zarechneva Pauline


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