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Prospects for international cooperation in countering hybrid threats
Material posted: Publication date: 16-11-2019
In modern literature often referred to the term "hybrid war". It implies, according to experts, complex, accumulates all kinds of modern war phenomenon, but rather, integrated use of traditional instruments for conducting operational-strategic (military special) operations with the aim of providing financial and economic pressure and the reallocation of resources in the territory of another state, and obtaining the moral and psychological advantages for the dissemination and adoption of values and priorities to restart the behaviors of citizens of other countries, initiated through diplomacy, actively funded various humanitarian activities organized at the regional, international level and regularly network, information operations (cyber attacks), including hostilities with the obligatory participation of the armed forces [2].

Moreover, the General A. E. Snesarev strategist foresaw that "future wars will be fought not only with the sword, and by other means, even if someone else – campaigning, devastate the enemy economy, overtaking in the reconstruction of their forces, etc."

The essence of hybrid warfare is the use of military and non-military instruments in the complex, aimed at achieving a surprise attack, seize the initiative and receive psychological benefits used in diplomatic actions, large-scale and rapid information, cyberspace operations, cover and concealment of military and intelligence operations combined with economic pressure. Mostly at the expense of undermining the military and economic potential, information-psychological pressure, the active support of the internal opposition, guerrilla and sabotage techniques. The concept of hybrid wars began to develop, as States pursue cost reduction in the course of achieving military-political goals. Hybrid war often arise where different social groups are fragmented and distant from each other, it can be as different social groups in General and professionals from different areas. They are distanced from each other and their activities and on the basis this can cause misunderstandings, disagreements and conflicts. Hybrid wars can be considered as an information activity or the activity of on influence. It is the actions that affect the ability to analyze and decision making. Such activities are not limited to "information" tool, and involves a combination of different instruments, including diplomatic, economic, military and others. [3]

Hybrid warfare, in the end, involves the use of modern communication technologies, information space, latent network technologies, the involvement of specially trained citizens, paramilitary groups, terrorist groups that may be used in combination with the actions of the armed forces and special units. In this case, the hybrid war are complex, as the source of an organized invasion is not military intelligence, the analytical unit of different departments and very different accumulated driving forces. Direct participants of a hybrid war may be not only different States, but corporations.

Understanding that hybrid threats are acting as leverage, requires a shift from focusing on the real, physical world, where events occur and actions to the conceptual realm, where there is information and communication.[1]

To overcome the economic destabilization and the most effective countermeasures to threats of hybrid warfare, hence, of national security, it is necessary not only to implement effective monitoring that is really necessary, but switch to integrated security. This transition will be adequate and timely response to existing threats of hybrid warfare, due to modern trends of information and technological environment.

One of the important problems in the study and understanding of the phenomenon of hybrid warfare, the development of measures to repel armed, economic, informational and other effects seen the problem of development prospects of international cooperation in combating such warfare. Practical needs dictate the need for research and study of legal regulation of their activities. Relations in the field of hybrid wars at the moment, not regulated by international law because of the difficulty to prove that a hybrid threat was really implemented, and that it had a negative impact on the economic and political situation in the country, otherwise this statement can be perceived as aggression and conflict.

In view of the above international actors must implement a set of activities and measures economic, political, legal, organizational, technical and other measures for the protection, security and anti-hybrid wars.

In the sphere of development of international cooperation in combating hybrid threats, should undertake the following activities:

  • activities to consolidate at the legislative level such concepts as "hybrid warfare" and "hybrid threat";
  • activities aimed at the identification of hybrid threats and their impact on the internal environment of the country.
  • activities aimed at the development of methods to counter the hybrid system risks and threats and hybrid wars.
  • activities aimed at deepening knowledge, awareness or understanding in the field of hybrid wars, educational programs and dissemination of information;
  • activities aimed at the implementation of international law in countering hybrid threats at the domestic level, such as training programmes, and strengthening coordination and cooperation in the process of implementation at the domestic level;
  • activities aimed at facilitating the resolution of disputes at the international level, such as mediation, fact-finding, judicial proceedings and other international dispute settlement procedures;
  • activities aimed at facilitating the resolution of conflicts and ensuring justice and providing technical support to non-governmental institutions, as well as conducting outreach in the field of conflict resolution and justice.

Thus, hybrid wars are a problem, which requires international cooperation on this issue and to adopt comprehensive measures, as relations in this sphere are not regulated by international law and to prove the negative impact of hybrid wars on the economic and political situation in the country difficult. International cooperation in this area can and should be a priority for the development of States, particularly in a situation where the pursuit of information dominance, particularly in matters of national security, is of a hybrid nature, objectively requires legislative consolidation of concepts such as "hybrid warfare" and "hybrid threat" and the development methods of system of countering hybrid threats and risks of hybrid wars.

References

[1] V. K. Belozerov, A. V. Soloviev. Hybrid war in the domestic political and scientific discourse. 2015. Kommersant-Vlast Magazine. P. 8-9

[2] Gerasimov V. V. the experience of Syria / Vladimir Gerasimov // Military industrial courier. – 2016. – No 9 (624). S. 1, 4.

[3] Kiselev, V. A., Vorob'ev, I. N. Hybrid operation as a new form of warfare // Military thought. – 2015. – No 5. – S. 41-48.

 

Emelyanova A. S.


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