Increasingly popular is the expression "artificial intelligence" (AI). He promised us unimaginable benefits, including a victory over now-incurable deadly diseases and eternal life.
BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU
But every medal has the reverse side. In concentrated form, the risk of widespread implementation of AI expressed Israeli futurist Yuval Noah Harari, author of global bestseller "Sapiens: a brief history of mankind" and "Homo Deus: a brief history of tomorrow", "Before even the Soviet regime could not all the time to monitor the citizens. It was almost impossible. But we have now reached the point where the combination of artificial intelligence and biotechnology, biometric sensors, systems, facial recognition and voice for the first time in history allow dictators to follow all of their citizens. This can lead to the creation of totalitarian regimes, which will be much worse than anything we saw in the 20th century. Worse than Hitler and Stalin".
Harari is not alone in his anxieties about the future of humanity. Progressives often use the phrase "Big Brother is watching you!" From the dystopia of George Orwell's "1984", published exactly 70 years ago. About a totalitarian Oceania, where every resident around the clock to oversee the camera. Anywhere and everywhere! About this novel all have heard. But few people know that Orwell was influenced by the anti-utopian novel "We" by Yevgeny Zamyatin, written in 1920. But at home, in the full version, it came only in the restructuring, as was considered before an evil caricature of communism. Zamyatin portrayed the 32nd century. The society of total control over the individual, including sex life. Names are replaced by letters and numbers.
Recently there has been a panic of publication, rumors of dystopia Zamyatin, Orwell rapidly implemented in China. Supposedly, the whole country with a population of under half a billion is converted into an electronic concentration camp. And such a fate awaits the entire planet.
In our country the problems of interaction of the latest technology and security in recent years actively investigating a member of the Council on foreign and defense policy, doctor of legal Sciences Vladimir ovchinsky. He has published a number of books on these issues, analyzing the Chinese experience directly in China. Recently spoke at the conference of the OSCE (Organization for security and cooperation in Europe) in Vienna on the use of artificial intelligence in policing. There is the issue of electronic monitoring and human rights was a priority.
Israeli historian, futurist Yuval Noah Harari warns that artificial intelligence could produce a cruel dictatorship with total control of citizens, which have not been seen in the history of mankind.Photo: GLOBAL LOOK PRESS
APPLIANCES SEE ALL!
- Vladimir Semenovich, what's "electronic concentration camp" hastily built in China?
- Let's dispense with the labels. Officially it is called the SCS - System of Social Credit (the confidence). Now in three dozen cities experiencing its pilot options. The whole country will spread to the end of 2020.
The core of the System - social rating (the rating of trust!) Integral evaluation of human behavior according to the criteria of benevolence and openness to society, following the national traditions and the commitment of the Chinese dream - the building of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Depending on his behavior, he can score or lose points.
- Sounds of course, beautiful. In the USSR, the Gulag system is also built for reforging "enemies of the people" in builders of socialism. You know, in the 21st century Beijing will be without barbed wire, dogs and guards on the towers. But the Chinese more than a billion! How can you evaluate each?
Beijing for the first time in the world decided to combine information about its citizens at the Federal level, banks, places of work, study, residence, etc. For that every Chinese ordinary identity card replaced by the lifelong email ID. Data can be entered only power. Soon the Internet access, the acquisition of ownership, cars, obtaining or renting housing, getting a job, and any other economic, social and even domestic actions in China will be possible only with the help of a personal identifier with an 18-bit code.
- His body is implanted?
Less than watching a Hollywood "horror"! No implantation. While there is testing of options. In Shanghai, for example, the identifier looks like a SIM card. Somewhere in the form of a plastic card.
In addition to the official standard of the data taken around the world: name, surname, date and place of birth, residence, marital status, the ID recorded information on property, rental property, credit history, compliance with labor discipline at the workplace, the beautification, garbage collection, how it behaves with its neighbors, does not at night loud music in the apartment and lots of other information from different sources. Data from law enforcement, data from police and other law enforcement databases, systems of video surveillance. In the near future from the "Internet of things".
- Really smart kettles, TVs, laptops in the apartment will be convey on their owners? What they watch, eat, drink?
- Any smart kettle, vacuum cleaner, refrigerator via the Internet connected with the server of the company. And with him information, where necessary to the Chinese authorities. I'm not talking about laptops, mobile phones today are equipped with cameras.
If the camcorder, the Internet of things will show that a citizen violates the rules of order, of morality, its social rating is lowered. If you commit a noble deed, like, helped my grandmother to cross the street, saved the puppy increases.
In the second stage of System deployment (2023-2027) was planned to collect information about the attitude of Chinese to their health, children, parents, other relatives, spouses...
- Adultery will also be locking?
- Of course! For campaigns "on the left" rating will reduce.
Thus, soon the Chinese government will be able to get online a complete picture of life in China, right down to the individual person and his or her bed.
China's leader XI Jinping has ordered to implement the System of Social Credit for the final victory of socialism with Chinese characteristics that China became the first economy of the planet!Photo: GLOBAL LOOK PRESS
CARROT AND STICK
- In the West of SCS to total surveillance and the assessment of the behaviour of ordinary Chinese people, - continues Vladimir ovchinsky. But it is not. For the leaders of the party and state apparatus at different levels, owners and top managers of business the punishment is stricter than for ordinary people. It is an initiative of the head of the PRC XI Jinping, launched a large-scale fight against corruption. The system will cover and legal persons - all kinds of biznesmeni, non-profit, management structure and organization, their leadership.
Officials of the party and state organs at lower rating will not be able to buy property and land. Members of their families, including adult children and divorced spouses get in "black lists" that limits the opportunity to buy or legal to take currency abroad, to participate in companies exploiting natural resources as well as stock, export-import operations.
These leaders and their families are denied the right to travel first and business class on high speed trains and planes, stay in hotels above the four stars, to rest in prestigious resorts. They are not allowed to visit any restaurants, Nightclubs, Golf courses, travel abroad on vacation. For their children close fee-paying schools, etc.
A year ago, the CPC Central Committee and the state Council approved the experience of punishment of executives with falling social rating, required to strictly comply with this principle on the ground, decided in 2020 to publish "black lists" of officials. Also supported the initiative of Shanghai, where the subscriber who gets the mobile or landline phone number to the "penalty box" automatically warn before connection: "the person you call is in the "black list" in the system of social credit and does not cause full confidence."
- A whip. And gingerbread?
- Top-rated workers Parthasarathy include special programs of retraining with the subsequent rise. The system of social mobility in action! Managers and owners of business soft loans, preferential treatment in tenders for public procurement, government support in the import-export operations.
- What ordinary Chinese?
Yet, I repeat, is a large-scale experiment in the large cities. According to official reports, only in 2018, there were 14 million violations by citizens of China (except high-ranking officials, owners and top managers of businesses.) Basically - overdue credit, misleading advertising, illegal street trading, cruelty to family members and relatives, a violation of the rules of the community, etc. Today 17.5 million due to low rating I can not buy tickets, 5.5 million - train tickets for 2 million citizens are limited opportunities for children to better schools, to 0.8 million receipt in higher educational institutions. In the "black list" also hit 4 million legal entities. They are prohibited from participation in public procurement, auctions for land, work in the stock market, import-export operations...
"Gingerbread" people for an increased rating, discounts up to 25 percent on tickets to the jets and bullet trains, Internet connection with a maximum speed (for violators – "slow" Internet.) Bank loans with an interest rate one-third lower installed, with compensation from the state, the advantages in the competition for the best jobs, free training and etc.
Only one clear example of how a social rating in China. We used to have a residence in one place and live in another. Due to different circumstances. If the Chinese had rented a house in another district, the city, living with a friend and was not notified on time of the power, it will remove the points. And add voluntary to the informant notifying the authorities about the intruder. Vigilant neighbor, friend, relative.
- In China, do not think so. Citizen showed consciousness.
AND THE CAMERA CAN'T HIDE, NO ESCAPE
The main reproach is, rather, the accusation of "Chinese electronic concentration camp" - total surveillance by cameras. Hence the analogy with the popular "Big Brother" of Orwell!
In 2015, the Ministry of public security of China started to implement in China, global system videoresponse citizens. And not only in the face. Now the Chinese police are experiencing the recognition of humans by gait. The program is designed, incidentally, by a local company, "Watrix". She identificeret person at a distance of 50 meters, even if he has a hidden face or he stands to the camcorder back.
Last year, Western journalists conducted an experiment in Harbin, Shanghai, Shenzhen, how quickly the militia of being spotted on a busy street. Those who have lived in China not less than one year, identified in 34 seconds. Who spent in the country not more than a week – for a minute. Moreover, not only the face detected, but were identified by names, names, numbers, foreign passport, country of permanent citizenship and principal place of stay in China.
Rather, the result of a three. In 2022, when the surveillance system is fully put into operation (600 million cameras!), a person will be identified within three seconds. Of the billion plus population of China plus foreign nationals.
FROM TIME IMMEMORIAL
Experts writers do make the whole System of Social Credit to the "Big Brother" Orwell - said the doctor of jurisprudence Vladimir ovchinsky. But this is a superficial view. The issue goes back centuries, when cameras were not in sight. In 400 BC the great reformer Shang Americatel people to gather in groups of 5-10 families to monitor one another and to bear collective responsibility for crimes. The mayor regularly reported to his superiors about the departure and arrival of each person. The system is called "bazza".
Over the century, it entered the flesh and blood of the nation. The specific civilization that "no common measure".
- They have a socialism with Chinese characteristics. When the world socialist camp headed by the Soviet Union collapsed, China was a poor provincial country. Our eyes for three decades he becomes the first economy in the world!
- So, the ancient "bazza" and has become in the 21st century mental basis of Social Credit. In the West, by liberal standards it is called an "electronic concentration camp".
It came not by accident. New Chinese President XI Jinping in 2013 proposed the concept of "Chinese dream" of national revival, the creation of a prosperous powerful nation, the people's prosperity. To achieve this Dream, he said, we need three basic conditions:
"1.Have to go the Chinese way, that is the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics.
2. It is necessary to elevate the unity of the Chinese people, based on trust, the Chinese spirit, the core of which is patriotism and the spirit of the era, the core of which is the reform and innovation.
3. It is necessary to combine the strength of a nation, born of the great unity 56 nationalities and 1.3 billion people. The Chinese dream is the dream of the whole nation and the dream of every Chinese separately".
In China trust is synonymous with harmony between man, community and government. Harmony is the Supreme duty, the purpose and need of the Chinese.
"To combat an acute problem of lack of confidence to take firm hold over the establishment of a system reliability assessment, covering the whole society - said the head of China. - We need to improve as mechanisms to promote law-abiding and conscientious citizens, and mechanisms to punish those who violate the law and have lost trust that the person just didn't dare, just couldn't lose the trust."
Following the instructions of XI Jinping, the state Council of the PRC and adopted the "Programme of creation of a system of Social Credit (trust) for 2014-2020."
All citizens aspire to a full, open life and had no dark secrets from others.
This system becomes the most important circuit party-state control of China. But, unlike the ancient "Bozza," in 90-95 percent of cases to assess the deeds and misdeeds of a man will be not officials, and artificial intelligence, free from bias and unilateralism.
A police robot on the streets of Beijing.Photo: GLOBAL LOOK PRESS
Special attention to partisapate in this System - is not the invention of XI, and a centuries-old tradition.
Already in Ancient China there was a method of assessing and ranking officials of the military at different levels. It was first recorded about 240 BC in the treatise of a major statesman Liu Shao "the Doctrine of human ability". With its help, Liu Shao was hoping to replace the negligent officials, incompetent commanders talented, conscientious people. Later came the so-called table of the "heavenly mandate". To fill them all the contenders for leadership positions took the exams plus the interviews with experienced administrators.
The same system of total surveillance is designed primarily for the needs of the National police security services. To fight crime and terrorism. No wonder experience began in 2016 in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous region (Xinjiang), home to more than 10 million Muslims. The first attacks began here in the ' 90s, when local Islamists began to return with weapons in their hands from Afghanistan. Went riots, bombings, assassinations of officials, policemen. The government had to send troops. New wave went in 2008 during the summer Olympics in Beijing. Sintszyanskiy terrorists have staged dozens of explosions. Especially bloody was 2014. Explosions at a market in Urumqi claimed 35 lives, 94 wounded. During an attack on a train station in Kunming killed 29 people, more than 130 were wounded. Over the years there have been several terrorist attacks with casualties on Tiananmen square.
- Similar to our red square.
- Imagine the scale of terror? In order to combat terrorists in Xinjiang has introduced a large-scale video surveillance. The system notifies the police, if the locals rejected more than 300 metres from the "safe zones" (home, work, routes between them, the market and nearby shops).
In this case, the police has the right to stop a person or to question his family. The wave of Islamist terror subsided.
For the System of social credit, the liberals called an "electronic concentration camp," police video cameras record and transmit small household information. Noble deeds - rescuing kittens, puppies, transfer the elderly across the street. Negative - fighting, petty theft, violation of the rights of street trade, being in public while drunk, etc.
So, according to statements from the Chinese leadership, "Social Trust – the tool of realization of the Chinese dream, based on Chinese traditions, big data, and artificial intelligence."
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