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As the swampy island was the advanced state
Material posted: Publication date: 28-10-2016
The purpose of this article is to analyze the development of Singapore since 1965. Extraordinary people managed in the quarter century of violent methods to transform devoid of resources, a small island in one of the most prosperous countries in the world.How does "the naval base" the UK has become a prosperous capital of the Asian region?

In the history you can often find the phenomena, when many States, districts, resulted from the collapse of the colonial system rise from the ashes like the mythical Phoenix. Let's note some newly industrialized economies (nies), which are the fastest growing in Asia: Taiwan, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, South Korea. Despite complex differences, developing countries have a lot in common that allows us to consider these States as a group of NIS from different waves. There are General goals that reflect the characteristics of cooperation among developing countries (NIS). For example, the solution of such problems as overcoming of backwardness, achievement of economic independence, the development of Economics, social and cultural spheres, gaining equality in the system of contemporary international relations [10]. Prerequisites for the development of new industrialised countries emerged after the Second World war and after the collapse of the colonial empires. The choice was between the capitalist and socialist paths of development. Future NIS chose the first.

Singapore is a city, developed on a marshy islet, somewhat inferior in size to the Kiev and surpassing it in population. In size it exceeds the GNP of Ukraine, about 1.3 times, conceding on this indicator Russia only five times.[1] the First records of Singapore date back to XII century.[1]

Through the city emerged as an important trading port, trade was conducted with China, India and other countries. In the XIII century the city was destroyed. After a long stay in the decadent state in 1819 the British to purchase a base for the English fleet has taken Singapore.[1] during the British colonial rule has increased the importance of Singapore as a center of Sino-Indian trade and free port in South-East Asia. Due to its geographical position it became in the 19th century an important port, coming from India , China, Europe and Indonesia. Since the second half of the nineteenth century the population of Singapore is beginning to grow rapidly, mainly due to the Chinese. In 1867 Singapore is officially considered a British colony. [1]

During the Second world war Singapore was occupied by the Japanese Empire, the occupation lasted from 1942 to 1945. After the war Singapore, remaining a British colony, it gained a great level of self-government.Then there was the merger of Singapore with the Malay Federation in 1963.[1] However, civil unrest and conflict between the party of National Action and National Front of Malaysia has led to the separation of Singapore. 9 August 1965 Singapore became a separate state. At independence, the young state was faced with serious difficulties:

  1. The lack of freshwater sources. This problem causes a great risk of overlap of the pipeline by the Federation of Malaysia, with the hostile mood after the secession of Singapore;
  2. Care British military base;
  3. Development of port facilities;
  4. Food security.

Singapore – the state deprived of resources. Lee Kuan yew thought that the lack of resources had to be compensated by the superiority in intelligence, discipline and ingenuity. Lee Kuan yew called on his compatriots to do what they had never before considered it their duty: first, clean your city, and then, overcome by enmity to the neighbors and their own ethnic divisions, to show everyone an example of excellent work. [1]

After independence in 1965 was created the army of Singapore, supplemented by militia forces in case of a possible attack in Malaysia. [1]

Security in addition to the regular army of Singapore provided the British military presence, it created a sense of security , without which it would be impossible to attract investments to Singapore export of goods and services.[1] And it was the only way to create sufficient number of jobs for employment of graduates , and also helped to prevent mass unemployment. But "protection" from great Britain ceased in the 70-ies of XX century. The loss of income from the content of the British bases in Singapore in 1971 was a blow to the economy of Singapore. They accounted for 20% of GDP, base gave work to more than 30 thousand people directly and another 40 thousand in related industries. [1]

In order to get out of a difficult situation Singapore was in need of investment. The key role played by the government.[1] "We built the infrastructure and well-planned industrial zones, provided the Finance for industrial development, tax and export incentives. The most important was the prudent macroeconomic policies and the establishment of good relations in employment, i.e. the creation of those basics that allow you to work private enterprise.."[1]

For example, in the 1960s because of the size of the internal market and underdevelopment of this country's most developed States did not invest significant capital. Subsequently, the success of American MNCs have prompted the Japanese to produce goods in Singapore for export to the U.S. , then in Europe and later in Japan itself.In 1985, Japanese manufacturers began to relocate their factories with the technology of medium complexity on Taiwan, Korea, Hong Kong and Singapore-the country's first-tier nies. [1] Enterprises with poorly developed technological level in Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia. When they discovered that their investment in these economies first-tier nies gave a higher return than investments in America and Europe, East Asia became the main region of investment activity of the Japanese. [1] Gradually joined the Chinese capital from China and Southeast Asia.[3]

In the beginning of XXI century, Singapore became one of the most advanced States in the region. Singapore in particular is closely linked with China, as in the 90-ies there has been a fourth peak of Chinese migration, which continues to the present time. [3] the Southeast Asian countries remain attractive to migrants due to high rate of economic development are the main areas of concentration of overseas Chinese, forming the overseas Chinese community in the region.[3] Singapore, which in 90-m to year became the most developed, thanks to the Chinese capital from China and Southeast Asia: in 2009, the population of the city – state migrant Chinese accounted for 30% of the population is non-nationals, under the title the majority of overseas Chinese citizens. [3]

It should be noted particularly the support of China, provide for business development representatives of the Chinese community. [3]. For example, the opening exchanges in Singapore, including With the help of Chinese businessmen in the entire region of Southeast Asia , have contributed to the continuous trade. Due to this capital of the overseas Chinese began to grow actively.[3] most of the investments in Southeast Asian countries pass through Singapore banks...Feasible operations are important not only for overseas Chinese and Chinese residents of China working in Southeast Asia , but also for the economic development of States. [4]

These days, many trading on the stock exchange of Singapore implemented through the Chinese Internet.[3] All operations involved in Shanghai, Hong Kong, Malaysia (Hong Kong Banks such as Citibank, ABN-Amro, BNP Paribas; Shanghai: Shanghai Banking; Malaysia: Malayan Banking) [3].

Among the "big four banks of Singapore" is the largest – Overseas – Chinese Banking Cooperation ( OCBC). The Bank was the first of the capitalization Fund with $ 4.8 billion. Since 2000. the Bank was to own several companies and businesses that have formed a banking group OCBC Bank group.[3] in addition, the banking group has a major stake in such companies that work in the areas of financial services: insurance (Great Eastern) and asset management (Lion Global Investors) and brokerage ( OCBC Securities and Bank of Singapore Securities Global Banking).[3, 5]

The Bank's management aims to enter the top three banks in the Singapore - Malaysian market, to stand on a par with the largest banks of Asia Pacific region[3].Feature of the new tactics of Sefa offer approximately is planning joint operations with Islamic banks in Malaysia and Indonesia. [3] the Success of the Sefa offer approximately in foreign markets is confirmed by the fact that the Bank has a branch in Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, China. This Bank has branches in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam. The Agency Bloomberg may 11, 2011 called Sefa offer approximately the most successful Bank in the world. [3]

One of the advanced countries and still faces challenges. [3,6,7]

As you know this island country uses recycled water, desalinated water, and artificial reservoirs to provide its population with drinking water.

Singapore embarked on active territorial expansion - +30% of the territory= the gain of territory, the extension of Maritime boundaries=conflict with Indonesia and Malaysia because of boundary changes.

To be able to retain power and to continue the policy, which was led by the first Prime Minister of this country. [9]

Today Singapore is the embodiment of prosperity to Lee Kuan yew. [8] the Annual income per capita grew from less than 1 thousand dollars at the time of independence to nearly 30 thousand dollars.[1] currently, Singapore is the leader in the field of high technology in Southeast Asia. This country plays a big role in politics [1] and the economies of South-East Asia and beyond.[1,3,5] After the death of Lee Kuan yew all thought that Li Xiang LUN may lose power, but he restrained himself from continuing on the path of his father, with most of the votes of the MHP to his side.[11]

Singapore is a shining example to all the backward States that there is a problem of scarcity of natural resources. What was possible in Singapore and possibly in other countries ready to work actively and seek new niche, attracting investment of foreign partners in the context of dynamic processes of globalization and regionalization. The change in geostrategic map of interests [5] encourage overseas Chinese to look for new "new marsh harbour":Shanghai, Shenzhen, Beihai, etc., which are likely to compete with Singapore in the foreseeable future.

The list of sources

  1. Lee Kuan yew " From third world to first. The History Of Singapore.(1965-2000)" .- Moscow: Publishing house "Mann, Ivanov and Ferber"., 2013.- page 9-69.
  2. A. Ratnikov "State: or as Lee Kuan yew has created a thriving Singapore" -RBC March 23 , 2015
  3. Zahariev J. O. " the Influence of the Chinese community of Southeast Asia in the early twenty-first century." Moscow -2013, pp. 100-138.
  4. Cm. Muradyan, L. V., "peculiarities of the influence of the Chinese communities in Southeast Asia at the beginning of the XXI century" -" Magister Dixit" number1(21). June 2016. Str. 36-40
  5. Zahariev J. O. "the Chinese community of Southeast Asia in the context of growing competition for resources in the region - the" Axis of world politics in the twenty-first century, the intensification of the struggle for resources in Asia and Africa"- M. :Center of strategic conjuncture 2012.-S. 148-149.
  6. Xinhua from 20.05.2015.
  7. Xinhua news dated 13.07.2013.
  8. Straits Times (Singapore), 01.02.2007.
  9. N. P. Maletin ASEAN: Four decades of development: monograph. Mosk. state inst. of Intern. relations (University) of the MFA of Russia, DEP. of Oriental studies. - M., MGIMO-University, 2007. p. 215-222.
  10. E. M. Gurevich "Singapore after the elections after 2006". 10.10.2007. EVRAN.
  11. The Governeurs NY 2011.- p.28-50

Muradyan Lily

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