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Siberia in the geopolitical designs
Material posted: Publication date: 15-11-2014

We agree that under the geopolitics we will understand accepted among geographers definition: "...the theory and practice of state foreign policy, based on the maximum geographic factors" [1, p. 509]. In our study synthesized such areas as academic, traditional, regional, applied (geo-strategy), critical (including antihemolytic) geopolitics, military geography, geo-Economics (as a form of control over space and countering), because they contribute to a broader view of Siberia to Western geopolitical designs.

We consider Western geopolitical thought of the XXth century, originated in the USA and Europe. Under Georgia Siberia we understood the contours of the Eastern macro-region.

The share of this region from all over Russia are huge reserves of resources (water, forests, minerals, recreation), undeveloped territory. In the area there are various businesses, producing goods of strategic purpose and its components, relevant experimental sites, sources of cheap electricity. Ethnic mosaic living in the territory of Siberia contributes to the development of passionate, cultural and demographic potentials. Their Rea-zation in the post-industrial era will ensure natural growth of the population and in the economic sector will contribute to the output of competitive products on the world market.

By the end of XX century on the political map of the world formed by the following trends: the migration of market capital and production to the East; the formation of economic and political vacuum in the countries of the former Soviet Union (the process is not over in Central Asia); the decreasing role of Europe in international processes; the rise of the Asia-Pacific region – the new Bastion of the world economy; the rapid growth of China, claiming to be the hegemon in the world. Against the background of these trends in spatial respect, Russia occupies an intermediate position, a large part of its territory borders on geopolitically important countries; and great wealth, neapolitanische lands and "Russian mismanagement" stir up the interest of geopolitical rivals of Russia to Siberia.

Statesmen of the United States of America Madeleine Albright and Condoleezza rice spoke openly about the expansionist intentions towards Russia. First credited with the phrase that Siberia is a property of all world community and the Northern sea route should not belong to Russia; the second claimed that "Russia poses a threat for the West in General and to our European allies in particular" [2].

So Siberia is not only a springboard for entering into Asia, but also a place of economic, political, territorial claims of various actors. Fighting for the Arctic, Russia, Norway, USA, Canada, Denmark. In the East Japan claims on the Kuril Islands. China exerts a powerful pressure (demographic, economic, crime) in the border territory of the Russian Federation, some of which already went to China (the island of Tarabarov and half of island Big Ussuriisk). In the South – the threat of radical Islam, terrorism and drug trafficking; and increased nationalism in Mongolia and Kazakhstan may lead to the formation of a new discourse, and eventually territorial disputes: the first country believes that it historically belongs to the Baikal, and the second country (also historically) is part of the Omsk region. In the industrial sector, particularly raw materials and energy, there is a struggle among foreign and domestic businessmen for control of the shares of leading companies.

The lack of the proper application of regional policy to the regions of Siberia, the construction of relations based on the "metropolis – colony" contribute to the emergence of separatist sentiment and the negative perception of the capital in separate regions of Siberia, such as Tyumen, Omsk, Novosibirsk, Tomsk, Kemerovo, Irkutsk region, Krasnoyarsk and Altai Krai. In the history of Russia this phenomenon, it was the place to be, and not without participation of external forces. So, at the end of the nineteenth century arose Siberian regionalism, called for the disconnecting of the country Siberia from Moscow during the Civil war Omsk was proclaimed A.V. Kolchak the third capital of the Russian Empire, two years lasted far Eastern Republic. After the collapse of the Soviet Union of the RSFSR attempted to exit the Republic of Yakutia, Buryatia, Altai, Chukotka and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous district, Irkutsk region. Such movements continue into the present time.

It is obvious that geocore Zauralye felt the pressure from all sides by various forces, which may lead to different variants of development of events – for example, to change the status of Siberia. Study of the mechanism of action of geopolitical structure, its spatial interpretation facilitate the identification of hypothetical lines "fault" of Siberia, and consequently, to finding the right solutions to reduce the destabilising potential.

We convincingly proved: first, geopolitical design is a generic term, which refers to the created object in the geopolitical picture of the world. Such an object can act as theoretical calculations (new ideas, concepts), and applied elements of changing geopolitical space, based on the power of the state (geopolitical potential). [3].

Secondly, the species should distinguish between ideological and geopolitical strategic designs, which are characterized by the following properties:

1) scale:

a) project – global (Hartland), regional (Leyland) and local (Kosa Tuzla);

b) their implementation – at the macro, meso, micro levels;

2) durability – resistance to degradation or countermeasures;

3) reliability – ability to function over time;

4) flexibility – the ability of an object to respond appropriately to geopolitical changes [3].

It is obvious that the strategic geopolitical design has practical importance, as a result of their implementation is to change the structure of geopolitical potential of the state or region; in other words, there is a growth or partial regression of the potential subsystems (the power of the state). Therefore, there is a transformation of the geopolitical code and the transformation of the geopolitical architecture of the world. Geographical interpretation in this case will be:

  1. The shift in the boundaries of endemic field;
  2. Moving in the hierarchy of the world;
  3. The designation of new "faults" of the territory.

The most famous among the policymakers is the design of the heartland that at the macro level is, in fact, the planetary model of the location of the global forces. Due to the fact that over time changed the criteria to highlight the center of the earth, and moved its contours, which now coincide, as is commonly believed, with the borders of the Russian Federation (the meso level).

The working principle of the foreign policy doctrines of the US in the geopolitical space is a quite accurate algorithm. It was implemented in three areas: global coverage of Eurasia, regional development of separatism in the countries, controlled by Moscow, and the study of military geography of the USSR. To control the heartland of the USA had consistently under its influence remote and then the adjacent territory: Western and Eastern Europe, republics of the Soviet Union. In practice, this was implemented in the second half of the twentieth century.

In the XXI century defined new base of influence on Russia – Central Asia, and is built in the form of algorithm of U.S. foreign policy, apparently, will be aimed at destroying the Russian Federation. But, unlike the previous era, in the world formed a multi-polar world; and thus, a unilateral approach without taking into account internal conditions within the Russian space and the influence of foreign policy of other countries is impossible. Geopolitical aspirations of the United States, partly offset [4].

A study of the heartland at the micro level is the definition of inner strength. In the Soviet Union internal heartland was a single zone (Central Volga-Baikal) [7]; after the formation of the Russian Federation – unrelated fragments in the form of certain entities (Tyumen region) [6,8].

In the works are a few map images, the maps show the ranking values of indicators (GDP, population, etc.) by region. Their approach is not quite correct, or rather it would be to find a common factor. In this connection, the author of this study proposes a factor of geopolitical stability in the region (formula 1). For the calculation of the intermediate indexes used statistical data of Russian regions for the year 2011 the data obtained was constructed a schematic map (figure 1).


(1)

where Ku – coefficient of resistance,
EC – economic index,
CPC – index transport and communications infrastructure,
KEK – ecological index
KD – demographic index,
N – number of terms in the multiplier
The data obtained was constructed a schematic map (figure 1).



Figure 1. Differentiation of regions of Siberia according to the degree of geopolitical stability

On the map image clearly shows the formation of the inner belt of the heartland of several subjects of the Asian part of Russia (Krasnoyarsk Krai, Novosibirsk and Kemerovo oblasts, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous area). To their values approach Altai territory, Omsk and Irkutsk region. Practically, this means that the centre of power of Russia located in its geographic center. It is obvious that there is a transformation of the domestic heartland.

Most volatile entities – the Republic of Gorny Altai, Republic of Tuva, Republic of Khakassia, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Jewish Autonomous oblast, Kamchatka Krai, Magadan and Amur region. It is logical to combine these entities into regions based on geographical closeness: South, North-East, South-East (figure 1).

Maximum geopolitical instability of the southern regions of Siberia is explained by the theory of "force fields". Briefly recall its essence: a powerful state is a geopolitical engine that generates momentum. At the intersection of these pulses are formed buffer States to avoid direct conflict [5, 9, 10]. The history of our state illustrates this idea: it is in the West of the Russian Empire, there were military clashes. The interaction of Russia with other powers in the historical context examined in detail I. V. Zeleneva [5].

Education southern instability in Siberia occurred under the forces of four countries (Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia). Of particular importance is the Altai mountains because of its geostrategic position. Republic is a geopolitical site, because it borders with three countries. The construction of the pipeline "Altai" will only strengthen this position, therefore, to "Wake up" a potential source of conflict.

Education northeastern maximum geopolitical instability due to geographic factors: geographic remoteness and adverse weather conditions. Apparently, this is geotree military-political methods. Socio-economic integration of the region into the Russian area is not completed.

Thus, our proposed method of calculating the factor of geopolitical stability in the region leads to the conclusion that in the second decade of the twenty-first century has seen the formation of a single inner belt of the heartland.
The barriers to unification are: pressure on the Russian border regions of the States; geographic determinism; the United States attempts to implement the concept of the "week of enslaved Nations".

The last statement is proved by the increase in separatist tendencies in Siberia. In years past (after the "parade of sovereignties" in the 90s of the last century) there were attempts of Siberia to separate from Russia. Recorded creation of the Siberian language with the purpose of formation of information and cultural Foundation for national self-determination; was formed the so-called Siberian sovereign Union, etc.

However, most of the population has no idea about their language and does not seek to secede from Russia, although dissatisfied with the socio-economic situation in the regions, because the economy rests on the export of raw materials, profits from which are deposited in Moscow and St. Petersburg. Here you have more opportunities to receive better education, access to innovative innovations and also to get employed at a high-paying job. This causes the outflow of young people in the centre of the country. In the end, creating preconditions not only for the formation of regionalism, but also for the perception of ideas about the possible loss of the Eastern territories under Chinese, Japanese and American management.

Thus, the theme of Siberia in geopolitical thought is not revealed directly, it was addressed in the context of geopolitical analysis of the entire state. However, geopolitical concepts such as heartland, the "geopolitical code", "Europe from Dublin to Vladivostok", "Week of enslaved Nations", "world-system", "clash of civilizations", "clash of globalization and regionalization", applicable to Eastern macro-region.

 

Pisarenko S. In

 

Sources

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  7. D. Hooson A New Soviet Heartland?/ D. Hooson. - London-Toronto-N. Y.: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc. (Canada), 1964. – R. 132.
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