The head of the Communist party in East China's Jiangsu province recently brought together local leaders to must-visit lesson. They showed a documentary of six episodes about the collapse of the Soviet Union.
The film begins with shots about the USSR at the Zenith of its prosperity and glory, but quickly passes to the screening of the disturbances and riots that engulfed Northern neighbor China in the early 1990s. All this is accompanied by ominous music and is underlined by the complaints of Russian Communists on the ill-fated destiny of his homeland.
As reported by state media, at the end of the show in Jiangsu the local party boss Lo jinsung (the Luo Zhijun) urged local chiefs to "correctly understand the lessons of history". The main message of the film: the Soviet Union collapsed not because of the Communist system, but because of who betrayed her people, especially Mikhail Gorbachev.
This film was part of an ideological campaign launched the new Chinese leaders XI Jinping with a view to strengthening the party ranks and discipline of party members. This film from September showed dozens of times at various political meetings.
So frequent screenings indicate that XI Jinping is confident that we should build a Leninist political system in China and not in limitation of the powers of the party. Knowledgeable people from the party ranks and the scientists say that it's part of the fight against so-called American conspiracy aimed at the overthrow of the party means "peaceful revolution", that is, through the spread of Western ideas through the media, pop culture and the scientific community.
Responsible for campaign C, the Department did not respond to questions about this film called "20th anniversary of the death of the Soviet party and state: from the stories of the Russians", but said that in this campaign, taken into consideration of Chinese and global experience.
This film, shot by a retired Chinese major General, has been criticized by some Chinese scholars of Soviet history, including from the party ranks. They argue that the error of Moscow consisted in ignoring the huge flaws of the Soviet political and economic system that emerged long before the arrival of Gorbachev.
"To rational analysis, it is aimed mainly at protecting the Stalinist system, and in some places just illogical — wrote in his recent review specialist in Soviet history Fanjun Zuo (Zuo Fengrong) working in research and training of the Central party school. — As an educational film for party members it can only be misleading". From comments she refused, but some Chinese scholars agreed with her point of view.
The debate over Soviet history, go to the background of a broader discussion about the future of China. XI Jinping, came to power in November last year, tries to establish itself as the most powerful and influential Chinese leader after Deng Xiaoping.
The Central Committee of the Communist party of China, consisting of 376 leaders, at their November meeting approved the proposal of XI Jinping, the reform package, the aim of which is to ensure greater openness of the economy to market forces and raise the purchasing power of peasants and migrant workers.
And on the political front, XI Jinping goes in the opposite direction — he refers to the experience of the past to enhance the "Leninist tradition" and seeks to silence those who want to limit the power of the party using the Constitution.
After the Plenum of the Central Committee of China announced the creation of a new "national security Committee", which, according to Chinese analysts, will give XI Jinping greater authority for the implementation control in the field of internal security, foreign policy, and military matters. The title of this Committee used the same kanji, which translated the name of the us national security Council and the Soviet KGB.
Some Chinese scholars, who advocate liberal political reforms, have drawn Parallels between the political program of C and Andropov who headed the KGB, and then, becoming in 1982 the Soviet leader, began the campaign against corruption and dissent.
Modern China is very different from the Soviet Union. The Chinese economy is much more powerful, it is growing faster and getting closer to the rest of the world than the Soviet. In the Chinese political system today are allowed a greater degree of personal freedoms than in the Soviet Union, and Beijing has established age norms for the release of their leaders on a pension, which was never the Soviets.
And the rest of the Chinese party stuck in the past, and its decision-making mechanisms, the system of registration of the population, as well as policy towards ethnic minorities is based on the old Soviet model.
"When leaders get up in the morning and go to bed at night, haunted by the Ghost of the Soviet collapse, and fears caused Central Asian color revolutions and Arab spring, only increase their anxiety, says an expert on China policy from the George Washington University David Samba (David Shambaugh). — Browsers are not aware how the Chinese system similar to the Soviet one. The first is the clone of the second".
In fact, XI Jinping is making a risky bet that the Chinese version of the one-party rule will succeed where the Soviet Union failed. According to people from the party leadership, the CPC intends to maintain order in their ranks and manage their changing society. And part of this strategy is the adoption of the official narratives of history.
Speaking in December with the speech, XI Jinping accused Gorbachev that he lost control of the military and allowed the "historical nihilism" to cast doubt on the achievements of Lenin and Stalin. This is said by people who read it.
In April, the Communist party issued a decree entitled "Document No. 9", urging officials to fight the spread of Western values and "wrong thinking", and especially with the attempts of the revaluation of history.
XI Jinping has publicly stated that the achievements of Mao are not inferior in importance to the success of the country achieved in the period after 1978, when there were started large-scale economic reforms.
Some fans of si claim that he takes a conservative position in order to secure political support, because it begins to overcome the resistance of the promised economic change.
But in the party ranks of a growing sense that the latter is more than their predecessors shares the views of party conservatives and some military leaders who believe that China must at all costs resist the influence of the West.
In the party and on the Internet circulates a film called "the Silent competition", stating that the United States is trying to weaken China through non-governmental organizations and the exchanges between the military and other ways. The film was produced in cooperation with the national defense University, the Chinese equivalent of West point. Took it off under the leadership of the political Commissar and the son-in-law of former President General Ajou Liu (Liu Yazhou), who is considered a confidant of XI Jinping.
General Liu took to military reformers after he in 2010 I wrote an article warning that if China refuses democratization, it will suffer the same fate as the Soviet Union. "All the problems of the USSR was of a systemic nature," he wrote at the time.
But in a "Silent rivalry", he warns that the US is trying to contain and weaken China, promoting Western values and "peaceful evolution".
The man behind a documentary about the collapse of the Soviet Union, also appears in "Silent rivalry". This is the General-the major in resignation If Changmin (Li Shenming). He held the position of Vice-President of the Academy of social Sciences of China and was the personal Secretary of the late revolutionary leader Wang Zhen (Wang Zhen), who strongly argued for violent suppression of democratic protests in 1989.
Lee openly expressed his admiration for Stalin and Mao. To requests to comment he did not respond.
Familiar with Whether people call him the leader of a small group of ultra-conservative thinkers, many of which are associated with the Centre for the study of world socialism, who shot this film.
In a recent article in a party magazine, he said that the hostile forces in the West had deliberately inflated the number of victims of Stalin and Mao (each of them is accused in the deaths of 30 million people).
"I think in the scientific world listened to a few, but the party leadership apparently people listen to it," says political science Professor Uli Hua (Hua-yu Li), working at the University of Oregon and recently wrote a work about the Soviet influence on China.
This film is based on one of several dozen studies of the causes of the collapse of the Soviet Union that Chinese scientists are engaged in since 1991. The authors of many studies come to different conclusions about the causes of the collapse: a rigid political system, corruption in the ranks of the elite, chauvinistic policy towards national minorities, and fundamental shortcomings of the economic model.
For China, these topics are relevant because he is now fighting graft in the government, with its overgrown public sector and unrest in the Western regions — Tibet and Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous region, say Chinese researchers.
The fall of the Soviet Union is a sensitive issue for China, because its Communist leaders have long been found in the experience of the Moscow representation of their own future — both in positive and in negative sense.
Until the late 1950s, the Soviet Union was a source of inspiration, advice and material assistance. However, after the ideological divide that occurred in 1959, Beijing began to consider Moscow's rival in the struggle for leadership in the Communist world.
In the 1980s, Chinese leaders watched with interest for Gorbachev's perestroika and glasnost until then, until an event occurred in Tiananmen square in 1989 that led to the departure of these executives in the shade after measures of military suppression of democratic protests.
Since 1991, when the USSR broke up, they try to understand the causes of the collapse and to avoid a similar fate.
First, in many Chinese studies have said that the fall of the USSR happened because of Gorbachev or the American strategy of "peaceful evolution." In the mid-90s, scientists began to study and other factors, often calling as the reason for the lack of reform under Leonid Brezhnev, who ruled the country from 1964 to 1982.
According to some Chinese scholars, Jiang Zemin (Jiang Zemin), who led the Communist party of China from 1989 to 2002, has supported and encouraged this research.
In 2004, the Chinese leadership in his circle came to the conclusion that the collapse of the USSR occurred because of the withdrawal of Moscow from the key principles of Marxism, though so far Chinese leaders have rarely publicly stated this.
The debate in political and academic circles continue and contribute to further scientific research into alternative theories, many of them conducted in the framework of the Central party school. This week in her printed body of published analytical article, which States that the main cause of the Soviet collapse lies in the collectivization of agriculture under Stalin, and sounds a warning about the dangers of rejection of the reform.
Lee and his colleagues from the Center for the study of world socialism persistently rejected such arguments and promote their theory, where the main culprit turns out to be Gorbachev.
The first version of the current film was created in 2006, followed in 2008, followed by the book. These materials were distributed only in party circles. An updated version of the documentary appeared in 2011.
Watching a movie has become a must for party leaders and talked a lot in the state media in the context of this ideological campaign, organized by XI Jinping.
Some researchers of Soviet history believe that If Changmin and other members of the film felt conservative leanings of XI Jinping and used his political connections to the film was included in the current campaign. However, an expert on Russia and Deputy head of the research Center of world socialism At Anyuan (Wu Enyuan) who participated in the creation of the film, denies this, claiming that the film was selected not because of some political connections.
According to him, the updated version of the film is largely based on the latest Russian research, and criticized her Chinese scientists do not speak Russian and had visited the Soviet Union and in post-Soviet Russia.
"There is one Central question, says Antani. — The Soviet Union collapsed because of its historical systemic problems, problems of the Stalinist model, or because of Gorbachev's mistakes? In our opinion, because of the latter. And this view corresponds to the opinion of the management".
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