Center for Strategic Assessment and forecasts

Autonomous non-profit organization

Home / Politics and Geopolitics / The future of Russia and the world: estimates and projections / Articles
Serbia, Bosnia, Kosovo and Turkey in the light of the revival of Islam in the Balkans. Part one
Material posted: Publication date: 06-12-2013

In the modern media of Serbia the concept of "green corridor", i.e. areas under the control of Islamic fundamentalists, or Salafis has become axiomatic.

Unfortunately, before the so-called "serious" politicians and scientists for decades waved away from truly serious problems, including warnings about the possibility of creating a "green corridor" in the Balkans.

About the possibility of such a corridor in Kosovo and Metohija wrote and talked in the 80-ies of the famous Serbian Islamology Professor at the Sorbonne Miroljub jevtić however, in his book political and military leaders of Yugoslavia 90 years has paid little attention

By and large this was the result of the official social Sciences in the former SFRY were not research, but propaganda and their representatives in a large number of nothing to his own state in Kosovo could not help.

After the end of reforms in Serbia and Kosovo getting independence, political forecasts can be done without representatives of this science.

Now in Serbia often speaks about the fact that Serbia returned to the borders which existed until 1878, and the position of the state with limited sovereignty, which is what it was prior to the entry of Russia into the war against Turkey of 1877-78.

There is no denying that these theses have a right to exist, the more that the resemblance to past complements and smoldering in Kosovo conflict between Serbs and Albanians.

In recent years, this similarity becomes even greater due to the growing scale of the Turkish intervention in political conflicts in the Balkans.

It is indicative that in 2009 the foreign Minister of Turkey Ahmet Davutoglu during his visit to Sarajevo said the following: "...Turkey has a right and interest to influence the order relations in the Balkans, the Caucasus and the Middle East, in order to protect its historical heritage and its own security... We want a new Balkan region based on political values, economic interdependence, cooperation and cultural harmony. These were the Ottoman Balkans. We update these the Balkans". (1)

Really in what way was ruled by the Ottoman Empire shows the so-called "Brow Kula" tower which was built according to the French academician Alphonse de Lamartine fifteen thousand heads of Serbs killed after the victory of the Turks over the Serbs under Chegaram in 1809 (2).

Then the Turks, under whom the Ottoman Empire was understood to be all Muslims, massacred the Serbian population in NIS and its surroundings and the traces of the massacre and captured in the remnant wall of the former towers with 58 skulls still can be seen in the Niche.

In fact, nothing unusual in that there was and the position of the "infidels" the Ottoman Empire was not determined by tribal customs "kafirs", and Islamic law.

On the situation of Christians in the Turkish Empire in the book by L. I. Klimovich "the Book about Koran, its origin and mythology", the quoted "righteous" Caliph Omar from the memo "Kitab al-kharaj (the Book of the kharaj") chief judge Abu Yusuf (731-798) - the work compiled by order of Caliph Harun al-Rashid: "Truly, Muslims will feed on these (zimmies paying to submit) while you're alive; and when we die, and they die then our sons will feed on their sons eternally, as long as you exist, so they will be the slaves of the followers of the Muslim faith, while the Muslim faith will remain dominant" (3).

Nothing in Islam has not changed in relation to incorrect to this day and so the Bishop of Bihacka-Petrovacki Chrysostom of the Serbian Orthodox Church has published on its website a translation of the Greek text, referring to the newspaper "Radikal" from Istanbul about several cases of murders of elderly Christians in Istanbul (4).

These murders are conducted and organized by the same group of fanatics, whose existence was claimed in the Turkish Parliament MP Sabahat Tuncel. Last tied the actions of this group representing the Christians, with the same actions preceding the massacre of Christians 1955 in Istanbul.

With 2002 year at authorities in Turkey is the party "Adalet ve of Kalkinma Partisi" (AKP, the "Party of Justice and Development"), resulting from winning the 1991 election of party "Refah" (Welfare) that openly preaches a return to the values of "pure" Islam or Salafism (al-Salaf AC-salihun-the righteous ancestors) and because it is illogical not to expect a return to such values not only in domestic but also in foreign policy.

In addition to ideological motivations, the growing ambitions of Turkey in the Balkans is due to the growth of its economic power, what is paradoxically an important role is played by the inflow of capitals from Russia. Although the paradox here is relative, because during the Second Greco-Turkish war (1919-1922) the type of assistance that Soviet Russia had saved Turkey from atatürk complete partition between the allies in the Entente.

The growing power of Turkey began to inspire fear and its NATO allies and, according to published on the website Vikelis official documents of the USA, the diplomacy of the United States and European powers have repeatedly expressed concerns about the growing influence of Turkey in Bosnia and Herzegovina and its political ambitions in the Balkans (5).

If Turkey with 70 million population has a 600 strong army, with modern weapons and if States emerged in the former SFRY together with Bulgaria not collected and hundreds of thousands of troops despite the fact that up to ten million from somewhere 35-40 million people represent a potential "fifth column" of Turkey, sooner or later Turkey will try to force to restore its influence in the Balkans.

Now obviously, any armed conflict in Kosovo and Metohija would cause and the interference of Turkey, for there is visible growth of Turkey's influence on events in the Balkans and the experience of Syria shows the form of such intervention.


It is natural that the Turkish intervention in such conditions will contribute to the expansion of the conflict across all the Balkans, including Greece, already unstable. And in Greece is home to a large Albanian community that, in turn, exacerbate relations between Greece and Turkey and can cause armed clashes on the Greek-Turkish border, and in Cyprus.

Such a conflict obviously cannot but affect the Russian Federation's policy towards Serbia, which can not but affect Russian-Turkish relations and is likely to be reflected not only on the political situation in the Balkans but in other regions of the world where the interests of Russia and Turkey, as, for example, in the Caucasus and in the Crimea.

Such a development was quite possible to assume, especially because according to Srdjan Trifkovic (6) in the former Yugoslavia in the 90-ies - the beginning of the new century in full swing by various Islamic fundamentalist organizations has been the creation of so-called "green corridor".

This corridor, however, wrote back in the 80-ies of the Serbian Islamology and Professor of the Sorbonne Miroljub Jeftic (7).

She warned then that "the Islamic Council of Europe" with the centre in London, in 1988 at one of their conventions, as also reported by the Yugoslav newspaper "Struggle" (24 February 1988) denounced Yugoslavia as a country in which Islam is punishable (8).

In "Yugoslav" war of the 90-ies, Jihad, as a concept, for the first time after the two Balkan wars (1912-1913) appeared again in Europe, and in post-socialist Bosnia and Herzegovina in the end of XX century.

The activities of the Islamic fundamentalists in this case was quite revealing, for it meant that the forces behind the rise of the Mujahideen in Bosnia and Herzegovina, its plans to continue the "Jihad" did not refuse, even to the detriment of the local Muslims.

Vlado Azinovic, the author of "al-Qaeda - myth or actual danger" (9) wrote that after the decision was made on the withdrawal of Mujahideen from Bosnia and Herzegovina, after the end of the war in 1995, in mid-January of 1996 about 20 foreigners-the Mujahideen departed from Bosnia and Herzegovina via Croatia. The rest, fearing an ambush Croats, refused to do, staying in Bihac.

Then, about one hundred Mujahideen of foreigners, according to Ajanovic, in groups of 5-10 people the aircraft were deployed from Sarajevo to Istanbul, where many of them supported by the Refah hit the center of the "special" training in the Turkish part of Cyprus. And the remaining two hundred men were deployed to Jalalabad, and from there to Chechnya, with the support of the Turkish intelligence Agency MIT (Millî Istihbarat Teşkilatı).

The other group of 50 Mujahideen was a Turkish military transport plane redeployed from Tuzla airfield Oak forests in Albania (9).

The role of these Mujahideen requires separate consideration, which has been done by the author in the article "the Mujahideen in Bosnia and Herzegovina", published on the website of "Russian folk line". However, it is noteworthy that the same channels are the same organizations "Salafi" and often those same people from their ranks in the 1998-99 year has been in Kosovo, in Albanian "Kosovo Liberation army".


Just Kosovo along with Sangamam and was, according to Srgjan to Trifkovic, an important part of this "green corridor" and so after the withdrawal of the Yugoslav army in Kosovo, in several villages in the Drenica areas, Wet Mountains and Bajgora were created by the "Salafi" communities.

It is significant that Turkey has played an even more important role than in Bosnia and Herzegovina, indicating that its foreign policy assumed a more "Islamic" in nature.

Even the base of the Turkish peacekeepers in Kosovo with the title of "Sultan Murat", that probably should have been perceived as a signal of friendly intent of Turkey to Serbia.

In Serbian media the various analysts as a sensation filed in 2011, the news that Americans base Bondsteel may transfer to the Turks, although the official website of the U.S. army back in 2010 it was written that the base Bondsteel perenosenna Rota Turkish army (10).

Now it is quite clear that the only country that has won on the creation of an independent Kosovo is Turkey, thus obtained a foothold in Europe.

It is obvious that the Kosovo Albanians, also called "siptari", are a tool in foreign policy centers in particular for the establishment of "Islamic green corridor" in the Balkans.

However, the creation of such a corridor cannot be achieved without Sangaku - region in the South of Serbia and North of Montenegro.

Sanjak that serves as a bridge between Bosnia and Kosovo was created by the policy of Turkish authorities in the 19th century, prohibiting the eviction of "Muhajirs", Muslim, fled from the land, came under Serb power, with the border regions with Serbia and Montenegro. Thus there was a region of Sangaku populated by Serbs-Muslims, but it is configured very hostile to the Serbs.

This hostility intensified during the Second World war, when the territory of Sanaka became the site of fierce fighting between a local Muslim militia, created with the support of the Italians, the ballistae Albanian, Serbian Chetniks and Yugoslav partisans.

After a lull in the former Yugoslavia, in the 90 years between Serbs and Muslims in Sangaku began increasing the tension and the Muslims of Sangaku-"sanjali", which had a large colony in Sarajevo, during the war years of 1992-95, which was held in Bosnia and Herzegovina, has played a much more active role than local Bosnian Muslims.

In Sangaku it was founded as the Party of Democratic Action - SDA, representing himself sanaksme branch of the SDA party, whose leader Aliya Izetbegovic and became the head of Bosnia and Herzegovina before the war of 1992-95, in the elections of 1991.

The leader of the SDA in Sangaku Suleiman Ugljanin, with the outbreak of war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, in order to withstand the pressure of Slobodan Milosevic, who "Serbian" Sangaku power he controlled parties SPS and Yul, fled to Turkey. His then colleague Rasim ljajić refused confrontation with Beogradom and after the split with Planina, has created his own social democratic party - SDP.

The aforementioned parties sangakki Muslims SDA Suleiman Ugljanin and the SDP Rasim Ljajic, after the overthrow of Milosevic, becoming part of a new "democratic" authorities, received support from USA.

The then American Ambassador in Belgrade Cameron Munter together with the ambassadors of ten countries and the mufti of Novi Pazar, the New Zukorlic organized a "Caucus meeting" support to Sanjak.

As the power in Singace after the overthrow of Milosevic in 2001 was up to the parties sangakki Muslims, the Serbs were constantly discriminated against them (11).

So in all court proceedings the court decisions generally are taken to the detriment of the Serbs, was carried out the pressure on Serb children by teachers in schools, and if these children openly wore crosses, estimates were underreported, and there have also been cases of physical attacks on children by their classmates-Muslims (11).

The same pressure was made on Serbs in the workplace, particularly for employees of the medical center of Novi pazar.

There were cases when buses with tourists from Serbia had been thrown with stones and local police such cases were concealed.

Since downstream of the river Raska in the direction of the city of raška was the only Serbian village, nothing had been taken, in order to stop discharge of sewage from the New river in Novi Pazar. At the same time, Muslims are required without any documents approved construction of houses and other facilities in Novi Pazar (11).

When in March 2004, during a football match of clubs "Happy" (Belgrade) and "FK Novi Pazar" (Novi Pazar) Novi pazar were clashes between fans of the two clubs, and a significant portion of local Muslims hold on to their fans. Moreover, the local attacked not only by the Belgrade fans, but on the forces of the interior Ministry of Serbia.

An even more important role was played by the local Spiritual administration of Muslims of Sangaku, established in 1993. Caught at the head of his Muamer Zukorlic educated in Algeria and Lebanon, his head considered the head of the Spiritual administration of the Muslims of Bosnia and Herzegovina Mustafa Zurich.

Over time, Zukorlic came into conflict with Planinum, claiming authority over Sangamam, and this conflict escalated after the arrival of the "democratic" government in 2001.

In this new government their posts were not only Ugljanin and Ljajic, but indirectly and Zukorlic, which according to Kineto Morrison (12), as Prime Minister Zoran Djindjic and President Boris Tadic were included in state delegations during diplomatic visits.

This game is aimed at easing "radical" Planina, in practice, led to the emergence of even more radical Zukorlic, while the impact of Ljajic in Sangaku eventually faded away and it ironically happened to be closely associated with Zukorlic, while Zukorlic proclaimed spiritual leader of Muslims of Sangaku "flight" of Bosnia and Herzegovina Mustafa Zurich from Sarajevo.

An attempt to create Spiritual administration of the Muslims of Serbia, led by ADEM Silicem, despite the official support of the Serbian government failed, since Zukorlic refused to recognize the legitimacy of the authorities that the Belgrade mufti, spoke out against the conflict with Belgrade and the Serbs.

Following clashes supporters Silica with supporters of Zukorlic in November 2007 and February 2008 in Novi pazar, Tutin and in Senica, during which he used a firearm, and were both injured, Zilkic in Sangaku was defeated.

However, out of all control Ghounem the administration of Muslims of Sangaku new radicals: in this case, in the face of the Wahhabis, who spoke against Sokolich and established their control over "Arap mosque" in Novi pazar.

April 20, 2007, the gendarmerie and the police of the MUP of Serbia were forced to fight to storm several houses in the village of Donja Tarnava under a New Pazar in Sangaku where he was hiding the leader of the Wahhabis, Ismet Prentic (13).

During the assault, when Prentis and his men used automatic weapons and hand grenades, was injured one employee of the Ministry of internal Affairs of Serbia, whereas Prentic was killed and two other Wahabi - ramovic the Senad and safet Becirovic were taken prisoner (13).

Thereafter, in Singace was arrested 14 Wahhabis, and against them in January 2008 a process was initiated in the court in Belgrade.

However, with the organization of Wahabi Sanjaku the Ministry of internal Affairs of Serbia to end could not. And 28 October 2011 one of the "sangakki" Wahabi Mawlid Jasarevic in the heart of Sarajevo opened fire with a Kalashnikov rifle on the U.S. Embassy in Bosnia and Herzegovina and 50 minutes shot 105 rounds.

As stated later in the trial Jasarevic he shot at the Embassy in order to protest against the continued occupation by the Americans in Iraq and Afghanistan, where they "kill Muslims".

During the trial, which is 6th December 2012 Jasarevic was sentenced to 18 years in prison, it became clear that Jasarevic before the attack repeatedly visited "Wahhabi" village of Donja Maoca under Bychko in Bosnia, whose "Wahhabi" community led by Nusret Imamovic, was closely connected with the Wahhabis of Sangaku (14).

The activities of the Wahhabis helped by the fact that the former socialist security system with its centralism was in Bosnia and Herzegovina destroyed and created under supervision of West new security system was deprived of its former cohesion and discipline and because in many respects it was connected with the interests of the local clans.

The last were closely connected with local Bosnian Bosnian OPG and sangakki Muslims and Kosovo Albanians. Moreover, the dictates of the United States, more and more irritated.

It was obvious that the Wahhabis have strong political support outside of Serbia and other forces in Turkey which could support them, simply did not exist.

Using the influence of the Serbian government, in turn, completely dependent of the US government, by 2010, already most of the political leaders of the Muslims of Sangaku were United by the requirement to provide Sanjaku the status of a separate Autonomous region.

The government of Serbia, dividing the whole of Serbia in 2010, several economic regions, the communities themselves sangaku of Serb-majority - Prepare, Surf and Nova varoš included in the economic region of Sandzak, was, in fact, the bridge between Kosovo and Bosnia.

Thus from the border of Sangaku with Bosnia and Herzegovina to Gorazde, who was in the war of 1992-95, under the control of the army of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and after the war became part of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina there were only two dozen kilometers. (Federation of Herceg-Bosna, an Autonomous education of Muslims and Croats, which is part of Bosnia and Herzegovina along with other autonomy - the Republika Srpska, created by the Serbs).

During the war years on this stretch of Sangaku often attacks against positions of the Serbian army diversionary groups "Muslim" Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina, who enjoyed the support of the Muslims of Sanaka and because the forces of the Bosnian Serbs, were forced to set up minefields on the border with Serbia and with Montenegro in the area of Sangaku.

When the same distance separated the center of Sangaku - Novi Pazar to the border with Kosovo and Metohija and on the way from New Pazar in Kosovo Mitrovica, there was only one small Serbian town of raška.

Raska was the last city on the border with Kosovo, which since 1999 has emerged a relatively large Serbian district, covering the territory of the communities of Leposavic, Zubin Potok, Zvecani, as well as the Northern part of Kosovska Mitrovica and the remaining under the control of the official Belgrade.


Part two:

Part three:


List of sources:

  1. "Turci se vraćaju sebi i - nama". Esad Hećimović. "DANI".Broj 645 (23.10.2009 g.)
  2. "Sharia and its social essence". Kerimov G. M. Moscow. 1978
  3. "Lamartine about 15 thousand skulls in CELA Kula". Rade Rajic. The website
  4. The website
  5. "Vikiliks: Uloga na Balkanu Turske alarmirala Zapad". "Srna" .22. 01. 2011
  6. "The "Green corridor": Myth or reality (Implications of Islamic Geopolitical Designs in the Balkans).Srdja Trifkovic. Chicago, January 2009
  7. "I Šiptari islam" - Miroljub Jeftić, "Grafotomanija", Prnjavor, 1995.
  8. "Modern Jihad Khao Pat". Mirour Jeвтиħ, "Nikola Пашиħ". Beograd.2001
  9. "Al-Kaida u Bosne I Herzegovine-mit ili stvarna opasnost". Vlado Azinović."Slobodna Europa"
  10. "Turkey joins Multi-National Battle Group-East". The official site of the U.S. army . March 19, 2010. By Sgt. 1st Class Michael Hagburg, 166th Public Affairs Detachment
  11. "Iceave Srba from the Raska region". Zoran M. Aniii. Nova Srpska politicka misao".The website
  12. "Political and Religious conflict in the Sanžak". Kennet Morrison. April 2008. Defence Academy of the United Kingdom.
  13. Ubijen vođa terorista Ismail Prentić."Večerni novosti". 20. april 2007.
  14. "Jašarević osuđen na 18 godina zatvora zbog napada na ambasadu SAD". Dnevni Avaz. 06. 12. 2012


RELATED MATERIALS: Politics and Geopolitics
Возрастное ограничение