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Transformation of American-European relations under the influence of the Russian factor in the context of the Ukrainian crisis
Material posted: Publication date: 15-11-2015
Today the system of international relations is undergoing structural changes. Strengthening of new centers of power in the continuing trend of weakening global Western world order forcing the transformation towards greater multipolarity. Actors of world politics have to adapt to new international conditions.

Thereupon scientific interest represents research of evolution of the American-European relations in connection with the big importance of transatlantic interaction in the course of change of structure of modern system of the international relations.

The American-European relations test on themselves pressure of the several external factors one of which, certainly, is the Russian influence on transatlantic partnership. The work urgency increases in view of that in the light of the Ukrainian crisis and begun limited structural confrontation in relations between Russia and the West influence of the Russian factor creates additional preconditions for an intensification and transformation of the American-European relations.

Theoretical bases of research

Work has complex theoretical character. Research is conducted with use of theories of neo-realism and neoliberalism. Application of two theories is necessary for a universal estimation of influence of the Russian factor on the American-European relations. Theories are applied consistently.

In the estimation of the international relations and influences of Russia on transformation of transatlantic relations neorealists focus attention on value of the factor of distribution of forces.

The neo-realism interprets the decision of the USA and their allies on inclusion as full members of the countries of Baltic and TSVE in the international institutes as aspiration not to admit the Russian returning to Europe. [1] West has been interested not so much in strengthening of military and economic power of the NATO and EU at expansion of the western institutes on the East, how many in filling of the territorial geopolitical vacuum which has arisen after the termination of Cold war, dissolution OVD and disintegration of the USSR. The open door policy of the NATO, the program of preparation for membership in the Alliance and EU have been directed on achievement of this purpose.

The American participation in the European energy dialogue and influence on the European position in a question of the Russian-European energy relations, apologists of neo-realism consider as attempt of Washington to reduce influence of Russia on Europe by means of reduction of the European energy dependence on the Russian Federation.

From the point of view of the neo-realism theory, Russia began to represent for the West a call of revisionist power, [2] as it, having disagreed to become the younger partner of the USA and EU, tries to challenge the international order formed after the termination of Cold war so that to consolidate the right to make decisions on the questions infringing on its national interests. Therefore and the USA it is necessary for Europe to apply common efforts on restraint of the Russian Federation. [3]

Neoliberalism about the Russian factor in transformation of transatlantic relations

Expansion of EU and the NATO on the East, from the point of view of supporters of the theory of neoliberalism, was distribution of the western order on the new countries which integration into the Western world strengthened an in the lead role of the USA and Europe in the international community.

Besides, apologists of the theory of neoliberalism paid attention to interest of the West in involving of Russia in the international institutes as considered that participation of the Russian Federation in them will allow to integrate it into the western order. [4]

The main thing in an estimation of the Russian factor in transformation of the American-European relations, from the point of view of the neoliberalism theory, is the characteristic of perception of the USA and Europe internal development of Russia. [5] from it will have what properties, the foreign policy of allies concerning the Russian Federation in the course of which carrying out the American-European partnership invariably gets new forms and contents depends.

For neoliberals the condition of democracy and human rights are key indicators at an estimation of internal development of Russia. [6] therefore the policy of allies has been directed on formation of the Russian Federation by the legal and democratic state in which basis there is a strong civil society. Thus the purpose pursued by the West, according to neoliberalism, consisted in fastening of irreversible character of liberal and market transformations to Russia. [7]

The neoliberalism theory sees the reason of aggressive behaviour of Russia on international scene in the termination of the further liberal transformations and strengthening of authoritative tendencies in the country. Authoritative Russia, from the point of view of neoliberals, represents a call I Will sink down, as the policy conducted by undemocratic Russia, undermines developed liberal economic and political order, to defend which allies intend.

Transformation of the American-European partnership under the influence of the Russian factor in focus of the theory of neo-realism

Influence of the Ukrainian crisis on political-military interaction of allies

Succession of events in the Ukrainian crisis has forced the USA and Europe more attentively to concern the cooperation in the area of the NATO. The retaliatory measures undertaken by an alliance as reaction to behaviour of Russia in Ukraine, promoted formation of new forms of interaction of allies in military sphere.

The Russian factor in development of the Ukrainian crisis has included again a problematics of necessity of safety of the states entering into the military block in the agenda of allies. Conviction of Poland and the countries of Baltic in existence of threat of their safety from Russia, their doubt concerning reliability of guarantees of the USA on protection of new member countries of the Alliance promoted a hardening of a position of the NATO concerning the Russian Federation. According to the total declaration of the Welsh summit of the NATO «aggressive actions of Russia against Ukraine» are the main call of the European safety, surpassing the threats which are starting with region of the Near East and the North Africa. [8] allies want to see the NATO as the guarantor of maintenance of stability, the world and freedom in Europe in changing international conditions.

Considering long-term character of consequences of the Ukrainian crisis, allies on the North Atlantic alliance have considered necessary to stop practical civil and military cooperation with Russia. The NATO has confirmed adherence to following to the decision accepted at the summit of Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the Alliance in Antalia in 2015 [9]

Influence of the Russian factor has suspended a tendency of reduction of the American military presence at Europe. In short-term prospect the primary goals of the transatlantic union in a question of reaction to the Russian actions in Ukraine steels of action for battle readiness and defensive capability strengthening both separate member countries, and the military block as a whole. Allies intend to increase presence air-force, overland and the Navies on NATO eastern frontier.

Behind aspiration of the USA to expand and deepen military cooperation with Europe at the moment of the deepest Intraeuropean conflict after the termination of Cold war it is necessary to induce intention of Washington the European allies to increase expenditure for defence. The NATO summit in the Wales, has reaffirmed determination member countries to finish defenᥠbudgets to two percent of gross national product the next ten years.

Though among the European allies of the USA on the NATO of the countries-supporters of increase in military budgets not so it is a lot of, rallying of NATO member states round scale military preparations is capable to compensate for the deficiency productivity of activity of the block in strategic sphere.

One more display of influence of the Russian factor on transformation of communications in the transatlantic union in military sphere is the tendency of an intensification of interaction of the North Atlantic alliance and some neutral and vneblokovyz the countries of Europe. Speeding up by the North Atlantic alliance of the measures aimed at integration of Sweden and Finland in political-military cooperation of allies, focuses attention as West public, and all international community that the feeling of safety is absent as at NATO member states, and other states of Europe which are in immediate proximity from the Russian Federation.

In the light of the Ukrainian crisis and influence of the Russian factor on two-way communications of allies the North Atlantic alliance has continued to deepen interaction with the post-Soviet territory countries, in particular Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia in an exchange question military experience and reforming of their armed forces.

Returning of a problematics of membership of Ukraine in the North Atlantic alliance became a direct consequence of the Ukrainian conflict and new structural confrontation of Russia and the West. «The question of official occurrence of Ukraine in the NATO has ceased to be a starting point of the future relations Russia - the West, it became derivative of the future of these relations», [10] - Dmitry Danilov writes.

Transformation of the American-European partnership under the influence of the Russian factor in focus of the theory of neoliberalism

Influence of the Ukrainian crisis on a policy of the Euroatlantic community in a question of integration of Russia in the international organisations and associations

In the conditions of the Ukrainian crisis the foreign policy approach of the West concerning Russia in a question of involving of Russia in the international institutes and the Euroatlantic structures has cardinally changed. The USA and Europe have departed from a policy of integration of Russia in the western organisations because in their opinion the aggressive behaviour of the Russian Federation on international scene is completely unacceptable. The course on involving in the international institutes and attraction of the Russian Federation to intensive dialogue with the West has been changed to a line of gradual isolation of Russia and reduction of interaction with it.

Punishment of the Russian Federation provided the whole set of measures. However, in absence of possibility of direct use of rigid force of compulsion to correct behaviour on international scene, the arsenal of possible retaliatory measures of reaction of the West on the Russian aggression was narrowed to diplomatic and economic means.

The joint position of allies has found the reflexion in the decision on an exception of the Russian Federation from club G8. Under the aegis of the USA the countries of the big seven boycotted summit G8 planned for May, 2014 in Sochi. * [11] «Russia de facto it has appeared excluded of G8 - a forum on which it did the big rate earlier as the indicator of the presence (let at all always equal in rights) among the most influential states of the world», [12] - is written by Pavel Smirnov.

The generality of positions of the USA and EU also was showed in the decision on acceptance of economic sanctions concerning Russia.

Involving strategy is directed now on consolidation of allies and associate with them of is westernized orientated countries while Russia remains outside the limits of this process.

The Ukrainian crisis and political mode in Russia

The characteristic of a discourse in transatlantic community about what policy is necessary for conducting concerning Russia.

Adherents neorealistskoj and neoliberal schools of the international relations differently treat genesis of the Ukrainian conflict and the reason, standing up for aggressive behaviour of the Kremlin on international scene. In this connection, they offer various strategy of behaviour of the West in a question of designing and an implementation of a policy concerning Russia.

Neorealistsky representation

Neorealists are convinced that threat for the Russian national safety from the possible introduction of Ukraine into the NATO became the reason to start the conflict in Ukraine. «The Russian political establishment considers that the country will never be in a security status if Ukraine enters the NATO or becomes a unit of hostile Euroatlantic community», [13] - mark Dmitry Sajms and Grem Allison. Arguments of neorealists are reduced to that that, responsibility for the beginning of the Ukrainian crisis lies on the USA and Europe which systematically expanded the sphere of influence by means of involving of the countries TSVE in the NATO and EU and post-Soviet territory democratisation, thus threatening safety of the Russian Federation.« It is possible to carry to the reasons of the Ukrainian crisis - expansion of the NATO which became a core of more large-scale strategy on deducing of Ukraine from the Russian orbit and its integration with the Western world; EU expansion on the east and support by the West of prodemocratic movement in Ukraine, since «orange revolution» 2004 », [14] - writes John Mirshajmer. Ignoring by the West of interests of Russia, from the point of view of neorealists, also has provoked the Russian aggression in Ukraine, embodied in joining of the Crimean peninsula and informal support of civil guardsmen in the Southeast of Ukraine.

Neorealists do not aspire to change a political mode in the Russian Federation. Character of a mode in Russia, from the point of view of supporters of the theory of neo-realism, had no, has no, and will not have crucial importance at acceptance by a political management of Russia of the decisions directly mentioning national safety of the country. Reaction both democratic, and authoritative Russia, according to judgements of neorealists, on threat of its safety from the outside will have in proportion aggressive character.

Neorealists underline that aggravation of confrontation with Russia can lead to the confrontation beginning between Russia and the West which will cause the beginning of the Third world war. «The Ukrainian conflict is a hybrid war which the USA and EU cannot win, and Russia to lose, while the USA will not want to begin war independently. There are three key factors which can aggravate the conflict before direct military opposition: decision-making in Russia, the politician of Russia and dynamics of the Russian-American relations», [15] - underline Dmitry Sajms and Grem Allison.

Neorealists see the crisis decision in the conclusion of the transaction from the Russian Federation in this or that form. For example, the West could guarantee nevstuplenie Ukraine in the NATO. [16] however achievement of the agreement of the West with Russia across Ukraine, should not interfere with carrying out mentioned above a strategic line on rejection of the Russian Federation and protection of an existing balance of power.

According to neorealists, recently Russia is that centre of force which is capable to threaten the West. Russia began to represent for the West a call of revisionist power, [17] as it, having disagreed to become the younger partner of the USA and EU, tries to challenge the international order formed after the termination of Cold war so that to consolidate the right to make decisions on the questions infringing on its national interests.

Therefore, neorealists consider that the USA and Europe it is necessary to develop long-term strategy on rejection of Russia as the Russian Federation aspires to change an existing order in Europe. The West purpose in confrontation with Russia consists not in changing the Russian mode, and in to admitting change of structure MO in Europe. It is connected by that if Russia will gain upwards in Ukraine its victory will change a structure of international relations and an existing balance of power. And if Russia changes game rules Europe becomes bipolar. Aspiring not to admit this scenario, the West in every way opposes to the revisionist policy of the Russian Federation.

Neoliberal vision

Neoliberals insist on necessity of restraint of Russia. As, from their point of view, authoritarianism of an operating political mode represents a call and threat to the West to the Russian Federation.

Neoliberals believe that the conflict reason in Ukraine is aggressive ekspansionistskaja policy V.V.Putin caused by preservation of an undemocratic mode in Russia. Neoliberals insist that the Ukrainian crisis is a fault of particularly first person of the Russian Federation. «Matter is not in Russia, the NATO and realism, and in Putin and its boundless, unpredictable adventurism», [18] - is convinced by Michael Makfol. V.V.Putin, from their point of view, pursuing the objective collecting of the former imperial territories, aspires to new seizures. [19], [20]

Therefore, according to representations of neoliberals, the West it is necessary to replace a mode in the Russian Federation to resolve the conflict in Ukraine and to transform foreign policy of the Russian Federation towards it bolshej flexibility and predictability. «The call for the West consists in how to cope with it sharply enough, to stop Putin, and is simultaneously accurate enough not to admit the further escalation of crisis», [21] - Michael Makfol complains.

Neoliberals suggest not to make a compromise across Ukraine, to continue a policy of advancement of democratic values on the post-Soviet territory, and also to integrate Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine into the Euroatlantic structures. «The USA and EU declare that they defend democracy, human rights, the European values. In this case, they should advance actively them worldwide, and especially, in those regions on which Russia can extrapolate the influence and which it can absorb», [22] - Alexander Motyl writes.

Thereupon it is necessary to notice that Europeans and, first of all, Germans, not completely divide idea of the American neoliberals about mode change in Russia. «The long-term objective of foreign policy of Germany remains: support of stability and prosperity in Europe. It is impossible and to try further“ to help Russia to become similar to us ”», [23] - marks Shtefan Majster. Being from the Russian Federation on one continent, they are afraid of chaos on the east boundaries and strengthenings of uncertainty of world politics as a whole.

The Ukrainian crisis and strengthening valuable components of the American-European partnership

Last decade, and especially in two administrations of J. Bush-younger, in the Euroatlantic community often spoke about valuable delimitation of the USA and Europe. Robert Kejgan, describing sights of Europe and the USA at key international questions, has metaphorically compared their distinction to an accessory of Americans to a planet Mars, and Europeans to a planet Venus. [24] it is valid, at the USA and Europe different representations about the sovereignty, criterion use of military force, approaches to democratisation etc.

However in the light of the Ukrainian crisis, valuable distinctions between America and Europe have smoothed out and have left on the second plan in their bilateral interaction. The West has demonstrated unity of valuable representations that perekraivanie borders in Europe cannot occur by means of annexation by one state of a unit of other state.

Actions of the Kremlin in Ukraine still have in a greater degree undermined developed after the termination of Cold war the international order, [25] forms both which outlines the USA and EU methodically built throughout all last years. The West has faced an unprecedented call which began to threaten its basic values. Thereupon the USA, EU and the countries of Europe considered as the debt to unite the efforts against authoritative and aggressive Russia.

In 2014 in the conditions of the Ukrainian crisis and the begun limited structural confrontation between Russia and the West Europe and the USA have opposed itself and the western values against Russia and V.V.Putin's values.

Influence of the Russian factor promoted strengthening of a valuable component of the American-European partnership. In this connection, it is necessary to notice that Russia has helped the West to realise the valuable generality anew. [26]

In the Euroatlantic community the tendency conducting towards revival of the uniform and solid West became appreciable. «Crisis in Ukraine has shown that the USA still divide common interests and the general values with Europe. These interests and values are the most easier for advancing and defending, if both parties of Atlantic recognise that they need in each other if both parties of Atlantic are ready to work together», [27] - writes Politico.

EU and the USA have shown transatlantic solidarity concerning Russia, proceeding from the valuable representations about what should be rules of behaviour of the states on the world scene what should be architecture of the European safety, post-Soviet territory geopolitics.

Conclusion

Influence of the Russian factor on transformation of the American-European relations has complex character. The USA and Europe alter elements of the partnership, advancing and defending the vision of the Euroatlantic space in the course of adaptation both to and to new international conditions, and to calls proceeding from Russia.

Russia represents an indisputable call for the Euroatlantic community as in representation of neorealists, and neoliberals. (It is necessary to underline once again that representatives of two theories differently see the conflict reasons in Ukraine; and ways of an exit from it; a character of the threat of Russia for allies)

In the light of the Ukrainian crisis under the influence of the Russian factor the American-European relations have got following new forms and contents:

  • Political-military rallying of the USA and Europe in the face of the Russian threat was distinctly showed;
  • Actions of the Russian Federation in Ukraine have confirmed expediency of existence of the North Atlantic alliance in new international conditions. The call from the Russian Federation for the Euroatlantic community in the Ukrainian conflict has aggravated necessity of safety of NATO member states.

The USA and Europe have realised again the valuable generality that has led to revival of the uniform and solid West. Reaction of the Euroatlantic community to actions of Russia has reflected unity of perception in Ukraine the West of behaviour of the Russian Federation as unacceptable.

***

It is possible to assume that further, allies will perceive sensitively also behaviour of Russia on international scene. Occurrence of new forms and contents of allied communications will be caused by what call will be represented by Russia for the USA and Europe to the concrete moment of time.

Sources

  1. EU-US Summit Joint Statement. Official site of the European External Action Service. Brussels 26. 03.2014
  2. URL: <http://www.eeas.europa.eu/statements/docs/2014/140326_02_en.pdfStoltenberg>
  3. Stoltenberg <http://www.eeas.europa.eu/statements/docs/2014/140326_02_en.pdfStoltenberg> J. Press Conference by NATO Secretary General following the meetings of NATO Foreign Ministers in Antalya. 5/14/2015 URL: <http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/opinions_119432.htm>
  4. Wales Summit Declaration. Issued by the Heads of State and Government Participating at the Meeting of North
  5. Atlantic council in Wales, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 05.09. 2014
  6. URL: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_112964.htm

Periodic sources

  1. Politico. The Ukrainian Crisis Highlights Flaws in EU-US Ties. 3/19/2014
  2. URL: http://www.politico.eu/article/ukraine-crisis-highlights-flaws-in-eu-us-ties/

The literature

  1. Boguslavsky JU.K. The NATO after the Crimean crisis: alternatives of alliance URL: <https://www.academia.edu/9713251/>
  2. Goldgejr J., Makfol M.Tsel and means: a policy of the USA concerning Russia after Cold war. 2009
  3. Danilov D.A. Ukraine: extrabloc transit. RSMD. 2/9/2015 URL: http://russiancouncil.ru/inner/?id_4=5228#top <http://russiancouncil.ru/inner/?id_4=5228>
  4. Kejgan R.Sila and weakness. Pro et Contra. Т.7., №4, 2002. 127-157
  5. Majster S.Kak Russia has lost Germany. And as it can return it. Russia in the global policy. 2/19/2014. URL: <http://www.globalaffairs.ru/number/Kak-Rossiya-poteryala-Germaniyu-17308>
  6. Mirshajmer John. Why the West is guilty in crisis in Ukraine. Russia in the global policy. №4, 2014 05. 09.2014 URL: <http://www.globalaffairs.ru/number/Pochemu-Zapad-povinen-v-krizise-na-Ukraine-16921>
  7. Smirnov P. E of the USA, the NATO and prospects of "the Big Europe» in the light of crisis in Ukraine. The USA-Canadas. Economy, a policy, culture. №12, December 2014. С.3-20 URL: <http://www.ebiblioteka.ru/browse/doc/43124821>
  8. Aggarwal V, Govella K. Responding to a Resurgent Russia: Russian Foreign Policy and Responses from the European Union and the United States. 2012, pp. 125-139
  9. Allison G, Simes D. Russia and America Stumbling War. Could an U.S. response to Russia’s actions in Ukraine provoke a confrontation that leads to an U.S.-Russian war? The National Interest. 4/20/2015
  10. URL: <http://nationalinterest.org/feature/russia-america-stumbling-war-12662Kissinger>
  11. Kissinger <http://nationalinterest.org/feature/russia-america-stumbling-war-12662Kissinger> H. To settle the Ukraine crisis, start at the end. The Washington Post. 3/5/2014
  12. URL <http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/henry-kissinger-to-settle-the-ukraine-crisis-start-at-the-end/2014/03/05/46dad868-a496-11e3-8466-d34c451760b9_story.html>:
  13. I. Russian Revisionism: Putin's Plan For Overturning the European Order. Foreign Affairs. 3/3/2014. URL: <http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/140990/ivan-krastev/russian-revisionism>
  14. Latawski P. Central Europe and European Security. In: Park W., Rees W. Rethinking Security in Post-Cold-War Europe. pp. 81-95
  15. McFaul M., Sestanovich S., Mearsheimer J. Faulty Powers: Who Started the Ukrainian Crisis. Foreign Affairs. Vol. 93. Issue 6. November/December 2014 URL: <https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/eastern-europe-caucasus/2014-10-17/faulty-powersMotyl>
  16. Motyl <https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/eastern-europe-caucasus/2014-10-17/faulty-powersMotyl> A. Sources of Russian Conduct: The New Case for Containment. Foreign Affairs. 11/16/2014 URL: <https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/russian-federation/2014-11-16/sources-russian-conductSinan>
  17. Sinan <https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/russian-federation/2014-11-16/sources-russian-conductSinan> U. Deterrence beyond NATO borders. Policy Brief. Transatlantic Security Task Force Series. The German Marshall Fund of the United States. October 2014. URL: <http://www.gmfus.org/publications/deterrence-beyond-nato-borders>

_____________________________

[1] Latawski P. Central Europe and European Security. In: Park W., Rees W. Rethinking Security in Post-Cold-War Europe. pp. 81-95

[2 I. Russian Revisionism: Putin's Plan For Overturning the European Order. Foreign Affairs. 3/3/2014. URL: http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/140990/ivan-krastev/russian-revisionism

[3] Sinan U. Deterrence beyond NATO borders. Policy Brief. Transatlantic Security Task Force Series. The German Marshall Fund of the United States. October 2014. URL: http://www.gmfus.org/publications/deterrence-beyond-nato-borders

[4] Aggarwal V, Govella K. Responding to a Resurgent Russia: Russian Foreign Policy amd Responses from the European Union and the United States. 2012, pp.125-139

[5] McFaul M., Sestanovich S., Mearsheimer J. Faulty Powers: Who Started the Ukrainian Crisis. Foreign Affairs. Vol. 93. Issue 6. November/December 2014 URL: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/eastern-europe-caucasus/2014-10-17/faulty-powers

[6] Goldgejr of J., Makfol M.Tsel and means: a policy of the USA concerning Russia after Cold war. 2009, p. 417.

[7] Goldgejr of J., Makfol M.Tsel and means: a policy of the USA concerning Russia after Cold war. 2009. С.398.

[8] Wales Summit Declaration. Issued by the Heads of State and Government Participating at the Meeting of North

Atlantic council in Wales, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 05.09. 2014 URL: <http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_112964.htm>

[9] Stoltenberg J. Press Conference by NATO Secretary General following the meetings of NATO Foreign Ministers in Antalya. 5/14/2015 URL: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/opinions_119432.htm

[10] Danilov D.A. Ukraine: extrabloc transit. RSMD. 2/9/2015 URL: http://russiancouncil.ru/inner/?id_4=5228#top

[11] Japan in this case can be carried to the global West.

[12] Smirnov P. E of the USA, the NATO and prospects of "the Big Europe» in the light of crisis in Ukraine. The USA-Canadas. Economy, a policy, culture. №12, December 2014. С.3-20 URL: <http://www.ebiblioteka.ru/browse/doc/43124821>

[13] Allison G, Simes D. Russia and America Stumbling War. Could an U.S. response to Russia’s actions in Ukraine provoke a confrontation that leads to an U.S.-Russian war? The National Interest. 4/20/2015 URL: http://nationalinterest.org/feature/russia-america-stumbling-war-12662

[14] Mirshajmer John. Why the West is guilty in crisis in Ukraine. Russia in the global policy. №4, 2014 05. 09.2014 URL: http://www.globalaffairs.ru/number/Pochemu-Zapad-povinen-v-krizise-na-Ukraine-16921

[15] Allison G, Simes D. Russia and America Stumbling War. Could an U.S. response to Russia’s actions in Ukraine provoke a confrontation that leads to an U.S.-Russian war? The National Interest. 4/20/2015 URL: <http://nationalinterest.org/feature/russia-america-stumbling-war-12662>

[16] Kissinger H. To settle the Ukraine crisis, start at the end. The Washington Post. 3/5/2014 URL http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/henry-kissinger-to-settle-the-ukraine-crisis-start-at-the-end/2014/03/05/46dad868-a496-11e3-8466-d34c451760b9_story.html:

[17 I. Russian Revisionism: Putin's Plan For Overturning the European Order. Foreign Affairs. 3/3/2014. URL: http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/140990/ivan-krastev/russian-revisionism

[18] McFaul M. Moscow’s Choice. In McFaul M., Sestanovich S., Mearsheimer J. Faulty Powers: Who Started the Ukrainian Crisis. Foreign Affairs. Vol. 93. Issue 6. November/December 2014 URL: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/eastern-europe-caucasus/2014-10-17/faulty-powers

[19] Sestanovich S. How the West Has Won. In McFaul M., Sestanovich S., Mearsheimer J. Faulty Powers: Who Started the Ukrainian Crisis. Foreign Affairs. Vol. 93. Issue 6. November/December 2014 URL: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/eastern-europe-caucasus/2014-10-17/faulty-powers

[20] Motyl A. Sources of Russian Conduct: The New Case for Containment. Foreign Affairs. 11/16/2014 URL: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/russian-federation/2014-11-16/sources-russian-conduct

[21] McFaul M. Moscow’s Choice. In McFaul M., Sestanovich S., Mearsheimer J. Faulty Powers: Who Started the Ukrainian Crisis. Foreign Affairs. Vol. 93. Issue 6. November/December 2014 URL: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/eastern-europe-caucasus/2014-10-17/faulty-powers

[22] Motyl A. Sources of Russian Conduct: The New Case for Containment. Foreign Affairs. 11/16/2014 URL: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/russian-federation/2014-11-16/sources-russian-conduct

S.Kak's [23] Majster Russia has lost Germany. And as it can return it. Russia in the global policy. 2/19/2014. URL: <http://www.globalaffairs.ru/number/Kak-Rossiya-poteryala-Germaniyu-17308>

[24] Kejgan R.Sila and weakness. Pro et Contra. Т.7., №4, 2002. 127-157

[25] Boguslavsky JU.K. The NATO after the Crimean crisis: alternatives of an alliance

URL: <https://www.academia.edu/9713251/> [26] EU-US Summit Joint Statement. Official site of the European External Action Service. Brussels 26. 03.2014 URL: http://www.eeas.europa.eu/statements/docs/2014/140326_02_en.pdf

[27] Politico. The Ukrainian Crisis Highlights Flaws in EU-US Ties. 3/19/2014 URL: <http://www.politico.eu/article/ukraine-crisis-highlights-flaws-in-eu-us-ties/>

Cherniavskaia K.I.


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