African-Muslim – this phrase sounds odd and rare for the average layman, however, it becomes more and more distinct and less paradoxical. Meanwhile, Africa is now second only to Asia part of the world in the number of Muslims. The total number of Muslims in the world reached 1.5 billion people.
Only 18% of Muslims live in Arab countries. Almost half of all Muslims live in Northern Africa. The green belt covers most of West Africa the History of Islam on the African continent begins almost simultaneously with the emergence of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula. And it, strangely enough, talking about sub-Saharan Africa, not Egypt or the Maghreb.
The first contact of the Muslims with the inhabitants of Tropical Africa occurred in 641-642, in Nubia. And in ten years the Muslims under the peace Treaty have built in this country the mosque and moved into its territory for the purpose of trade. From this time originates the peaceful spread of Islam, which has taken over the centuries - the era of good-neighbourly relations with the Caliphate Nubia. In cities located on caravan routes from the ports of the red sea into the Sudan settled Arab merchants from Arabia, Syria, Egypt. And after the victory in the 9th century over the people of the badge increased the infiltration of Muslims and their territories, in the cities of this nation - the Senju and Hadjar were built mosques. Also under the control of Arab merchants were Golden and beryl mines in the Nubian desert.
In Islam gradually passed and residents of coastal areas of Ethiopia, as the trade gradually passed into the hands of Arabs and Persians. One of the most significant successes of the Muslim merchants in Ethiopia was the accession in the Shoah - in the heart of the Ethiopian highlands - the dynasty of Mahomedov, possibly of Arab origin. In the 10-11 centuries, Islamic dynasties appeared in other parts of Eastern and Central Ethiopia. In the end, there was formed the conglomerate of States, connected by caravan trade on the one hand with the Muslim port Salou and the overseas countries of Islam, and with Christian Ethiopia. In 640 ad, AMR Ibn al-AAS conquered Egypt and other African lands adjacent to the coast of the Mediterranean sea, and formerly belonging to the Byzantine Empire. Ibn abi Sarh in 646-652, continued this campaign in North Africa.
He took Western Tunisia, Northern Algeria and a large part of land, lying in the Sahara desert and adjoining areas. After him Uqbah Ibn NAFI spread Islam in Morocco, and is a triumphant March, as expected, reached the coast of the Atlantic ocean. Uqbah also made a trip South, deep into the Sahara, continuing to spread Islam. He reached the environs of lake Chad. The people of South Sudan consisted of a community of traditionalists. South Sudan, like all African countries, is located in a complex region, where the rainy season lasts for months, impenetrable thickets with insects that cause disease and epidemics, dense forests with wild animals and no roads, became the reason that these regions remained closed before religions. The new calendar for the people of the South began when there started to come some traders from the North of Sudan, then began his conquest of the region by the Ottoman Caliphate in the person of Muhammad Ali Pasha, who reached the sources of the Nile. After the conquest and annexation of the Sudan to the Caliphate the inhabitants of the Northern provinces have become active to move South, which led to the spread of Islam.
It happened in the early nineteenth century (twelfth century Hijri). Only one species, the Northern merchants would perform ablution and began to pray, caused local residents a lot of questions and because they were traditionalists, i.e. very close to the fitrah, this factor facilitated their adoption of Islam. Therefore, any Muslim who goes to South Sudan, unwittingly turned into a preacher. The spread of Islam led to the spread of the Arabic language because it is the language of the Quran. This was also helped by the fact that the peoples of the South did not have a single language of communication and international communication was very difficult, not to say that it was non-existent. Thus, the Arabic language began to perform a communicative function. The Arabic language began to learn and use, even those who refused Islam and continued to adhere to traditional beliefs.
Initially, the spread of power of Islam in Africa was carried out by military means, but at its last stage of this process took place only peacefully, through trade and inter-faith marriages. Means of spread of the Muslim civilization were also the education and advancement of Arabs in West Africa, mostly perehodivshuyu the Sahara desert trading caravans. Islam reached sub-Saharan Africa in the 8th century – the beginning of written history dates from this time. Already in 850 the dynasty Dieogo converted to Islam. These were the first Negro adherents of Islam. The Sunni branch of Islam came to these areas a little later in the 10-11 centuries.
Converted to Islam in the first place - the rulers annapolitkovskaya formations, giving, thus, an example and other subjects. In 11th century the Muslims became the rulers of Gao, residents of the city of Silla, on the river Senegal, as well as the tip of the chiefdoms of mandingo (Madden) (West Mali) and Tekrur (North of Senegal), who were vassals of the large medieval Empire of Ghana. In that state at that time was dominated by the cult of the sacred king, but even there, in the capital, there were 13 mosques, and many of the advisers to the king were Muslims. Thus, we can say that by the beginning of the great geographical discoveries and colonization of Africa by Europeans, the continent has developed many well-developed Muslim societies. Islam by that time became not only a religion of the nobility, but in the majority of entities established in people's minds. There was a known Sharia centers of disciplines, many rulers supported the Sufi order (tariqa). Many of the African Muslim communities continued their development, interacting with colonizers, and often chased them. Others were separated from them by the Sands of the Sahara, third fell.
What is happening in Africa now? What are the trends? Rassmotrim is the practice of the Republic of côte d'ivoire (République de Côte d'ivoire), the Republic of Ivory Coast, where we were able to visit in January 2013.
In ancient times on the territory of the country the pygmies supposedly lived. In XV—XVI centuries came from the North mandingo (malinke, Bambara, Gyula, etc.), pushing senufo. In the beginning of XVIII century established the town of Kong, which became an important trade centre and a centre for the spread of Islam in West Africa. Caravans with goods were from developed regions of North Africa. To date there have been preserved two mosques from the 17th and 18th centuries. In The Photo. Now Cong is a small village away from main roads, but there is a madrasah (elementary school). The first Europeans who landed in the lagoon, where the current Grand Bassam, were the Portuguese. It happened at the end of the XV century. The Europeans traded with the natives. Exported from the country of gold and ivory. Later the French gave it a name–ivory Coast. Unfortunately, côte d'ivoire can boast of our elephants. They were wiped out. In the country of elephants almost gone. They are imported now from other countries for cultivation in national parks. The first European settlers were French missionaries, who in 1637 founded the first village of Assini.
Since that time, Christianity appeared on the Ivory Coast. French missionaries turned most of the population of the coast into Christians. The colonization of consolidated long Christian values. In 1972 in the Gulf of Guinea oil was discovered. This gave impetus to the development of côte d'ivoire. The country received one of two oil refineries in Africa (second to Nigeria). Began the expansion of cities and, as a consequence – the growth of the urban population. Now 20 some-odd million Ivorians half live in cities. Changed and religious composition of local residents. Muslims until recently accounted for 40% of the population, and only 33% are Christians. The increase in population is due to the influx of migrants from Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger. Migranti their descendants bring with them instability in the balanced life of Ivorians. They are actively involved in the struggle for power.Win an important public office. A striking example is the current President Alassane Ouattara.
His mother is from Burkina Faso (mossi ethnicity), and the father of mandating peoples. By law he could not become President, because the son of immigrants born in côte d'ivoire. However they became. The first President of côte d'ivoire transferred its capital from Abidjan to Yamoussoukro, the village where he was born and raised. There he built the world's largest Basilica of Notre-Dame de La Paix (the Cathedral of the blessed virgin Mary of Peace). This is actually a copy of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. It surpasses in its size the original. Its height of 158 meters, it can accommodate up to 7000 parishioners to seats and another 11 thousand standing. The temple is placed on the area of 30 hectares.
In its construction invested huge money for the country. The materials were brought from Europe and other countries. Italian marble, French glass. In the temple service, but he is filled with only ten percent. It is unclear which was built a Basilica of this size? She donated to the Vatican is his territory. Paul himself was consecrated its Second in 1990. During the pogroms and riots in the capital in the Church people were hiding in the hope of person. Despite the construction of the temple the number of Christians in côte d'ivoire is not increased.
The number of people practicing Islam, is growing every year. Now half the population of côte d'ivoire is Muslim, 30% Christian, 20% other beliefs. The increase of Muslims is mainly due to the traditionalists. In recent years the world has witnessed the growth of Muslims in Africa – at the expense of traditionalists, in Asia due to high fertility in countries such as Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Bangladesh, etc. And in Latin America is also on the rise Muslims. There were Islamic missionaries. The map shows the spread of Islam in 1980. In the 2000s religious composition of Africa is as follows: 40% Muslim, 30% Christian, 30% other. Christians include Roman Catholics–10-12%, Protestant 10%, 8-10% is the Monophysites, Orthodox, etc. the Main factor influencing the growth of Muslims in Africa, is economic incentives.
The oil rich Gulf countries offer grants and interest-free loans to countries where the population professes Islam. For example, after independence in Mali Muslims was 30%. Now already there are 90%. Gabon has received a loan from Saudi Arabia and became a fully Islamic. There adopted a state program for the construction of mosques. Of course, for Saudi money. Feature of Islamic missionary work in Africa is that preachers of Islam are Africans themselves, not outsiders from other countries, as Christians. The forecast of Islamization: in 20-30 years Africa will be Islamic. These trends are clearly observed in the developed countries of Africa. For example, in South Africa a Muslim to be prestigious.
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