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Russia's geopolitics in the context of Eurasian cooperation
Material posted: Publication date: 07-11-2018
Eurasia is the largest continent and one of the richest regions of the world on reserves of natural resources.

The share of Eurasia accounts for 31 % of world reserves of natural gas, 17 % oil, 23% iron ore, 14 % gold and 7 % copper.[1] Even in the twentieth century, the British scientist H. Mackinder was one of the initiators of "the theory of Eurasianism", denoting the territory of Eurasia, as the center of the world, and its "heart" - Russia.[2] In geopolitical indicators of Russia claims to be "heartland" due to a large territory on the continent, the growth of economic indicators (see table 1.2) and to play a leading role as a transit state. Situated between Europe and Asia, Russia geopolitically is the opportunity to play a leading role in many regional organizations: Europe – OSCE with Asia – the SCO, BRICS, and countries in the Persian Gulf as a member of OPEC+, etc. Russian scientist N. S. Gumilev adds to the geographical aspects of the synthesis of history and natural science, which is reflected in the theory of passionarity.[3] In this context, the author seeks to make the slope on the role of Russia as a geopolitical center mainly Asia in cooperation with post-Soviet countries: problems of their integration and future development.



Fig. 1. The size of the nominal GDP of Russia, bln. USA

Source: CIA World Factbook

Fig.2. The volume of export of Russia, bln. USA

Source: CIA World Factbook


Since the collapse of the USSR, Russia has faced a number of problems for the retention of influence, the mechanisms of cooperation on the Eurasian continent. All these factors determine the complexity of the study of the continent's geopolitical positions. The English scientist E. Kingston Mcclory presented a study of relations between subjects of international relations of the continent as a triangle, the top of which all the laws of science is the economy of neighboring existing military and foreign policy. Along with this, the fact that the countries, EEU, CIS was a single country provides a cultural, spiritual and social basis for integration.

The impetus for regional integration was the collapse of the bipolar world, the loss of the Soviet Union the status of "superpower", as well as the parallel development of integration processes in Europe, America, Africa and the South Pacific.[4] Along with pressure operated mechanisms in the economic, social and spiritual sphere, the question arose positioning in the international arena of fifteen republics formed. The first step was the signing on 8 December 1991 the Agreement on the Commonwealth of independent States.[5] His education played an important role in the future integration process, becoming a kind of basis for creating further structures of Eurasia. The phenomenon of the Eurasian integration differs from the other examples, because due to the established historical ties this fact laid some uniformity of the technological production of space.
In Eurasia, there are about 19 of the regional structures. In organizations such as the EAEC, CIS, and the CSTO, Russia has played a leading role. These organizations complement each other, because they are based on different dimensions: economic (EAEC), military-political (CSTO) and social (CIS). Russia's role is also unique in expressing a common position of member States of the CIS in the walls of the Security Council (SC) of the United Nations as a permanent member. Practical results of the activities of the above organizations are not only ideological and political, but also institutional:
1) the Creation of the Customs Union and the Customs code.
2) Since 2012 has formed a common economic space on the basis of 17 international treaties.

Integration of post-Soviet space is an "absolute priority"[6] Russia's foreign policy. However, now there is a question of convergence – strengthening the socio-economic similarities between different societies with the preservation of their civilizational diversity. Problems of integration exist, which is clearly reflected in the doubt of creating not only the Eurasian Union, as a supranational body, but a more global "Big Eurasian Union", which would include China, India and Iran.[7] this is Due in part to the size of the territory, since small States are easier to join in the Union, including to neutralize the customs border.
The possible creation of the Eurasian Union is not in the short term. Now the main economic body of the post-Soviet space is the Eurasian economic Union (EAEU), which was created in 2015. The main areas of activities include: the formation of a common energy market, liberalization of the road transport market, access to the transmission system, the rules for agricultural subsidies. For the short time of functioning the positive dynamics is obvious: after the United States and China, the EEU is the third partner of the European Union (exports amounted to 51 %). Interest in China is highly increased in the EEU. In 2016, China has invested 26 billion dollars, of these, 21,5 in Kazakhstan.
However, the main driver of the economy of the EEU is the oil and gas sector, which indicates the absence of long-term prospects of investments into high technologies, cooperation at the level of small and medium business. It would be nice to move away from all of the usual framework of cooperation in the oil and gas sector, where there is often a lot of contradictions, a clash of interests with countries tranziterami, often leading to the "gas wars". The Eurasian Union of Industrialists and enterprises-one of the sites of interaction at the level of entrepreneurs and businesses for the penetration of mutual investments.[8]
Overall, it is worth noting that the actual integration of the EEU countries contributed to institutional. As noted above, this is due to the dependence of economies on natural resources and foreign investment, as well as the complexity of decision-making in the institutions of the EurAsEC. Moreover, there is no monitoring of the processes of production cooperation and mutual investment. Due to the low level of knowledge of global economic integration, the obvious weak information exchange and accumulation of knowledge integration. If the above can be attributed to the subjective factors, the objective of some regional conflicts. For example, in 2012, Uzbekistan has once again decided to withdraw from the CSTO (the military structures of the CIS). So, the Uzbek authorities refused to provide a corridor for military equipment of Kazakhstan, EN route to Northern Tajikistan for participation in the antiterrorist exercises of the Shanghai cooperation organization (SCO) "Peace mission-2012".As a result, tanks and other vehicles were deployed across the territory of Kyrgyzstan.[9]

One of the goals of Russia in cooperation within the EAEC is the creation of importunately of goods previously delivered from Europe. The main problem with decisions is that this process is cyclical, i.e., first adopted institutional solutions, then implementation process is slowing down, not to mention the fact that the rural national economy has not been total integration. Along with the increase in volume of foreign trade turnover of goods, mutual investments remain low. We need to integrate the sector of science and technology, the latter can be presented by a domestic manufacturer.

Thus, the success of Russia in Eurasia is dependent on the use of its geopolitical and geo-economic advantages between Western and Eastern civilizations. Only when you are creating a powerful infrastructure, Russia can claim the role of a transcontinental power. Need to develop a strategy of economic cooperation: can it be complete integration or division of labor between countries, which may be an advantage of the Eurasian continent, where each state perfectly complement each other, creating diversification of the economy.

 

References:
1. The world Bank Development Eurasia: natural diversification of the economy // URL:

http://www.vsemirnyjbank.org/ru/news/feature/2014/02/03/eurasias-development-investing-in-diversity-naturally

2. Kurbanov, R. A. Eurasian integration and the law // Moscow, YUNITI-DANA, 2016// WITH 7-10
3. Gumilev L. N. The theory of ethnogenesis and passionarity
4. Geopolitics and security : an analytical and scientific-practical journal / ed. Sov. L. G. Ivashov // Saint-Petersburg //2013. - № 1(21). With 17-25 URL: http://biblioclub.ru/index.php?page=book&id=271579 (25.10.2018).
5. Vladimir Putin, the New integration project for Eurasia — a future that is born today // "news" //03.10.2011 // URL: https://iz.ru/news/502761
6. The Eurasian economic Commission// "Vectors of development of international cooperation discussed in Astana"// 29.08.2017// URL: http://www.eurasiancommission.org/ru/nae/news/Pages/29-08-2017-4.aspx
7. Analytical center Katehon // Eurasia: trends and forecast for 2016// 13.01.2016// URL: http://katehon.com/ru/article/evraziya-tendencii-i-prognoz-na-2016-g
8. L. Artsishevsky, Prosci // Economic integration of the CIS countries; problems and solutions // the Economist//2001. No. 9 .
9. The prospects of deepening integration processes in postsovetskogo / ROS. in-t strategy. research. – Moscow :RISI, 2012.

 

[1] world Bank Development Eurasia: natural diversification of the economy // URL:
http://www.vsemirnyjbank.org/ru/news/feature/2014/02/03/eurasias-development-investing-in-diversity-naturally

[2] Kurbanov R. A. Eurasian integration and the law. M.: YUNITI-DANA, 2016.- S. 7-10

[3] Gumilev L. N. The theory of ethnogenesis and passionarity

[4] Geopolitics and security : an analytical and scientific-practical journal / ed. Sov. L. G. Ivashov // Saint-Petersburg //2013. - № 1(21). With 17-25 URL: http://biblioclub.ru/index.php?page=book&id=271579 (25.10.2018).

[5] the Agreement establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States. December 8, 1991./ State archive of the Russian Federation. F. 10026. Op. 4. D. 1303. L. 1-5./ URL:
http://www.rusarchives.ru/projects/statehood/10-12-soglashenie-sng.shtml

[6] Geopolitics and security : an analytical and scientific-practical journal / ed. Sov. L. G. Ivashov // Saint-Petersburg //2013. - № 1(21). With 27-31 URL: http://biblioclub.ru/index.php?page=book&id=271579 (25.10.2018).

[7] Vladimir Putin 's New integration project for Eurasia — a future that is born today // "news" //03.10.2011 // URL: https://iz.ru/news/502761

[8] the Eurasian economic Commission// "Vectors of development of international cooperation discussed in Astana"// 29.08.2017// URL: http://www.eurasiancommission.org/ru/nae/news/Pages/29-08-2017-4.aspx

[9] Analytical centre Katehon // Eurasia: trends and forecast for 2016// 13.01.2016// URL: http://katehon.com/ru/article/evraziya-tendencii-i-prognoz-na-2016-g

 

Ovsyannikova Jan


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