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Features and ways of development of modern international relations
Material posted: Publication date: 11-11-2017

At present, modern international relations are characterized by dynamic development, a variety of interactions and unpredictability. The cold war and, accordingly, the bipolar confrontation is gone. The time of the transition from the bipolar system to the establishment of the modern system of international relations begins with the 1980-ies, during the policies of Mikhail Gorbachev, and it was during "perestroika" and "new thinking".

Currently, in the era of post-bipolar world, the status of the sole superpower – the United States is "the challenge", which suggests that today the number of powers willing to challenge the United States is increasing rapidly. For the moment at least, the two superpowers are the obvious leaders in the international arena and is ready to challenge America - Russia and China. And if to consider the views of Yevgeny Primakov in his book "the World without Russia? What is political short-sightedness", in his predictive estimates of the role of hegemon, the United States will share with the European Union, India, China, South Korea and Japan. [1]

In this context it is worth noting the important events in international relations that demonstrate the formation of Russia as independent from the West country. In 1999, during the bombing of Yugoslavia by NATO forces, Russia defended Serbia, which confirmed the independence policy of Russia from the West. [2]

It is also necessary to mention Putin's speech to the ambassadors in 2006. It should be noted that the meeting of ambassadors of Russia is held annually, but in 2006 for the first time, Putin said that Russia should play the role of a great power, guided by its national interests. [3] a year later on 10 Feb 2007 sounded the famous Munich speech of Putin, which, in fact, is the first candid conversation with the West. Putin had a tough but a very deep analysis of the policies of the West, which led to the crisis system of global security. In addition, the President spoke about the unacceptability of a unipolar world, and now, 10 years later, it became apparent that the United States can not cope with the role of world policeman. [4]

Thus, contemporary international relations are now in transit, and Russia from the time of the twentieth century showed its independent policy, headed by a worthy leader.

Also the trend of modern international relations is globalization, which is contrary to the Westphalian system, built on the idea of relatively isolated and self-sufficient States and the principle of "balance of power" between them. It is worth noting that globalization has been unequal, as the modern world is quite asymmetric, so globalization is a controversial phenomenon in contemporary international relations. It is necessary to mention that the collapse of the Soviet Union is a powerful surge of globalization, at least in the economic sphere, since then actively began to act transnational corporations with an economic interest.

In addition it should be emphasized that the trend of modern international relations is the active integration of countries. Globalization differs from the integration between countries the absence of international treaties. However, it is precisely globalization affects the stimulation of the process of integration as making national boundaries transparent. Development of close cooperation in the framework of regional organizations that started in the late twentieth century is obvious proof of that. Usually at the regional level there is an active integration of countries in the economic sphere, which has a positive impact on the global political process. At the same time, the process of globalization affects the domestic economy countries, because it limits the ability of national States to control their domestic economic processes.

Considering the process of globalization, I would like to mention the words of the Minister of foreign Affairs of Russia Sergey Lavrov, which he spoke in the framework of the forum "Territory": "Now this is the model of globalization, including the economic and financial aspects of this club you have built the so – called liberal globalization, it is now, in my opinion, a fiasco". [5] That is obvious is the fact that the West wants to maintain its dominance in the international arena, however, as noted, Yevgeny Primakov in his book "the World without Russia? What is political short-sightedness": "the US is no longer the sole leader" [6] and it suggests a new phase in the development of international relations. Thus, the objective to consider the future of international relations as not becoming multipolar and polycentric world that is, because the trend of regional associations leads to the formation not of poles and centers of power.

Active role in the development of international relations is played by intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental international organizations and transnational corporations (TNCs), in addition, a great influence on the development of international relations has the appearance of international financial institutions and global trade networks, which is also a consequence of the shift of principles of Westphal, where a single actor in international relations was precisely the state. It is worth noting that TNCs can Express interest to regional unions, as they are focused on optimizing costs and on the creation of a single production networks, therefore, put pressure on the government for the development of regional investment and free trade regime.

In the context of globalization and postbipolar intergovernmental organizations are increasingly in need of reform to make their work more effective. For example, the activities of the UN obviously needs to be reformed, because, in fact, her actions do not bring significant result for the stabilization of crisis situations. Vladimir Putin in 2014 has proposed two conditions for reform organizations: the consistency in the decision on reforming the UN and the preservation of the fundamentals of activities. [7] once again about the need to reform the United Nations, spoke the participants of the discussion club "Valdai" at the meeting with Vladimir Putin. [8] it is Also worth to mention that Yevgeny Primakov said that the UN should seek to increase their influence in addressing issues that threaten national security. Namely, not to grant the right of Veta for a large number of countries, the right should belong only to the permanent members of the UN Security Council. Primakov also spoke of the need for the development of other structures of crisis management, not just of the UN security Council, and considered the benefits from the idea of developing a Charter for action against terrorism. [9]

It is therefore an important factor in the development of modern international relations is an effective system of international security. One of the most serious problems in the international arena is the danger of proliferation of nuclear weapons and other WMDs. Therefore, it is worth to note that during the transition period the modern system of international relations need to enhance arms control. After all, such important agreements as the ABM Treaty and the Treaty on conventional armed forces in Europe (CFE) has ceased to operate, and the conclusion of new and remains in question.

In addition, in the framework of the development of modern international relations is relevant not only to terrorism but also to migration. The migration process affects the development of countries, because this problem affects not only the country of origin but also the country of the recipient, as workers nothing positive for the country's development do not, in General, spreading even wider range of problems such as drug trafficking, terrorism and crime. For solving situation of this nature is used the system of collective security, the UN needs to be reformed, because observing their activities, it can be concluded that regional collective security organizations do not have a consistency not only among themselves but also with the UN Security Council.

Also worth noting is the considerable impact of soft power (soft power) on the development of modern international relations. The concept of soft power by Joseph Nye, means the ability to achieve desired goals in the international arena, without using forcible methods (hard power), and applying political ideology, culture, society and the state, and foreign policy (diplomacy). In Russia the concept of “soft power” appeared in the 2010 pre-election article Vladimir Putin “Russia and the changing world”, where the President has clearly formulated the definition of this concept: “Soft power” - a set of tools and methods to achieve foreign policy goals without the use of weapons, but due to the information and other levers of influence”. [10]

At the moment the most obvious examples of the development of “soft power” is held in Russia in 2014 winter Olympics in Sochi and the FIFA world Cup in 2018 in many cities of Russia.

It should be noted that the concept of the foreign policy of the Russian Federation 2013 and 2016 refers to “soft power”, using tools which is recognized as an integral part of foreign policy. [11] However, the difference between the concepts is the role of public diplomacy. In the foreign policy Concept of Russia 2013 paid great attention to public diplomacy, as it creates a favorable image of the country abroad. A vivid example of public diplomacy in Russia is the establishment in 2008 of the Fund for public diplomacy support named after A. Gorchakov, the main mission of which is "promotion of development of public diplomacy, and promoting the creation of a favourable for Russia, social, political and business climate abroad." [12] But, despite the positive impact of public diplomacy on Russia, in the Russian foreign policy Concept, 2016 no issues of public diplomacy, that seems pretty inappropriate, since public diplomacy is an institutional and instrumental basis for the implementation of "soft power". However, it should be noted that in the system of Russian public diplomacy actively and successfully developing directions related with international information policy, which is a good springboard to improve the efficiency of foreign policy work.

Thus, if Russia is to develop its concept of soft power, based on the principles of foreign policy Concept of the Russian Federation 2016, namely the rule of law in international relations, in an equitable and sustainable world order, Russia on the international arena will be perceived positive.

Obviously, modern international relations, while in transit and evolving in a rather unstable world, will remain unpredictable, however, the prospects of development of international relations with a view to strengthen regional integration and influence centers of power provide enough positive vectors of global politics.

Links to sources:

  1. E. M. Primakov, a World without Russia? What is political myopia.- M: IIK "the Russian newspaper" S-239.
  2. The NATO operation against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1999. – URL: https://ria.ru/spravka/20140324/1000550703.html
  3. Speech at a meeting with ambassadors and permanent representatives of the Russian Federation. – URL: http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/23669
  4. Speech and the following discussion at the Munich conference on security policy. – URL: http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/24034
  5. The modern model of globalization fiasco, Lavrov said. – URL: https://ria.ru/world/20170811/1500200468.html
  6. E. M. Primakov, a World without Russia? What is political myopia. – M.: IIK “Rossiyskaya Gazeta”, 2009. S-239.
  7. Putin: the UN needs reform. – URL: https://www.vesti.ru/doc.html?id=1929681
  8. Look beyond the horizon. Vladimir Putin met with the participants of club “Valdai” international discussion club “Valdai”. – URL: http://ru.valdaiclub.com/events/posts/articles/zaglyanut-za-gorizont-putin-valday/
  9. E. M. Primakov, a World without Russia? What is political myopia. – M.: IIK “Rossiyskaya Gazeta”, 2009. S-239.
  10. Vladimir Putin. Russia and the changing world / / Moscow news. – URL: http://www.mn.ru/politics/78738
  11. Foreign policy concept of the Russian Federation (2013). – URL: http://static.kremlin.ru/media/events/files/41d447a0ce9f5a96bdc3.pdf
  12. Foreign policy concept of the Russian Federation (2016). – URL: https://www.google.ru/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&ved=0ahUKEwi00bSw1LTXAhUKG5oKHR30BmcQFggyMAI&url=http%3A%2F%2Fpublication.pravo.gov.ru%2FDocument%2FGetFile%2F0001201612010045%3Ftype%3Dpdf&usg=AOvVaw3nGv2hrp-IeppZAELw_ZKx
  13. The Gorchakov Fund for the // Mission and objectives. – URL: http://gorchakovfund.ru/about/mission/

Guliants, Victoria


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