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The missile interception of aerial combat can be the # 1 problem of modern war in the air
Material posted: Publication date: 18-09-2016
Very clever editor of the American military-political magazine "The National Interest" Dave Majumdar published on the Internet page of the publication very interesting predictive article titled "How Russia and China can hit the "Achilles ' heel" of the U.S. air force". It Majumdar briefly went through the possibilities of long range air interception missiles of the type R-37M, KS-172, as well as the Chinese PL-15.

As for "articles 610M" (R-37M), the author noted the possibility of its integration into the weapons control system not only upgraded MiG-31BM, but promising super-maneuverable fighter of the 5th generation T-50 PAK-FA, which, based on its low radar signature, can at cruising supersonic speed to approach to a distance of 200-250 km to American advanced air items electronic reconnaissance and AWACS E-2D "Advanced Hawkeye, E-3C "Sentry", RC-135V/W "Rivet Joint and E-8C J-STARS" and to cause decapitation strikes, neutralizing data management nodes shtatovskih of the air force. A similar model of the use of Chinese PL-15 aboard the J-20 Majumdar predicts the next few years.


Missiles "air-air" medium-range family of R-77 (RVV-AE), according to officially published data, adapted to intercept all types of tactical missiles, including the air combat adversary

Of course, such a position in relation to the characteristics of our Chinese tactical aircraft, and even on the part of representatives of Western media, is a cause of pride in the level of a native defense based on simple Patriotic feelings. But if everything is simple? A lot of questions related to the unrestricted long-range interception of such objects in the airspace where fighter aircraft of the enemy nearly 90% equipped with airborne radar with active phased array, high-performance OBC and prospective highly maneuverable interceptor missiles.

During the Vietnam war, the Arab-Israeli wars and other conflicts of the late twentieth century, the destruction of anti-radar missiles AGM-45 "Shrike" and other missile weapons with anti-aircraft guided missiles and air missiles air combat included in the category of science fiction. Parabolic antenna arrays of the radar illumination and guidance RSN-75 (s-75) and 1С31 (SAM "Cube"), as well as the first version of the circuitry of the points of command and control of these complexes is not allowed to escort, and especially to capture the effective reflecting surface at least 0.2 m2, while the ESR anti-radar missiles barely reached to 0.15 m2. Also the same "Shrike" high-speed characteristics much superior to the maximum speed limits susceptible targets for s-75 and "Cubes". Operators had to deploy aerial painting of the station pointing up or to the sides for the withdrawal of missiles in the direction using the displacement of the pattern, and then disable the radiation, which could do not always.

In the 80-ies and 90-ies the situation began to change dramatically: on arms of the air defense forces of the various States began to arrive, promising anti-aircraft missile systems s-300PS/PMU-1/2 and s-300V and Buk-M1". Radar means for the first time began to include multi-radar AFAR, allowing you to see targets with RCS of 0.02 - 0,05 m2, and received semi-active missiles of the wpmn, with the possibility of aiming through the rocket, making it possible to intercept even subtle maneuvering targets at a distance of 30-50 km. guided aerial bombs, cruise, anti-radar and anti-ship missiles have become a standard in the list of targets for the above complexes. Simultaneously with the air defense technology PFAR/AFAR began to fighter aircraft. Minimum ESR susceptible targets for su-35S with radar Н035 "IRBIS-e" is conform to 0,01 m2 (or even less), which opened the ability to combat all types of high-precision missile and bomb armament with speed up to 5500 km/h, including missiles "air-air" medium and long range. Not hard to guess that the Western fighter fleet received a similar quality.

By 2010 in the development departments of leading American aerospace giants have started work on projects of various interceptor missiles of air basing for the destruction of missiles "air-air" and other tactical missiles and guided and unguided bombs at a distance of 30-40 km from the aircraft carrier. The most successful of these was the project of the Corporation "Lockheed Martin" called CUDA. It was based on the "stripped down" and deeply upgraded version of the most common Western URVB AIM-120C AMRAAM. CUDA got a length of 1.85 m, and in addition to the aerodynamic controls of the gas-dynamic bow "belt" with hundreds of nozzles miniature impulse engines lateral control (DPU). This control unit was designed to give protivorakety overload more than 65 units in the final stage of the flight, which allowed to destroy a target by the method of kinetic destruction of military equipment or the hull of the attacking missiles with a direct hit (in the West this principle is called "hit-to-kill"). The initial velocity of the rocket CUDA is about 3000 km/h and higher accuracy DPU at the moment of interception is achieved by using high-precision active radar seeker operating in the millimeter Ka-band.


Rocket-interceptor project CUDA (SACM-T)

Small weight and overall dimensions of this missile allows any NATO tactical fighter to take on pendants 2 times bigger Arsenal than missiles AIM-120C, "MICA" or "Meteor". For example, one squadron of 12 F-15E "Strike Eagle" can be 2 cars, the suspensions which will only missile CUDA in an amount of from 32 to 40 units. They will lead the defensive attack squadrons from air combat missiles of the enemy, the other 10 tactical fighters "Strike Eagle can perform the task of winning air superiority or missile and bomb strikes on numerous ground targets. Today work on making the missiles project CUDA (new name SACM-T) initial operational capability was delegated to the Research laboratory of the air force USA (AFRL) and the Corporation "Raytheon". At the moment SACM-T is at the level of test launches, which made debugging software control gas-dynamic system and integration into the avionics of a modern American fighters of generation "4++" and "5" and therefore prior to its introduction into service, "Strike a needle", "Lightning-II" or "Super Hornet" it will take at least 5 years. At the same time, the existing U.S. air force guided missiles, medium and long range AIM-120C-7 and AIM-120D is already quite capable of intercepting other missiles of this class. "Hit-to-kill" in this case is implemented, of course not, but still.

To find out the possibility of intercepting American URVB our missiles R-37M, you should be familiar with all design and performance parameters of our missiles. Like most types sverdlovskij guided missiles air combat (AIM-54C, and R-37M) or SAM (48Н6Е2, 9M82), "Product 610M" (RVV-BD) is an impressive mass-dimensional parameters: its length is 4.06 meters, case diameter - 38 cm, wingspan tail aerodynamic rudders - 72 cm and a launch weight of about 510 kg. the Dual-mode solid rocket motor propels the R-37M to 6350 km/h (6M), what causes aerodynamic heating of the fairing radio waves up to about 900-1200°C. So teplocentrstroy stratospheric target can be detected by modern optical-electronic aiming systems of the type AN/AAQ-37 DAS (installed F-35A) at a distance of more than 100-150 km. targeting of the 6 sensors of this system can be instantly transferred to on-Board ins missiles AIM-120D, and then may be subject to interception. Moreover, for even greater distance DAS can detect the time and location of launch R-37M from the Board of su-35S or T-50 PAK-FA for huge high temperature torch which starts a first mode of operation of the turbojet missiles. This can be easily uncovered the approximate location of even the stealth fighter, which was launched R-37M off of the onboard radar for targeting external means or by radiation of the radar of enemy fighters.

The last feature once again makes you wonder about the need to continue projects long-range URVB with more "cold" marching ramjet propulsion type RVV-AE-PD. Here the start-up accelerator has significantly lower traction and time, and is intended only for the acceleration of the rocket to a speed of 1.7 - 2M, which is necessary to start the RAMJET. To detect the start of such missiles in the 70-100 km is almost impossible. The Western analogue of the R-77ПД - missile long-range air combat MBDA "Meteor" with a range of 130-150 km.

The radar signature of the missile RVV-BD is also poor. Under the composite radar dome 380 mm Radome products hides active radar seeker 9B-1103М-350 "Puck". The diameter of a slit antenna array (SAR) is 350 mm, and therefore the calculated EPR missiles, given the module with the computing, navigation and communication equipment and some elements of the body and wings can reach up to 0.1 m2. Discover its modern onboard radar AFAR is not absolutely no difficulty. Radar AN/APG-79 (carrier-based fighter F/A-18E/F) can be tracked, R-37M in the removal of 65 km and a radar AN/APG-81 and AN/APG-77 ("Raptor" and "lightning") at ranges of 60 and 100 km, respectively. Radar visibility RVV-BD roughly corresponds to the modern ELDP. Immediately after the detection of the approaching R-37M in her direction will be launched AIM-120D, carrying on Board a fragmentation warhead directed action. According to radar proximity fuse will lead to detonation of military equipment and thousands of small fragments of the total velocity over 3000 m/s will cause R-37M damage, which does not allow further controlled flight towards the target. Even if at the approach of the AIM-120D is our rocket will perform a combat turn, the first, having a 1.5 times greater have overload, can catch RVV-BD. There are 2 methods, a significant reduction in the range of Revolucionaria missiles "air-air".

The first way is to hold incline the antenna homing at an angle to 60-70 degrees relative to the intercept target until the possibility of her capture (up to 20-30 km of convergence). In this case ESR R-37M will be only 0,04 - 0,05 m2 and to capture it will only be with a minimum distance (about 30 km): time to intercept will be too little, given the huge speed difference in 4 - 4.5 M.

The second method is standard: to start R-37M aerial electronic warfare systems will be delivered and active noise simulation interference that can reduce the detection range by another 30-50%. But it's only a theory, while the practice of prevention of similar size anti-radar missiles confirms the realities of where most tactical missiles are easily intercepted with the help of modern anti-aircraft missiles and other missiles of class "air-air". Note if you take battery SAM "Patriot PAC-3 naval air defense missile system missile defense SM-2/3", performing combat duty as own funds, using a multi-function radar AN/MPQ-53 and AN/SPY-1D, and target designation aircraft system "AWACS", in favourable conditions, interceptor missiles RIM-161A, RIM-174 ERAM and ERINT is also posing a serious threat to such "expressive" purposes, like a missile R-37M, that indicates the necessity of considering the presence or absence of naval or ground-based air defenses in the planning of combat interception with MiG-31BM or T-50 PAK-FA.


RVV-BD ("product 610M")

There is no doubt that the missile RVV-BD is a great danger to tactical, and strategic air command level, ows NATO, but the publication of such work Dave Majumdar, convey to the reviewers with information that fully complies with military-technical realities of the new century. The use of large and noticeable in all range R-37M should start contributing only in a combat situation, where it is known in advance lack of specialized opto-electronic and radar surveillance and targeting the enemy. The future for the further development of more compact, multifunctional and unobtrusive tools air battle with minimum reflecting surface and a heat signature, which can be considered as a wonderful project TO WRWB-77ПД.

Sources of information

Eugene Tamancev


Tags: AME , aviation

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