Out of print new labour former Secretary of state Henry Kissinger's "World order". Already the analysis highlighted here are thoughts. The author underlines the main problems of global geopolitics in the modern period. The conclusion to which he comes, is to update the basic principles of the global geopolitics.
For this major power must return to the policy of balancing forces. But to do this they need to take account of new conditions. With Kissinger as one of the main points remained the leader of America, emphasizing it in different contexts. However, the author analyzes the contradictions observed in global geopolitics, and notes the need to find new organizing rules the world. The crisis is, and you can't deny it. What could be in the future?
The crisis of the world order: what are the reasons?
Question about renewal of geopolitical world order experts discuss for a long time. We can say that the thesis of "the existing system of international relations is experiencing a crisis of" generally accepted. For this reason, at the global level are manifested serious geopolitical contradictions. Another relevant question concerns the existence of each of the major powers own approach to the question of ways out of this situation. Thus, approaches in the U.S., Europe, Russia and China differ from each other. In many cases their position face. It is about agreeing on the fundamental principles of the formation of a new world order.
It is noteworthy that in the America of the problem have a different approach. Here there is a debate between realists and idealists. The main thing that distinguishes them, is the approach to determining fundamental principles. So, realists prefer to achieve America's foreign policy in accordance with the specific situation of balance of power, and idealists – the spread of American values around the world even at the cost of applying hard power. Figuratively speaking, realists tend towards equilibrium, idealists – to the transformations (changes).
Supporters of "real politics" are based on calculations of balance of power and the concept of national interests. In their view, the main participants in the system of international relations should prefer not to impose each other their own interests, and the strategy of creating a balance of power based on free choice with the changing situation.
In recent years, Henry Kissinger said about the synthesis of realism and idealism. For example, analyzing middle East U.S. policy, it recommends that in parallel with the creation of balance of power to take into account the interests and values of the United States. In this sense, American analyst and diplomat writes: "For this you need to reconcile realism and idealism, which are now wsaenetreset each other" (see: Henry Kissinger: Meshing realism and idealism in Syria, Middle East / The Washington Post, August 3, 2012).
In the last book of distinguished diplomat "the World order" (Henry Kissinger. World Order. Penguin Press HC, 432 pages) given the broader analysis of the above problems (see: Jacob Heilbrunn. Kissinger''s Counsel / The National Interest, August 26, 2014). Note that the book is Henry Kissinger had to go out of print on 9 September, while the reviews of it were published earlier.
In the book a large place is given to the contradictions existing in the modern system of international relations. The conclusion to which the author in this regard is as follows: "the Concept of order underlying the modern world, is in crisis" (see: Henry Kissinger on the Assembly of a New World Order / "The Wall Street Journal", August 29, 2014). This crisis arises from the desire of powerful Nations to create a balance of power to the maximum to ensure their own interests. As a result of the discord between the U.S., Russia, China and other super powers are growing. Is senseless arms race.
The way out: a beautiful theory, and the bitter realities
Along with this conflict in different regions are amplified. States prefer democracy, are in a difficult position. In this context, Henry Kissinger cites the example of Afghanistan, paying attention to what is happening in Libya, Syria and Iraq. However, the occurrence of these problems do not have a regional or local factors. Here we have to talk about the global crisis of the fundamental principles of world order. Among them particularly noteworthy is the lack of effective mechanisms for conducting discussions on the most pressing issues of the modern world and of reaching a possible cooperation (see: previous source). You need to change the foreign policy strategy, recognized here as the primary goal the establishment of a balance of power.
Henry Kissinger points to another cause of the crisis of world order. But behind all these arguments is the United States search for new ways to provide global leadership. It is the rod held by the Kissinger analysis. Thus, in particular, the balancing of forces with Russia and China is giving leadership for many years by the Washington, more dynamic content.
Beyond doubt, the attempts of any state to impose its own values, not commendable. For several centuries the USA and Europe follow the principles reflected in the Westphalian agreement, as universal rules in international relations. While other countries perceive it. The fact is that the crisis is now observed these principles is caused by aspiring to world dominance by the West.
For some reason Henry Kissinger is coming to this side of the issue seriously enough. The world was in this state because of the injustices committed by the U.S. in Iraq, a policy for many years held in Afghanistan, the approach to flashing in a particular region of the world conflicts on the basis of double standards, political injustice, etc.
It is obvious that the greatest damage to world order cause, not principles, but their false thinking and disregard of real politics. How, then, can be formed on the global level, the balance of power? Experience shows that currently no major power on it does not think. The US is trying to secure its own interests in the middle East, Russia is trying to implement the same plans for Ukraine, as China is fighting for its interests in the South China sea.
These are realities of modern geopolitics. How good are the chances for the transition from this situation to the policy of balancing that respects mutual interests? No one knows, and Henry Kissinger does not say. For this reason, to solve the small of geopolitical problems, not even the most advanced concepts.
It seems that to find a real solution to the issue of transformation and transition to a new world order at the present stage is not an easy task, because in some cases even leading specialists of the West are hiding the facts, the real objectives of the major powers. They give preference to the geopolitical interests of the governments they represent, and not the principles of scientific analysis.
In the book, in question, Kissinger recognized that such techniques are used in the West since the seventeenth century. In this era European States solemnly declared that the fight for "peace in the Christian land". In fact, their original purpose was to provide stability through a balanced competition (see: Jacob Heilbrunn. Kissinger''s Counsel / The National Interest, August 26, 2014).
What are the targets for today are slogans such as "ensure peace and harmony in the world", "distributed democracy", "I want to bring to the regions stability" etc.? And it is interesting that almost all major powers of the world say the same thing. It is quite possible that this time they're bluffing. They put forward slogans serve for veiling other purposes. That's where does the crisis of world order!
In any case Henry Kissinger to thank. The father of the theory of Realpolitik once again brought to the attention of the readers of the painful issues of geopolitics. Raised in the book he expresses the true purpose of countries led by the USA, aspiring to leadership. One of these questions reads as follows: "we (i.e., USA L. M.) can give to the world alone, what values might spread?". The answer, in our opinion, is obvious.
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