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A comprehensive US strategy toward Russia. The Heritage Foundation
Material posted: Fostiychuk JulianaPublication date: 11-12-2015
While Russia is actively and selflessly fighting against international terrorism in the face of the IG (Daishev), Strategic Research Institute, USA "The Heritage Foundation" December 9, 2015 published a "comprehensive US strategy towards Russia." Below there are a translation of this strategy. Cynicism. Russophobia. Amerikotsentrizm.

Authors: James Jay Carafano, Ph. D., Ted R. Bromund, Ph. D., Dean Cheng, Luke Coffey, Lisa Curtis, Helle C. Dale, Michaela Dodge, David Inserra, Bruce Klingner, Daniel Kochis, Ryan Olson, James Phillips, Ana Quintana, Bryan Riley, Brian Slattery and William T. Wilson, Ph. D.

With the termination of Cold war in the USA there was no universal, complex strategy concerning Russia. The Russian intrusion to Ukraine has shown that the USA has paid the high price for this omission, and many neighbours of Russia have paid where more expensively. The essence of this annoying blank is covered in unwillingness to estimate the Russian mode proceeding from realities. Frequently, the USA rely on the prejudices, instead of on the facts.

Unlike realities of Cold war, Russia is not the basic opponent of the USA. Though Russia thinks differently.

Within the limits of the given strategy, Russia represents four separate, but the problems interconnected among themselves for the American policy:

Putin mode which combines non-observance of the political, civil and economic rights with nonfunctioning economy;

The second (and the most dangerous to the USA) a problem consists that Russia throws strategic and diplomatic calls worldwide, including escalating of a nuclear arsenal and military potential;

Russia poses threat to separate partners, allies of the USA, and also to interests of the USA;

Cooperation of Russia with "bad" modes.

Section 1. An outline of complex strategy of the USA

Since 1991 the American politicians, scientists and journalists operated, proceeding from biases that Post-Soviet Russia was on a difficult way to democracy. This bias has so blinded researchers that they have lost sight of that Russia already was on a right way becoming kleptokraticheskoj avtokratiej. Certainly this mode did not promote modernisation of the Russian economy. However, from the middle of 90th, Russia has started to aspire to freedom sharply. Instead of it, its leaders, in particular V.V.Putin, very wisely and systematically operated for the purpose of that Russia became what is now: functioning, advanced tyranny.

Failures of the USA that nobody has noticed this way and ultimate goals of this way of Russia have led to new strategy: rapprochement strategy. Russia have invited in the various international organisations where usually invite the states with prospering democracy which Russia actually never was. Dmitry Medvedev's appointment to a post of the President of the Russian Federation in 2008 has been apprehended as a serious step on a way to democracy, and also as harbinger of the light future, instead of as appointment of the nominal head of the state which it was.

In 2001 US president Dzh. V.Bush «has looked to Putin in eyes and has thought that it (Putin), should be, very rectilinear and reliable person». But in the end of 2008 after Russia has attacked Georgia, Bush's error became obvious.

The long history of mutual relations of Russia with the western countries has given a powerful impulse in a writing of the given strategy. At least from the end of 17 centuries Russia fluctuates between two poles: that it represents herself basically the western country, great imperial force which has a historical right to supervise the neighbours.

This question is not solved till now, it is till now vital. For the same reasons for the American politicians it is necessary to consider that defines a Putin mode - or it is movable by ideology (i.e. regrets about disintegration of the USSR, hatred to the USA and the western countries with their world order, and the desire to restore is as much as possible past fragments) or more traditional Russian imperialism. It not the new question, during cold war of the USA was necessary to consider it.

Russia does not have those advantages in economy what were at the USSR.

Weak places of a Putin mode:

Absence of integral economic strategy;

Support on external "power" and on reprisal for the purpose of power deduction.

When Americans think from complex strategy concerning Russia, they often come back to a restraint policy. But in it it be no point:

First, restraint was not a policy. Now "restraint" is often used as "spell" to leave from a reality;

Secondly, in some spheres restraint is inefficient, that is why a communistic mode still in power in Cuba;

Thirdly, restraint does not give that understanding that is zhiznennovazhnym and that represents smaller importance

Fourthly, restraint it was possible to apply that its area was considerable, and a policy frightening concerning the USSR. Putin Russia even close it is not necessary to apply from the USSR of the end of 1940th Appeals a policy of restraint concerning Putin Russia are directed on prospect more, than Russia actually deserves.

Section 2. Vladimir Putin's mode

Kernel of problems in the Russian-American relations is the Putin mode. With Putin's statement as autocrat of the relation of Russia with the West have certainly worsened.

Theme: human rights in Russia

Problem: Russia - not the free country. In a rating for 2015, made by Freedom House, Russia is defined as "not free". Russia is in this rating flush with such countries as Iran, Iraq and Democratic republic Congo.

Boris Nemtsov's murder, the leader of opposition, has eliminated the outstanding person, a democracy voice in Russia. Majority NPO the USA have deduced the offices for borders of Russia, and the majority of oppositionists are in exile though and abroad there are no guarantees of safety (Alexander Litvinenko's poisoning with radioactive polonium-210 in London in 2006).

The Russian mass-media are under control, and the Kremlin conducts silent, but well sponsored war in this sphere.

Recommendations: the USA costs:

To be fair. The USA will lose much if will not be sincere in questions of non-observance of human rights at Putin because its mode is directed against the USA. In autocracy there is no respect for independence of a civil society.

To result examples. The USA cannot consider in details each abusing of Russia, but during Cold war of the USA regularly resulted examples of the cores which are evident, certificates of crimes of the USSR. The USA it is necessary to arrive as and today. The Putin mode is afraid first of all not of animosities of the USA, and animosities of Russian citizens which can rise in case of disclosing of crimes, bribery and management disorganisation. The USA should be paid especially attention to similar cases.

Theme: the Russian economy, trade and economic sanctions

Problem: Prospects of the Russian economy the gloomy. Russia this unlucky, corrupted oil state with promptly growing old population. The Russian economy worsens.

Russia is the power giant exporting considerable volumes of oil and gas in countries of Western Europe. Its share in the European market gives Russia the most powerful geopolitical lever of influence because to replace products exported by Russia it is impossible for short terms. Half of Russian budget develops of incomes of oil and gas sale. In 2014, Russia has signed the power contract with China for the sum of 400 billion dollars to move a budget core far away from EU. Worsening economic conditions can make the Russian economy and foreign policy of less predicted. Putin can become more aggressive in connection with crisis. It will continue to co-operate with China.

Recommendations: the USA costs:

To show resistance to attempts of the European countries to reduce quantity of sanctions or at all them to remove.

To raise possibilities of the European countries to realise the sanction;

To support building of the pipelines which are bending around the Russian territories. The USA it is necessary to support building of pipelines such as the Transcaspian pipeline from Turkmenistan through Azerbaijan and Georgia to Turkey that will lower possibilities of Russia on control of the European power.

To remove all restrictions from deliveries of oil and natural gas of the USA that will give alternative power resources to Europe and Asia.

To exclude Russia from bank system SWIFT.

Section 3 World calls of foreign policy and a security policy

The majority of calls which face universal strategy of the USSR in interaction from the Russian Federation are not adhered to concrete region. On the contrary, they underline necessity of global strategy for protection of interests of the USA and allies against threats nuclear both cyberattacks and importance of possibility of access of the USA to a space resource. Global problems also include foreign policy problems, in particular necessity of counteraction to the Russian propagation and importance of use of diplomacy and the international institutes to inform to the international community that Putin's mode is Antiamerican avtokratija.

Theme: Control over arms and a policy in the field of use of nuclear potential

Problem: the Russian program of modernisation of nuclear arms and infringement by Russia of a supervisory regime over arms create necessity for the USA to change the approach concerning a supervisory regime over arms and concerning nuclear potential of the USA.

Advantage of the Russian Federation in tactical arms makes 10:1, also Russia possesses more advanced nuclear weapon.

Recommendations: the USA follows:

To modernise the nuclear weapon. The act for control of the military budget and that fact that president Obama has not had time increase financing of this point in question before signing SNV 3 can to deprive of the USA possibility quickly to update the nuclear weapon and operatively to react to development of nuclear programs of other states.

To advance in the foreign policy idea of protection of citizens

The USA it is necessary to take measures to deprive the countries-opponents of the blessings which they can receive from an attack to the USA

To leave from SNV 3. The contract limits possibilities of the USA

Not to carry on negotiations on an occasion of the conclusion of the contract on prohibition or reduction of tactical nuclear arms in Europe. At the Russian Federation advantage in tactical nuclear arms. The contract conclusion will compel the USA to clean the weapon from Europe while Russia will simply clean the weapon for Ural Mountains, whence it will still threaten Europe.

To draw attention to that Russia breaks a supervisory regime over arms

Russia seldom signs contracts about control over arms which it does not break subsequently. The Russian Federation breaks the final Helsinki Certificate, the Budapest memorandum, the agreement to clean an army from Georgia and Moldova, the Convention on Chemical arms.

Theme: the ABM

Problem: Russia opposes programs of the ABM of the USA as Russia wants that the USA and their allies were vulnerable in relation to ballistic missiles of the Russian Federation.

The recommendation: the USA follows

To increase financing of the program of the ABM of the USA and to develop multilevel universal system of the ABM

The system should be capable to force down ballistic missiles, including systems zalpovogo fire. The systems of interception which are settling down in space, perfectly approach for this purpose.

To transfer RLS system with satellite communication to the European member of the NATO. Earlier Czechia is better approached for tracing of the ballistic missiles started by Iran.

To urge allies-members of the NATO to improve own ABM and air defence.

Publicly to declare that strategic stability any more is not a basis for relations between the Russian Federation and the USA as Russia began to modernise the nuclear arms and the ABM.

Theme: Cybersafety

Problem: the Russian cyberaggression represents danger to a military, economic, state and social infrastructure of the USA

Recommendations. The USA follows:

To provide information interchange concerning cybersafety between private and state sectors

2. To limit possibility of not state actors (companies) to provide information protection

To take more serious measures against Russia

Diplomacy of the USA should be directed on public ochernenie cyberattacks of the Russian Federation. If aggression of the Russian Federation does not stop, the USA it is necessary to advance even more actively democracy and efforts on Internet freedom propagation in Russia

Theme: the Space

Problem: the Space program of the USA began to depend on Russia on a number of missions as for example access on MKS and reception of rocket engines for certain installations of start of companions.

Recommendations. The USA follows:

To modernise space industrial base of the USA

To provide safety of the USA in space

Theme: the Russian propagation

Problem: Russia tries to have serious influence in huge scale

The recommendation:

To organise information counteraction of the Russian Federation

To organise universal check of the information arriving from the Russian Federation

Theme: Exchange programs between the USA and the Russian Federation

Problem: a Number of programs at the initiative of the Russian Federation have been closed

Recommendations: the USA follows:

To spend careful check of the remained programs of exchanges

To abolish the presidential commission on exchange programs between the Russian Federation and the USA

Theme: the Destructive role of the Russian Federation in the international organisations

Problem. The majority of the organisations is based on the western values, to which Russian Federations does not correspond.

Recommendations. The USA follows:

To spend work on an exception of the Russian Federation of the main international organisations

To initiate processes on check of the contribution of the Russian Federation in activity of the international organisations.

Section 4: Protection of friends and allies of the USA and reduction of influence of Russia

One main objective of the USA - to secure allies and friends of the USA against Russia, at simultaneous decrease in its ability to influence or dominate over other nations in a way which undermines the American interests.

Theme: the NATO Future

Problem. Russia as Soviet Union during time of "cold war», aspires to neutralise or even to "break" the NATO. It threatens the East European allies and wages psychological and diplomatic war, especially in Baltic NATO member states.

Recommendations. The USA should:

To provide, that the NATO after the summit of 2016 has accurately established the purposes;

Slowly to change a vector of educational preparation of the NATO in Europe from protivopovstancheskih operations in a direction to operations on maintenance of collective safety;

To place emphasis of allies on defence (thus the US president should solve the problems connected with this question directly with the European colleagues);

To involve in activity of Ministers of Finance (each summit of the NATO should include special sessions for Ministers of Finance);

Theme: Safety of northern and Baltic countries

Problem. The Baltic people have appeared on a front line of the NATO and Russia is perceived as their existential threat. The Russian intrusions into air space, sea intrusions and intrusions through the estonsko-Russian border have kept a high tension in region (so, for example, Finland and Sweden were object of several air and sea intrusions of the Russian armies).

Recommendations. The USA should:

To solve a problem of preliminary installation of military arms and technics in Baltic;

To improve relations of the USA with Finland and Sweden in the field of safety though they and are not members of the NATO;

To consider the problem on creation of the Baltic centre of a transfer of armies;

To raise cooperation level on problems of cybersafety with the Baltic States;

To continue carrying out of joint doctrines;

To incur the obligation of installation of fast and reliable system of antimissile defence of the USA in Europe;

To promote export szhizhennogo natural gas (SPG) from the USA in the Baltic region;

To continue to do the contribution to patrol of air space of Baltic;

Theme: Russia as threat for the Central Europe

Problem. The Central European countries have estimated for a long time already the risks connected with safety and created by Russia. Despite numerous appeals of many states of the Central Europe, the NATO till now has no any constant basing in region. Difficulties are added also by that fact that this region strongly depends on the Russian power resources.

Recommendations. The USA should:

To organise constant presence of the NATO at the Eastern Europe;

To eliminate barriers to the American export of energy carriers to creation of the new market without participation of Russia;

To incur the obligation of maintenance of reliable antimissile defence in Europe;

Theme: the Russian influence on the Balkans, in Greece, in Cyprus

Problem. Though safety in the Balkan region has considerably improved since 1990th years, but nevertheless anywhere has not got to mezhkonfessionalnaja rozn that is aggravated with weak economy, a high rate of unemployment and political corruption. Moscow used these contradictions for advancement of the purposes on deducing of these countries from the NATO.

Recommendations. As Russia tries to undermine a political situation and a situation with safety in region, the USA should:

To remain in region (Russia hopes that the USA will distract on other international events and to abstract from region);

To keep a peace-making contingent of the NATO in Kosovo;

To work in close contact to the European allies;

To approach with Greece and to tear the Russian communications with Cyprus (the corrupted Russian oligarchs tied with a mode of Putin, prefer Cyprus for many reasons. The USA should let know to Cyprus that its future is connected with the West and to push Cyprus to break links with Russia. Also it is required to spend modernisation of activity of authorities);

Theme: intrusion of Russia into Ukraine

Problem. In 2014 Russia illegally annexed Crimea. The most recent agreement on cease-fire is on the verge of full breakdown. On July, 17th, 2014, the Russian separatists in East Ukraine have brought down the company plane Malaysia Ejrlajnz, flying flight MH-17, almost 300 persons thus were lost. Vladimir Putin used tragical incident as a pretext for sending to Ukraine about 4 000 military men. In reply to this Ukrainian government has started initially successful large military offensive operations to return under the control the territories which are in hands of separatists. By means of the Russian armies separatists have pushed aside the Ukrainian forces.

As Ukraine is not a member of the NATO, it does not use guarantees of safety from the USA, but intrusion of Russia into Ukraine, besides a breach of the peace in Europe, is widely apprehended by allies of the USA as threat to own sovereignty and territorial integrity.

Recommendations. The USA should:

To give arms Ukrainian VS and to spend joint doctrines;

To expand the list of the Russian officials getting under the certificate Magnitsky;

To encourage economic and political reforms in Ukraine as if it will not improve ability to protect the territory the USA and the West cannot constrain the further aggression of Russia in long-term prospect.

Theme: the Russian attack to Georgia

Problem. After the Russian intrusion in 2008 and the subsequent occupations by Russia of territory of 20 % of Georgia, Georgia has decided to carry out military reforms and to participate in numerous foreign military operations, to receive the vital fighting experience.

Recommendations. Georgians have proved as capable in fight. They also carry out the program on defence which is an example for NATO member states. In gratitude for self-sacrifice the Georgian in Afghanistan, the USA should:

To help Georgia to provide self-defence and to put anti-tank rocket and antiaircraft arms to Georgia. Georgians live under constant threat from Russia;

To continue to spend the Georgian-American military gathering;

To promote strengthening of institutional communications between Georgia and the NATO;

To promote liberalisation of a visa regime and to put pressure upon the European Union and the European countries which are not entering into EU, to give to Georgia a visa-free regime.

To underline importance of creation of a zone of free trade between America and Georgia;

To assist Georgia in increase of its ability to react to emergency situations;

To lower duties on the Georgian goods and to open the American markets for the Georgian production by reforming of the general system of preferences;

Theme: the Russian Federation and the Central Asia

Problem: the Russian Federation makes too strong impact in the Central Asia when influence of the USA in region slightly.

Recommendations. The USA follows:

To remain involved in region

To advance idea of rivalry and a variety in region

Seriously to apply strategy of "the New Silk way»

Theme: the Russian role in a situation in Afghanistan

Problem: Against crises in Georgia and Ukraine cooperation of the Russian Federation and the USA in Afghanistan has decreased.

Recommendations: the USA follows:

Strategically not to depend on the Russian help in Afghanistan

To advance a policy of an openness in relation to the Russian diplomatic efforts in the Central Asia for situation settlement in Afghanistan

To co-operate with Moscow on the basis of mutual interests

Not to do concessions of the Russian Federation in Afghanistan

Theme: Relations of the Russian Federation and India

Problem: Good relations with the Russian Federation have affected the relation of India to joining by Russia of Crimea. India has expressed neutrally. Russia provides 65 % of military needs of India

Recommendations. The USA follows:

Not to disturb to the indijsko-Russian interaction within the limits of crisis in Afghanistan

To aspire to replace with the Russian Federation in a context of maintenance of military needs of India

Section 5. Mutual relations of Russia and regional calls

Russia comes back to strategy of the USSR, which consists in participating in the international affairs not to pursue own interests, and to create problems of the USA and to get feeling of own importance.

Theme: Actions of Russia in the Near East

Problem. Moscow has renewed a policy of times of cold war in the Near East to belittle a role of the USA in region and to establish the former influence which has almost disappeared in 90th Pri Putin, Russia gives considerable support to a mode of Asada in Syria; raises cooperation level in trading and nuclear sphere, and also sells arms to Iran; pays compliments with sunnitskimi the governments in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Incorporated Arabian emiratov; supports diplomatic contacts to HAMAS (the Islamic terrorist organisation of Palestin). In September, Russia has begun intervention in Syria to struggle with government Asada opposition, applying aviablows and rockets.

Recommendations: the USA costs:

To distinguish who is the enemy. Counteraction to the Russian influence in the Near East means counteraction to government Asada in Syria, to a mode of Hamenei in Iran and to terrorist groupings, such as HAMAS which are connected with Iran.

To disclose the facts of close connections of Moscow with Syria and Iran and to shame for it.

To apply sanctions concerning the Russian firms and banks which deliver arms and double purpose technologies to Syria and Iran.

To suspend cooperation with Russia within the limits of the Quartet (the USA, the United Nations, EU and Russia)

Theme: the Russian threats in Northeast Asia

Problem: Russia has approached with the North Korea to minimise efforts of the USA on isolation and pressure upon Pyongyang, caused by infringements of resolutions of UNSF.


Has announced the plan of carrying out of joint military doctrines in 2015.

Has declared that the Russian-Korean business projects and financial operations can be carried out in roubles, thereby bypassing sanctions of the USA in bank sphere which regulate dollar transactions.

Has confirmed that Kim of Ship's boys-in in May will visit Moscow and will meet Putin.

Has forgiven to Northern Korea debts and has agreed to help to restore to it a dilapidated power supply system and a Ry network in exchange for rare-earth mineral resources.

Russia regularly makes intrusions into air space of Japan on bombers and scout planes, compelling Tokyo to apply fighters-interceptors. Moscow and Tokyo have disagreements concerning the state accessory of northern territories (Kuriles) on which Japan but which are kept by Russia declares the rights.

Recommendations: the USA should:

To finance defensive obligations of the USA in Asia.

Completely to apply the measures provided by the legislation of the USA concerning illegal actions of the North Korea.

To apply more significant sanctions concerning the North Korea.

To support actions of Japan in cases of intrusion VS the Russian Federation.

Theme: the Russian-Chinese relations

Problem: Russia and China approach after the sanction, imposed to Russia in communication by its intervention in Ukraine. It is not obligatory that economic relations will lead to creation of a strategic alliance. In relations of Moscow and Beijing is both an antipathy, and sympathy. Nevertheless, the further rapprochement between two countries will represent diplomatic, political and military calls to the policy of the USA in ATR.

Recommendations: the USA follows:

To understand interests of both countries. In spite of the fact that China and Russia difficult relations from the USA, at them has not enough things in common and their sights considerably differ. To unite two countries begins an error, it is necessary to distinguish and exploit distinctions between Russia and China.

To understand that neither Russia, nor China will not take the side of the USA.

To strengthen alliances in region.

Vladimir Putin has made a considerable feat. It has made a fool two US presidents that it was or could become reliable, and also that it could become the partner for the USA. Two times of the USA have been disappointed. It is impossible to admit, that the USA have made a fool and in the third time. The basis of all problems is made by the Russian government. Clear videniekompleksnoj strategy of the USA concerning Russia begins with that understanding that Russia not on a way to democracy. It avtokratija which keeps the political power force, swindle and careful ideological attacks to the West as a whole and to the USA in particular. The USA it is necessary to start with realities, instead of from the biases.

In 1943 Winston Churchill has told: «experience has taught me that it be no point to argue with the Soviet people. It is necessary to resist to them only by means of announcement of the new facts, and then to wait for their reaction».

It is that course according to which it is necessary to operate concerning Russia. The USA will achieve nothing by disputes in a case with Russia. It is necessary to tell truth, easy to show that the USA are not considered by Putin's government as the full international partner, and to let know that the Russian aggression and animosities finally will lead to notable consequences. It is necessary to wait only for reaction of Russia and to react accordingly.

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