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A methodological approach to the assessment of the moral psychological state of the personnel of the PLA
Material posted: Publication date: 07-05-2020
In this article the methodical approach to assessing the morale of personnel of the people's liberation army (PLA). Special attention is paid to the fundamental units of the command of the PLA to maintain Borsalino-psychological sostoyaniya (IPU) in the army, the main group of indicators-characteristics of MPs personnel. We consider the views of Chinese military experts on the maintenance of MEAs the Chinese military at the proper level.

In modern conditions of military-political guidance (CPG) people's Republic of China (PRC) continues to pay special attention to issues of moral-psychological training (WFP) personnel and armed forces (AF) in General and for effective participation in local (regional) wars, peacekeeping and counterterrorism operations. It examines the training, and based on it the development of moral-combat qualities (MBK) troops as one of the foundations of the effectiveness of modern and especially future military operations[1]. This takes into account the fact that, as shown by the fighting of the US and its NATO allies in Iraq and Afghanistan, despite the use of high-tech weapons, the successful outcome of modern warfare is still largely dependent on the behavior of personnel in the battle, his psychological mood and stability[2]. In this regard, the study and education of the relevant characteristics of personnel has always been, and will continue and intensify in the future to command all levels of government, the people's liberation army (PLA).

The General basis of this approach consists of two interrelated fundamental installation command of the PLA:

  • the recognition of the moral psychological state (MPs) personnel as part of the military potential of the armed forces and a reflection of shared moral and psychological potential of the population as a whole taking into account the specifics of military organization and tasks[3];
  • the account in practical activities of the troops of a specially prepared structures, solving the problems of MPP[4].

The above setup allowed the Chinese military experts-researchers to determine the overall conceptual approach the CDF of the PRC and the methodological approach to the formation and use of the moral-psychological component of the operational and combat training of the PLA.

Research of scientific publications in the field of military psychology, ethics and morality, other relevant legislation and military regulations and manuals show considerable interest of foreign specialists to this premetei region., So, the most significant among them for the considered problems in modern conditions and on prospect are prepared in 2018 scientific work of the RAND Corp.'s "firm resolve to fight. Analysis and modeling of combat operations of military forces" (Will to Fight, Analizing, Modeling, and Simulating the Will to Fight of Military Units. RAND Corp, 2018)[5] and "Annual report of the U.S. DoD suicides in the armed forces" (DODSER Dep of Def Suicide Event Report, 2018)[6], and the TRADOC instruction No. 525-3-7-01 "the Study of moral aspects of the personnel of the US army for the period 2015-2024", developed in 2008, but preserves legal force at present (TRADOC Pam 525-3-7-01. The US Army Study of the Human Dimension in the Future 2015-2024, 2008)[7].

In China there has recently been a rapid growth of publications on the topic of information warfare, propaganda and influence of MPs staff. In 2011 she published the monograph "fundamentals of strategic communication"[8]. Book authors Bi Yantao and van Tszinlin received a high rating of the generals of the PLA Liu Junji and Csana Susana and chief political commentator "Phonex TV" of Ruan Cesana, who wrote her Foreword. In accordance with the monograph of projecting the state into the consciousness of the national and foreign target audiences of certain strategic values, interests and goals by an adequate synchronization of multifaceted activities is one of the areas of propaganda at the present stage.

The content of these and other earlier sources shows that the concept of MPs personnel, the PLA is considered the CDF of China in broad and narrow sense.

In a broad sense, it refers to a set of principles, values and ideas (plants) a purely military, political, economic, moral and ethical, consistent with national heritage and linked to national interests, goals and objectives of the state and implemented in the specific conditions of activities of the armed forces[9]. This complex is raised, it is approved in the minds of young people possible contingent of recruits and servicemen of the armed forces in the context of moral and psychological education as an integral part of the integrated training of personnel of the armed forces (operational, combat and moral-psychological).

In the narrow sense of the moral code – a set of legally approved and written uncommitted (traditions, customs) of the military principles of morality and politeness, moral and ethical standards, requirements and obligations of conduct (effective solutions of tasks) in all conditions in both peacetime and wartime[10].

In modern conditions of fast changes of military-political situation in the world, the increasing importance of human values, recognition of the soldier a full-fledged citizen of the society which it serves, the role of human and related moral and psychological aspects of the use of the armed forces and the armed forces of even greater importance is the moral-ethical image of the personnel of the PLA, which is formed within a specific methodological approach that includes five main foundations of WFP:

  • ideological and theoretical;
  • military-political (military);
  • socio-economic;
  • organizational;
  • the national psychology.

The ideological and theoretical foundations include primarily national, socio-philosophical, political concepts of "pre-destiny" and "globalism." They are designed, first, to contribute to the development of the Chinese military sense of pride in "the most advanced country, its achievements and the need for their protection"[11], including military force; second, to justify the aspirations to world leadership, belief in the advantage of the Chinese armed forces and their combat capabilities.

The concept of globalization is closely connected with the above concepts and its main purpose consists in the theoretical and psychological justification of ensuring the national interests of the PRC by all means, including military means, in any region of the world.

Military-political (military) bases. Their accounting impact due to the fact that the formation of moral shape of personnel, the PLA is not abstract and purposefully, primarily based on the purpose of the goals and objectives of the armed forces as a military instrument of policy implementation of the national security of China under the national military strategy and the complex of military-political and strategic attitudes needed to accomplish the military tasks.

The main elements of the military-political framework to be considered when using the appropriate methodological approach to the formation of MPs required are as follows:

  • the objectives and goals outlined in the guiding strategic documents for the PLA as a whole and for each type of aircraft. They require maintaining a permanent increase in the level of IGA personnel, particularly in connection with necessity of formation of positive international image due to the expansion of the use of American troops not only with current and probable armed conflict in different regions of the world, but also in terms of their absence: peacekeeping operations, combating terrorism, drug trafficking, humanitarian operations, and others. In addition, tasks include ensuring the readiness of personnel to meet the challenges of an uncertain future that requires the development of new approaches to learning and training, including moral and psychological, education, and problems of cohesion of military units, especially in connection with the alleged creation of new structures, for example, a hybrid of armored and infantry battle groups;
  • support for technological superiority in the ATA, helping to shape the minds and the psyche of the Chinese military sense of pride and confidence in their capabilities for effective decision of tasks in view;
  • conducting a WFP personnel under operational and combat training based on professional knowledge and experiences, exercises or military operations, the fundamental values of the nation and the highest moral and ethical requirements that ultimately leads to the development of servicemen high MBK;
  • achievement in the interests of the Chinese nation complex, historically formed and stable long-term base objectives with the sun:
    • the protection of life, property and personal safety of Chinese citizens;
    • the preservation of political freedoms and national sovereignty together with its values, institutions, and territorial integrity;
  • maintaining as the highest priority, CDF China's high level of combat readiness of the PLA, including moral and psychological ensuring implementation of the requirements and provisions of national military strategy in any situation and in any region of the world.

Socio-economic framework reflects the level of socio-economic status and living conditions and activities of the population and armed forces personnel. The importance of these elements for the formation of MPs aircraft is that assessment of their financial situation largely determines the nature of the relationship of the Chinese, including the military, to the political activities of the Chairman of the CPC Central Committee and the government, including the construction of the armed forces, the degree of support of practical activities and also affects the susceptibility of certain categories of the population and armed forces personnel to the impact of the media and relevant organizations, including military, in the exercise of educational-psychological functions.

The organizational framework includes a system of bodies, officials, and services at various levels and the implementation of moral-psychological training of personnel.

The primary responsibility for the units for maintaining the desired level of MPs personnel rests primarily on commanders, which, along with the tasks of combat training, the planning and carrying out educational activities, prevention of such negative phenomena as the violation of discipline, alcoholism and drug addiction. He is the guarantor of equal rights of soldiers, regardless of their race, nationality, gender. In its daily activities, the commander is supported by a number of staff officers, specialists in specific aspects of work with staff (Deputy chief of staff for personnel, the officer of the IPU, officer information, etc.).

More broadly, it now appears justified to allocate two services that perform the bulk of functions to create the necessary moral and psychological image of soldier: service personnel and reserves, and public relations.

The first service is addressing these challenges in the office of the Secretary of defense (Deputy Secretary of defense for personnel and readiness) and kinds of armed forces on the basis of the activities of assistants and Deputy Ministers on staff and resources, headquarters Deputy chief of staff for personnel.

Service of public relations is one of the main structures of the armed force in the field of formation of the required ideological and based on this, the IPU personnel. It is presented to the relevant structures in the headquarters of associations and connections, there are departments and divisions on public relations. The chiefs of these structures are the principal advisors to commanders for relevant aspects of moral-psychological training of personnel, consultations with staff officers on issues of education, cooperation and interaction with the media. The units considered the service represented by staff officers of public relations[12].

The peculiarity of the formation of moral shape of personnel is the lack of a unified Central governing or coordinating body covering all aspects of MPs personnel, material and domestic facilities, religious (ethical) education and socio-political training. However, a key role in maintaining the required level of MPs personnel belongs directly to the commander.

National-psychological framework. In accordance with Chinese experts of the methodology for generating and evaluating of moral-psychological appearance of the personnel of the PLA these basics include the following elements: national character, mindset, character and content of behaviour as a manifestation of national temperament.

National character is contradictory and complicated. However, currently he has acquired a certain universality, which are characterized by such traits as diligence, efficiency, practicality, entrepreneurship, and others. Each of these traits is characterized, in turn, own certain qualities.

Mindset. According to the views of Chinese experts, the most characteristic features of Chinese military thinking is empiricism, practicality, pragmatic approach, standardization of basic concepts, the tendency to focus on the immediate results of the activity and its quantitative characteristics.

Dynamics of behavior as a manifestation of national temperament. This element, as noted by Chinese psychologists, includes first of all traditional patterns of behavior. Members of the armed forces they mean the quality performance of their duties, including moral and psychological standards and requirements, and the effectiveness of the solution of tasks on the basis of high morale and fighting qualities. It should be noted that the pattern of behaviour is also influenced by the place of birth, residence. Thus, the participation of Chinese military contingents in UN peacekeeping operations in the middle East and North Africa showed that representatives of national minorities (a total of 56 nationalities) differ some imbalance and incontinence, but have fast response, relatively high interpersonal skills. Han (titular nation, 96 % of the population) without initiative, are closed, but aggressive in groups, are physically fit and hardy. Opinion polls conducted in the PLA, show that more than 60 % of officers appreciate enough the morale and fighting quality characteristics of subordinates and tend to give them preference.

In General, according to Chinese military experts, the national psychological foundations represent a psychological basis, it is necessary not only to generate the required moral-psychological orientation of the personnel, but also to maintain and adjust their MPs in accordance with the requirements of the policy ensuring national security of the PRC on the basis of application of the armed forces.

Thus, the formation of moral shape of personnel of the PLA military leadership of China comes from a multifactorial approach that includes five main pillars: the ideological and theoretical (uniform state philosophical-ideological concepts), political and military (base of the strategic military installation for the preparation, formation and use of armed forces), socio-economic (standard of living of the population and military personnel, their social security), organizational (the system of bodies and officials that solve the corresponding tasks training and ensure MPs personnel, national-psychological (national character mindset and the dynamics of behavior).

In practice these fundamentals are implemented in the context of the armed forces of the PRC program-target method that is tied to specific programs for the formation of the desired moral and psychological appearance of personnel[13].

In General, by the aforementioned foundations of the methodological approach considered by Chinese experts in the process of formation of the required MPs personnel of the PLA, covering a wide range of exposure to different aspects of this process: political-military, socio-political and psychological. Thereby, according to the above-mentioned specialists creates a comprehensive approach to the formation of MPs of the PLA as appropriate accepted national moral and psychological standards, and meets the requirements of a purely military ethics and morality.

Implement the fundamentals of the methodological approach used by Chinese military specialists for forming the required moral and psychological appearance of the personnel of the PLA, carried out through the development and inclusion of the methodological approach list of specific indicators of the characteristics of MPs in the armed forces as a whole and by category of personnel (table).

Table

Main group indicators – the characteristics of the MPs of the personnel of the PLA

 

Indicators

Brief contents

1 socio-political
(loyalty)

The degree of support of domestic and foreign policy of the government; political inclination

2. Motivation

The military-corporate criteria: solidarity, respect of the personnel for military service, patriotism

3. Moral-psychological readiness

Strong belief and physical readiness of staff to participate in combat and non-combat operations with weapons

4. Professionalism

Military professional and moral fighting qualities of the personnel

5. Relationships within military units

Quality of relations between servicemen of different categories; the degree of spacenoth, mutual aid and corporate

6. The intellectual level of the personnel

Education and mental (psychophysical) development

7. Religion

Attitude to religion and belonging to the major faiths

8. The state of the discipline and the level of performance of officials and military-professional duties

The presence or absence of disorders: suicide, sexual harassment, alcohol abuse, drug abuse; violation of corruption, irrecoverable losses in the fighting and others

 

The methodological approach to the formation of MPs personnel, the PLA is a long, difficult and complex process. This is due to three main reasons:

  • the diversity of requirements and complexity of the object-carrier of moral norms, which is how the civilian population (especially the potential draftees), and members of the armed forces taking into account the specifics of military service;
  • the close interplay and interdependence of moral and psychological education with the main aspects of training for military operational, military, moral-psychological and physical;
  • the diversity and complexity of influencing factors that make up the fundamental basis of the IPU and require due consideration in the process of organization and holding of WFP staff, as well as its estimation and forecasting.

In modern conditions, especially when you have to predict IPU personnel of the PLA in the use by the aforementioned foundations of the methodological approach, of particular importance to modeling. According to Chinese military experts, the simulation promotes deeper understanding of certain aspects of the assessment of MPs of the armed forces, to improve the planning of combat operations, increase the efficiency of information and intelligence operations, as well as further research on improving the operational and combat training and training of personnel.

Ruslan Polnocy

List of sources used

  1. Bartosz A. conflicts of the XXI century. Hybrid war and a color revolution. – M.: Hot line-Telecom, 2018, 284 p.
  2. Bartosz A. Fog of hybrid war. Uncertainties and risks of conflicts of the XXI century. – M.: Hot line-Telecom, 2019. – 324 p.
  3. Public relations and communication management: foreign experience / under the editorship of E. N. Pashentseva. M., 2006; Pashentsev E. N. Communication management and strategic communication: modern technologies of global influence and control. M., 2014, etc.
  4. Pokrovskiy I. F. Counter-propaganda in the ideological struggle. L., 1986. P.13.
  5. Treatises on the art of war / sun Tzu, Wu Tzu, translated by S. Keith., Preface and comments. N. And. Conrad. – M.: AST: ASTREL: SPb.: Terra Fantastica, 2011. – 350 p
  6. Shevchenko A.V. the Information stability of the political system of post-industrial society / Diss. Doctor. his political science Kuban state University, 2006 -385 C.
  7. Will to Fight. Analizing, Modeling, and Simulating the Will to Fight of Military Units/ RAND Corp. 2018 – 221 R.
  8. Military Suicide Prevention and Response. CRS. April 30, 2018. 2 R.
  9. TRADOC Pam 525-3-7-01 "The US Army Study of the Human Dimensions in the Future 2005-2024". TRADOC 2008 – 233 p.
  10. 毕研韬, 王金岭著. 战略传播纲要.--北京:国 家行政学院出版社, page 250. (Bi Yantao and van Tszinlin, "Principles of strategic communication" // Beijing, Publishing house of political literature, 2011, p. 250)
  11. 中华人民共和国反恐怖主义法(2015年12月27日第十二届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十八次会议日中华人民共和国主席令第36号公布通过,自2016年1月1日起施行)URL: http://www.mps.gov.cn. On the suppression of terrorism: the Law of the PRC (adopted at the 18th session of the standing Committee of the NPC of China of the twelfth convocation 27.12.2015, promulgated by the decree of the President of China from December 27, 2015 No. 36; shall enter into force from 1 January 2016)
  12. 中国的亚太安全合作政策:中文 / 中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室发布。– 北京:外文出版社,2017 – 55页. The exchange rate of China on cooperation in the sphere of security in the Asia Pacific region // the office of public Affairs of the State Council of the PRC. Beijing, 2017, 55 p.
  13. 中国的军事战略:中文 / 中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室发布。– 北京:外文出版社,2015 – 54页. Chinese military strategy // the office of public Affairs of the State Council of the PRC. Beijing, 2015 – 54 s.

 

[1] Bartosz A. conflicts of the XXI century. Hybrid war and a color revolution. – M.: Hot line-Telecom, 2018, 284 p.

[2] Bartosz A. Fog of hybrid war. Uncertainties and risks of conflicts of the XXI century. – M.: Hot line-Telecom, 2019. – 324 p.

[3] Treatise on the art of war / sun Tzu, Wu Tzu, translated by S. Keith., Preface and comments. N. And. Conrad. – M.: AST: ASTREL: SPb.: Terra Fantastica, 2011. – 350 p

[4] Public relations and communication management: foreign experience / under the editorship of E. N. Pashentseva. M., 2006; Pashentsev E. N. Communication management and strategic communication: modern technologies of global influence and control. M., 2014, etc.

[5] Will to Fight. Analizing, Modeling, and Simulating the Will to Fight of Military Units/ RAND Corp. 2018 – 221 R.

[6] Military Suicide Prevention and Response. CRS. April 30, 2018. 2 R.

[7] TRADOC Pam 525-3-7-01 "The US Army Study of the Human Dimensions in the Future 2005-2024". TRADOC 2008 – 233 p.

[8]毕研韬, 王金岭著. 战略传播纲要.--北京:国 家行政学院出版社, 2011. 250 page. (Bi Yantao and van Tszinlin, "Principles of strategic communication" // Beijing, Publishing house of political literature, 2011, p. 250)

[9] I. F. Pokrovsky Counter-propaganda in the ideological struggle. L., 1986. P.13.

[10] A. Shevchenko Informational stability of the political system of post-industrial society / Diss. Doctor. his political science Kuban state University, 2006 -385 C.

[11]中华人民共和国反恐怖主义法(2015年12月27日第十二届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十八次会议日中华人民共和国主席令第36号公布通过,自2016年1月1日起施行)URL: http://www.mps.gov.cn. On the suppression of terrorism: the Law of the PRC (adopted at the 18th session of the standing Committee of the NPC of China of the twelfth convocation 27.12.2015, promulgated by the decree of the President of China from December 27, 2015 No. 36; shall enter into force from 1 January 2016)

[12]中国的亚太安全合作政策:中文 / 中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室发布。– 北京:外文出版社,2017 – 55页. The exchange rate of China on cooperation in the sphere of security in the Asia Pacific region // the office of public Affairs of the State Council of the PRC. Beijing, 2017, 55 p.

[13]中国的军事战略:中文 / 中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室发布。– 北京:外文出版社,2015 – 54页. Chinese military strategy // the office of public Affairs of the State Council of the PRC. Beijing, 2015 – 54 s.


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