The article is devoted to the evaluation policy of the military-political leadership of the PRC in respect of national minorities. The author examined approaches to the implementation of the national policy in different historical periods, including at the present stage, analyzed programs and solutions in the field of internal policy of China, noted the differences in the attempts to integrate various ethnic groups.
People's Republic of China is one of the largest multinational States in the world, which is home to 56 officially recognized Nations. Among them are the titular nation of the Han Chinese. The results of the 6th China population census in 2010. Han Chinese account for 91.51% of the total population of 1 billion 370 million. Accordingly, 8,49% are other 55 peoples and nationalities, which in China at the legislative level the status of national minorities.
For a country like China the aggravation of ethnic problems threatened the collapse of the state. Chinese authorities have used various methods to resolve this kind of contradictions, but elected they often only led to growing nationalism among the national minorities. Therefore, the current leadership of the CCP and the PRC consider the national question as an issue of strategic importance. An important aspect of national policy is the protection and preservation of traditional culture of indigenous peoples. This problem is topical not only for China but for the whole of the modern world, which had entered the phase of globalization. Modern civilization is necessary to preserve cultural diversity as a necessary condition for its further development.
The national policy of China's leadership evolved over the centuries. From the middle of the II century BC in the era of the Han Empire of China began to consistently pursue a policy of annexation of territories inhabited by non-Chinese peoples. For this, the Chinese state has used very flexible methods based on a deep understanding of the differences in lifestyle and level of economic development of the Han people and their neighbors. In the Han time there was a political practice of "weak leadership of the barbarians," which were developed special principles of political, administrative and legal regulation.
State the traditional doctrine of China proclaimed that the beneficial influence of the Chinese monarch have not only Han, but also "distant" peoples, who themselves submit and come to court with tribute .
In this regard, all the peoples and tribes who were in varying degrees of remoteness from China, was considered either as actual or as potential vassals of the Chinese state and the Imperial steps to the inclusion of new land in the administrative-territorial structure, official ideology explained either by the patronage of the ethnic peripheries or the need for punishment for violation of vassal duties. During the Tang dynasty (618-907) in Chinese political doctrine was introduced the idea of multi-ethnic (multinational) state, which is home to both the Han and the "barbarians".
That historical management practices of non-Han peoples smoothly blended into the national policy of the Chinese government. But before to consider the national policy of the CCP in the period after the founding of the PRC, it is worth noting some historical moments during Imperial China and in the period after the collapse of the last Imperial Qing dynasty, which happened in 1911.
Relations between ethnic minorities and the Han Chinese population has for a long time were strained due to the fact that the accession of China to the Western territories held by the subordination of the indigenous population. In the period of the Qing dynasty during the conquest by the peoples of the West were treated with cruelty. After the conquest in 1758, Dzungaria local male population were massacred almost to a man. On the devastated land was created the military settlement, which in large numbers began to send Chinese peasants and residents of other territories of the Empire. Military was joined by and Kashgaria .
Tensions between ethnic minorities and Han Chinese is also due to the fact that the Chinese government has always supported the Han Chinese, the totem of the nation, while some of the needs of national minorities are ignored by the government.
The result of the conquests of the Qing Empire Chinese ethnicity was an unusual situation when the political boundaries of the state, enshrined in international treaties, does not coincide with the ethnic boundaries of its traditional residence. And included in the Empire of new territories and living in them are ethnic groups that are on the edge the outskirts of the Empire, demanded the strengthening in them of the positions of the Central government and the traditional Chinese culture. Hence, historically there is a tendency of the Chinese leadership to the acculturation and assimilation of indigenous peoples. But the insignificance of the number of the Chinese ethnic group living in these areas, the compactness of the indigenous ethnic groups and the relatively short period of their cohabitation with the Hans, makes it virtually impossible for the natural process of acculturation. From the Qing state, like his successor of the Republic of China was only possible enforced acculturation of these ethnic groups.
As it is noted by Chinese scientists, "the Han Chinese historically traditional view, according to which they put their nationality is very high, and all other nationalities and especially the border of foreigners is very low, considering that they cannot be considered on a par with him".
But, despite the fact that in the history of China was a short-term separation and local differences, unity was always the main direction of development of China.
During the long process of unification of economic and cultural exchanges is closely tied the people of all ethnic groups in China, forming the interdependence, mutual promotion and mutual development among them and contributing to the creation and development of Chinese civilization.
Unity and cooperation among the various ethnic groups helped to defend China as a United multiethnic state. In particular, when China became a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society and the Chinese nation suffered from imperialist invasion, oppression and humiliation, and was reduced to the status of oppressed nation. To preserve the unity of the state and the dignity of the Chinese nation, all the ethnic groups came together and fought hard together against foreign invaders and ethnic separatists. In the 19th century the people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang, together with the Qing troops destroyed the reactionary forces of Jacob Running and defeated a conspiracy of the British and Russian invaders on the division of China. In the late 19th and early 20th century, Tibetan people and troops dealt a heavy blow to British invaders at the battle on mount Lungten and Glance. During the eight-year war against Japanese imperialist aggression (1937-1945), the Chinese people of all ethnic groups shared bitter hatred of the enemy and fought bravely and unwavering. It is well known that many anti-Japanese forces with ethnic minorities as a prop, such as a national squad Hui and the anti-Japanese guerrilla contingent of Inner Mongolia, made a great contribution to the victory of China's war of resistance.
All this confirms that, due to their interdependent political, economic and cultural connections, all ethnic groups in China share a common destiny and interests in their long historical development, creating a strong force of affinity and cohesion.
Since the founding of the CCP in 1921, is quite clearly looked through several main stages (periods) in the development of the theory and practice of nation-building .
The first phase covers the period from the founding of the CCP in 1921 to the formation of the PRC in 1949, the Feature of national policy this period of time was the fact that it was formed under the influence of the two dominant parties - the CPC and the Kuomintang, and after the second exile to Taiwan, under the leadership of the CPC.
A characteristic feature of this period is that the CCP has followed the experience of the Soviet Union in the understanding of the nature, content and ways of solving the national question. Also, the CCP policy was opposed to the policy of the Kuomintang and attitudes put forward by sun Yat-Sen.
The second period covers the period from 1949 to 1956 - the period of implementation of the principles laid down in "the General program of the CPPCC". This stage was characterized by the organization of the Institute of regional national autonomy and the first socio-economic transformations aimed at reducing the backlog of nechanice from Han.
The third period lasted from 1957. to 1977 and includes periods of "great leap forward" and creating "people's communes" period "settlement" of the early 60-ies, and, finally, the "cultural revolution". The hallmark of this stage is the fact that the CCP, maintaining its old theoretical concept of the solution of the national question in China is actually pursuing a completely opposite policy aimed at the final elimination of any kind of national identity and the complete subordination of the national regions of a single centralized leadership.
One of the main directions in solution of these problems was the creation of "people's communes" and the accompanying movement "for the socialist and Communist education" in a Chinese village.
The result of this period was that the village had eliminated the economic basis of independent activity of individual homesteads, destroyed the gene pool of the peasantry. Thus, the act of creating "people's communes" was dealt a final blow to the national identity of the minorities, they became really "an integral part" of China. "People's commune", it not only makes impossible the existence of the personalized of the owner, but destroyed the traditional tribal and clan ties and the local ethnic groups, they would lose their national and individual identity and become a cheap mercenary force of the state. Those who refused to cooperate, was doomed to death by starvation, as the commune gave the opportunity to the new government not only to lead the masses, in dependence on the state, but to subordinate them even in matters of food.
The fourth period began in 1978 and, in my opinion, ended in 1999 since 2000, the PRC government began to actively engage in the development of the Western regions . The state Council of the PRC officially announced a policy document aimed at the development of the West.
As for the fourth period, notably the return of government to principles of nation-building of the 1950-ies. In 1978, the 3rd Plenum of the CPC Central Committee 11 convocation has started the implementation of the policy of "four modernizations" policy of reform and opening .
Analyzing this period we can draw the following conclusions. The national policy of the CCP has become an integral part of the leadership of China from 1978 policy of reform and openness. As the implementation of policy reforms in the areas of national leaders of China realized the strategic importance of the national question. Normalization of interethnic relations in the opinion of the Chinese government, possible only through the establishment of a developed economy in the places of compact residence of national minorities. The extension of material aid to national districts contributed, along with the success of reforms in the country as a whole, the growth of the main socio-economic indicators in them. However, the results of the reforms in the national regions was less significant, due to the peculiarity of the policy of the CCP aimed at priority development of the Eastern regions. At the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries, the lagging Western areas from the East has become particularly noticeable, which required in turn the adjustment policy reforms to reduce it.
Socio-economic factor is the leading national policy of China. Indeed, China's economy is one of the leading in the world, although the country was founded only in 1949, we should Not forget that China is a multinational state, and ethnic diversity, as you know, has a direct negative effect on economic growth.
A striking feature of the national situation in China in the mid-20th century was a large variation in socio-economic development of non-Han ethnic groups. According to the testimony of Chinese researchers, the gradation levels of development of mechanized stretched from the final stage of "primitive society" to the development of feudalism with all sorts of transitional stages. At the same time, the number of peoples in their development little or almost no different from the surrounding Han. Such, for example, were scattered throughout China, the Hui, the Manchus, partly jouancy in Guangxi. But most non-Han ethnic groups were at lower levels of development than the Han Chinese. Also typical was the unevenness of social development in the framework of the same ethnic group. So, cava (present – VA) living near the mountains Avalani in Yunnan province, were at the early stage of feudalism, whereas cava, who lived in the mountains, kept the remnants of the final phase of primitive social order. Some units Hainan Lee, who lived in the mountain regions, preserved the primitive custom of joint cultivation of land, equal distribution of the products of labor; at the same time, whether from other parts of Hainan island is significantly ahead in the development of their mountain tribesmen. Elements of slavery remained part of the nose (Lolo) Sichuan, although in General their society had a more complex type.
In areas inhabited by non-Han nationalities are almost completely absent from modern school education. In 1949 the number of students nechanice in the few primary and secondary schools was 2% of the total number of students in the schools of China. The exception was the individual a small administrative areas, where the education of nechanical studied Western missionaries or had local and national traditions of schooling. So, in Guizhou province in the district of Sicuani (parish Chimanimani), where one of the Miao groups, the missionaries created quite a few Miao schools. The education was carried out on the basis of specially designed in the early 20th century by the English missionary C. Pollard script. Quite high by Chinese standards, the level of education existed in Yunnan tai. In the district Sipsongpanna (chin. Xishuangbanna) about a third of the Thai people were literate in the local Thai language Taiwan. In the County St. Lucie County Dehong in the Yunnan province 50-80% of the Thai population owned another type of Thai language – Taban. Widespread had written taidong among Thais of the County XI. But all this is a very rare exception. The coefficient of illiteracy among nechanice was generally high, and many nationalities exceeded 90%.
Before the Foundation of the people's Republic of China, agriculture and animal husbandry in areas inhabited by national minorities in China developed very slowly. Some areas were still at a primitive stage of agricultural production, and in some areas a tool for the use of iron was not used. In addition, water conservancy facilities were inadequate. All of this is required of indigenous socio-economic and political reforms. Here it is worth noting that for the normal economic growth requires political stability, and to keep her in the border areas was very difficult. Moreover, Xinjiang and Tibet was the buffer zones separating the Central Asian Islamic States and the USSR from China, so keep them in the part of China was a necessary condition for peaceful and stable development. This, of course, needed to economically develop these areas that China started to do.
By the end of 1990-ies of the economic situation in ethnic areas has improved significantly. However, the socio-economic situation of national areas was difficult. Despite major transformation in the Autonomous regions, since 1949 the development of the economy of the Western regions and the standard of living among the non-Han population was significantly lower than in the Eastern regions of the country. Growing discontent among ethnic minorities has increased the threat of ethnic terrorism in Beijing and Urumqi were terrorist acts .
The government understood that to eliminate the threat of riots and terrorism is possible only by raising the living standards of ethnic minorities. To do this, in 1999, adopted the concept of "Go West" (westward movement).
At the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries in China are beginning to put into practice the sayings of Deng Xiaoping, Hu Yaobang and Zhao Ziyang on the need to develop Central and Western regions of the country . Chinese researchers believe that the underlying policy of development of Western regions was laid in the 1980-th years of Deng Xiaoping in the thesis of the "two situations" - the development of primarily coastal areas, and then Central and West.
In the framework of the development of the West was allocated to four main areas: the study of the resource potential of the region and the construction of mining and manufacturing industries; expansion of agricultural production through modernization and expansion of irrigation system; development of an extensive infrastructure; activities aimed at environmental protection.
The implementation of the program was to be carried out in three stages: before 2005 — preparatory work; 2005-2015— the initial stage; 2015-2050.— continuation of large-scale works. The main task in the implementation of the plan is the use of new technologies and methods, the restructuring of the region's economy, competitiveness, etc. In the program of development of the Western regions provides not only the exploitation of the resources of the district, but also for raising the standard of living of non-Han peoples.
The program, designed for 50 years, expects to achieve an average GDP growth of 6 %, that will increase GDP of the Western regions to 40 trillion yuan. Of these indicators, the government plans to achieve by implementing the following measures: the development of mining manufacturing industry development zones, border trade, movement to the West of experts from highly developed regions of the PRC and the training of specialists, development of social infrastructure, creation of universities.
Areas of Western China was always distinguished for its ethnic heterogeneity. The Chinese government in turn is interested as quickly as possible to "dilute" national minority Han Chinese. If the Hui this process fails to implement fully, in relation to other national minorities, the leadership of China has an advantageous success. For example, the younger generation of ethnic groups: Miao, Li, buoys speak mainly in Mandarin (the national language of a single Chinese language media and the Hans). Customs and traditions in many Nations gradually lose their value. Is erasing cultural boundaries between the Han Chinese and national minorities are obviously not in favor of the latter.
The rapid economic growth of the Chinese state contributed to the formation of a new system of management of the national question. The transformation of the views of the Chinese leadership, was initiated by the challenges of modernization of the state. The main problem faced by the Chinese authorities is the economic, transport, industrial backwardness of the Western region. Beijing, Shanghai and other developing cities is not comparable with the cities of the Western provinces on economic indicators. For example, the rapid pace of technological growth, the economy, modernization of transport networks in major cities of China, there is a new subway line in Shanghai, high-speed trains in China. In comparison with Western areas, is a huge gap, which was necessary if not to eliminate, then try to smooth.
Since 2000, Beijing put forward a variety of projects and programs aimed at the development of acceleration of the West. These include "Plan-31 the 10,000 businesses go to the West", "plan 15".
From 2000 to 2017, the Chinese government invested 6.5 trillion yuan in the implementation of 300 projects. China skillfully uses the experience of other countries: Japan, South Korea, Singapore, which implemented the strategy of the so-called "flying geese". The basic idea of this strategy is the transfer of technology and production base from developed countries to developing countries.
Also the Western provinces provides a variety of benefits and made concessions. For example, national minorities are exempt from the policy of "one child" families of the national minorities are allowed to have 2 or 3 children. Some families in the border districts even allowed to have more than 3 children. Students belonging to national minorities are given additional points for their status in the entrance exams to colleges and universities. However, according to some scholars, this is done in order to gain the best of members of national minorities with a view to their future accession to the Communist party. In order to recruit loyal party members of nechanice, the Chinese government even established a Central University of national minorities in Beijing, which currently employs highly qualified teachers of different nationalities.
Despite the crisis in 2008, the implementation of the "Go West" was not suspended. Over the last decade, the PRC government has made tremendous progress on the implementation of the program. First and foremost, improved transport and energy infrastructure of the Western regions of China. For example, have implemented large and complex project for the construction of the railway, the path which runs through the mountains and connects Qinghai and Tibet. We should not forget about the second branch of the West-East gas pipeline that connects Xinjiang with other provinces.
From 2010 to 2013 for the construction of 30,000 km of rural roads was spent 17.8 billion yuan. The road network covered 2574 villages, and 167 towns and villages, which are home to 4.76 million farmers. This suggests that over the last decade, China has made significant progress in improving transport, energy and economic relations in the Western region. In 2017 for the construction of expressways in Xinjiang was invested 170 billion yuan, 6 times more than in 2016 began construction of more than 6,000 km of highways. Also the region allocated 8.1 billion RMB in the construction of Railways, which is 50% more than in 2016 Is to say that Xinjiang in the future will play an important role in connecting China with countries along the "silk road". However, the ethnicity-related questions still remain open.
Large-scale changes resulted in the change of everyday life of ethnic minorities. The transition from traditional homes to contemporary homes, the accelerated process of urbanization, for representatives of national minorities established "Universities of nationalities". However, the socio-economic progress has a downside, it not only contributes to the transformation, but the disappearance of ethnic culture of national minorities of the Western regions of China. All programs aimed at improving economic performance in the West, in parallel, directed to the assimilation by the Han Chinese ethnic minorities. The large influx of Han Chinese into the Western regions to accelerate the process of assimilation. Appears the percentage of mixed marriages among the Han and ethnic minorities. In the framework of state security, the Chinese government profitable as quickly as possible to accelerate the process of assimilation and consolidation of China's population. Even in officially declared projects and plans, the term "unified Chinese people".
The report on the development of areas inhabited by national minorities for 2004, actively mentioned "Plan 15" is the overall plan to improve the quality of life of the Chinese people. The "Plan 15" does not contain the term "national minorities". The plan uses the concept of a "United Chinese people", that is not supposed to be separation of Chinese ethnicity on nationality. Thus, attention is paid not only to increasing economic performance in the West, but also the creation of a single civil nation. As for multi-ethnicity in these areas, the government aims to achieve the relative ethnic homogeneity of the population by bringing in representatives of the Han Chinese population, which facilitates control by the state.
Of course, ethnic culture of national minorities can not disappear without a trace, and assimilation is not able to be so ambitious. In China are still peoples who live in accordance with traditional way, they have not yet realized fully the various means of communication: the Internet, mobile communications, etc. Their life is in continuous communication with nature. Traditions and customs affect everyday life and are an important component of ethnic culture. Despite the fact that aspects of traditional culture of indigenous peoples are controlled by the government of China, some customs and traditions, mental characteristics of national minorities still persist.
The conflicts that arise between the government and the national minorities are not pure ethnic character, rather economic and political. The basis of the conflict is "resentment", resentment against unfair management of the Han Chinese Western areas, income inequality, fighting for jobs. Western regions are rich in resources, which bring considerable revenue to the Chinese economy, but the quality of life of indigenous peoples from this is not getting better. With the influx of the Han population in the Western areas, the percentage of competition for jobs has increased and employment preference is given to the representatives of the Han Chinese population.
The traditional way of life of national minorities is changing rapidly. Some elements of ethnic culture transformirovalsya, but mental characteristics remain unchanged. Many representatives of national minorities continue to celebrate holidays in accordance with national traditions.
China is doing a lot to ensure equality among ethnic groups and enhance their unity. The Constitution contains provisions on the need to combat shirokorechenskiy group chauvinism, mainly Han chauvinism and local nationalism. The state also educates all citizens in the unity of all ethnic groups. In literary and artistic works, films and television programmes, news reports and academic research, China vigorously advocates the equality and unity of ethnic groups, and opposes ethnic oppression and discrimination, and especially against "velikorusskogo nationalism" . In addition, for the prevention and suppression of nationalism in the ideological sphere, the relevant departments and organs of the Chinese government has developed special provisions for the strict prohibition of material injurious to ethnic unity in the media, literature and art.
In China, any words or actions aimed at inciting hatred and discrimination against any ethnic group and sabotaging equality and unity among peoples are considered to be violating the law.
The PRC government also aims to instill a perception of "inseparability" of national minorities from the Han Chinese and the Han people from the national minorities, thus forming the "United civil nation". One of the aspects of the formation of "one nation" is the formation of correct relations between the various nationalities. The attitude of Han Chinese to ethnic minorities revealed through sacred rituals, the cinema. For example, during the flower festival, Miao holds a comic struggle between the Han and Miao. When there is a tug of war, Miao and Han are on opposite sides, trying to pull the rope to their side. Such competition reflects the stereotypical perception of and attitude to the Miao Han, hints at the distinction and competition between peoples, but in the end still wins the friendship, symbolizing unity.
The basis of the program of development of the West is unshakable faith in the transformative power of economic modernization, which, to some extent, in the opinion of management, China will eliminate the problems of an ethnic nature. Summing up one can come to the following conclusions.
The policy of consolidation of the Western regions justified by economic growth and the creation of a powerful state, while the ethnic identity of indigenous peoples relegated to second place, leveled, leading to a gradual assimilation of national minorities. Compared with the Han population of the national minorities are in a less favourable situation. The degree of satisfaction with standard of living in the environment of national minorities is much lower than among the Han.
The Han Chinese against the ethnic minorities feel a sense of inseparability. While the Western regions to Han is a promising economic future. In the ethno-cultural aspect of the Han Chinese are not the enemies of ethnic pluralism, but are supporters of the vision of "one China, one people, one nation".
The national situation in China has always been challenging in terms of inter-ethnic relations. Despite the attractiveness of Chinese culture, the relationship of nechanical with Han Chinese was not smooth. Although the history of China and you can find evidence of cooperation between the Han and non-Han peoples, the disagreement that existed between the two sides, acutely manifested in each historical epoch. The territory inhabited by non-Han nationalities in approximately 64% of the area of China . The majority of mechanized lives in Western China. The Han population in the region are also presented, in some provinces it prevails, and some are not. For example, in Tibet, the indigenous population accounts for 96% of all residents, and in Xinjiang 50%. I happened to mention these 2 regions, as shares of separatism is most manifest in those areas.
This is caused because there are limits to the rights granted to national minorities. First, according to the Constitution, China is a "unitary multinational state", in which strictly prohibited the separation of any territorial units from the state, is maintained ethnic unity, as separatist activities severely punished. Secondly, as the ruling party, the CPC has the ultimate authority over local governments. Powers of chief in the Autonomous regions, is lower than that of Secretary of the CCP of the same district, in fact, that it is the holder of real power. According to their national origin, secretaries of the party mostly belong to the Han Chinese. This has led to what some observers considered regional autonomy as a political facade to disguise the Khanate. Third, staff members of the CPC from national minorities must faithfully adhere to the policy of the party and must refrain from various political demands of national minorities, contrary to this course. Of course, it is worth noting that in their ethnic national minorities of the Western regions is fundamentally different from Han people. The Uighurs of Xinjiang are Muslim, and Tibetan Buddhism, which contributes to the emergence of religious conflicts. Also great dissatisfaction among national minorities causes historically, the CCP policy aimed at assimilation of indigenous peoples.
All this contributed to the growth of separatist sentiments in the Autonomous regions. However, many ethnic groups have indicated their wish to develop together with all of China as their standard of living has improved considerably since the beginning of reforms in China. This was the impetus to identify with the Chinese nation. However, 2 of the 5 boroughs have a strong protests to the policies pursued by Beijing. Not hard to guess what it is Tibet and Xinjiang. Besides the fact that these areas are rich in natural resources, they also are an important strategic area, since they occupy a middle position on the Eurasian continent. Also Xinjiang is an important trade and communication hub, geo-economic centre of Western China. According to the Xinjiang Chinese goods into South Asia through the Pakistani port of Karachi. Also, in the future it will play an important role in created the China "silk road". Therefore, the Chinese government should not lose control over these territories.
The revitalization of separatist sentiment began actively in the 1990-ies. The main reason, in addition to the active process of modernization of the country, was the collapse of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. In neighboring Xinjiang Central Asia at that time began the rise of ethnic nationalism. Beijing faced with the problem of so-called "three forces" - separatism, terrorism, extremism and destabilizing the situation in the country. Xinjiang in this period reiterated the desire to create in their territory an independent state of East Turkestan .
Another important point was that the USA, after the events of 11 September 2001, supported the ongoing Beijing's policy towards Xinjiang. 26 August 2002 the US state Department, the official Beijing and the UN, it was announced that one of the Uighur separatist organizations "Islamic movement of East Turkestan" (ETIM) is included in the list of international terrorist organizations. Also, China's policy was supported by Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan, as their territories have also been terrorist acts involving Uighurs. This contributed to stabilization and short-term "calm" in the region.
But clashes between Uighurs and government forces was not long in coming. The most famous outside of China mass collision began rioting in Urumqi in 2009. The occasion was an altercation that took place very far from Xinjiang in the South of China into a wealthy and industrialized Guangdong province. In Shaoguan, in the factory "Early Light International", the world's largest manufacturer of toys, has introduced a quota for workers from Xinjiang. The event was part of a larger program of the Chinese authorities, which since 2008, 200 thousand young Uighurs were recruited to work in the developed coastal province of China. So, the factory is among the 20 thousand Chinese were about 800 young Uyghurs. Conflict is not salvail to wait long and between workers from among the Han and Uighurs clashed. All this resulted in a mass brawl to end the conflict needed intervention of 400 police officers. The fighters tried to finish off opponents even in ambulances. According to official data, two Uyghurs were killed and more than hundreds injured.
It is significant that the Chinese authorities executed not only Uighurs, but the number of active participants in the riots from the ethnic Chinese. There was a revealing shot is one of Chinese instigators of the fight in the dormitory of a toy factory in Shaoguan, which became the detonator of the riots in Xinjiang also sentenced to death at least one Chinese from Urumqi. The intelligence agencies of China have officially declared that the main instigators and leaders of the unrest was conspiratorial Uighur separatists.
It is known that at the present moment on the territory of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous region, there are several terrorist organizations, the largest of which are "Islamic movement of East Turkestan", and "Organization of liberation of East Turkestan". They have close ties with al-Qaeda and the network of international terrorism. Members of these organizations are engaged in drug trafficking and trafficking in people and weapons, in addition, they are involved in robberies and kidnappings for ransom. It should be noted that Uighur fighters in his time, fought in Afghanistan and is currently taking part in the fighting on the side of antigovernment forces in Syria. Among the extremists Beijing classifies, and active in the West, "world Uyghur Congress", led by a woman named Rabia Qadir. Funding the organization receives from the "National Fund donors United States in defense of democracy," which in turn is funded by the U.S. Congress. The organization, according to Rabia Qadir, serves only for the provision of Xinjiang wide autonomy with the right to protection of their culture and the independent development of mineral resources. Oddly enough, and here is seen the hand of Washington. There is also a number of terrorist organizations, Beijing will carry current in India, "Tibetan youth Congress", which is part of the "Tibetan government-in-exile" headed by the Dalai Lama. This organization has repeatedly committed terrorist acts in the cities of Tibet Autonomous region. The most famous are the act of violence that occurred on 14 March 2008 in Lhasa, capital of TAR, in which 14 people were killed and over 100 injured.
All this contributed to the fact that on 27 December 2017 China took the first in the history of the country's anti-terrorism law . According to him the PLA has received the right to conduct anti-terrorist operations abroad. Also, the authorities have the right to involve legal responsibility not only for the organization, planning, preparation, implementation of terrorist acts and participation in terrorist groups, but also for propaganda, incitement to terrorist activity. The document also limits the right of the media to give details of terrorist attacks, distribute the data associated with the terrorist activities that could "provoke imitation. Providers of telephone and Internet connections required to give to the authorities codes information encryption, and user passwords to the competent authorities. In addition, the ordered telecommunications companies to locate servers and other equipment with personal user data in China.
From 2016 all without an exception of inhabitants of Xinjiang were obliged to hand over their passports for safekeeping in local law enforcement. The Uighurs still can move freely around China, but to travel abroad must now undergo additional procedures until the delivery of DNA, blood and fingerprints, as well as doing voice recording and even 3D images .
One of the means of dealing with "separatists" are political education camps operating in the city of Kashgar in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous region. At the moment there is about 120,000 Muslims of Xinjiang, who are forced to sing revolutionary songs, to study the ideas of Chinese President XI Jinping and speak Chinese .
Also, the Chinese government is very severely restricted the contacts its Muslims with foreign co - religionists have reduced the number of those who are allowed to go on the Hajj to Mecca, now there from China can take only elderly people. In this case, the person who obtained the permit on the Hajj to Mecca, party leaders of the Xinjiang officially propose to replace a pilgrimage to the free tour in Beijing
Thus, we can conclude that both in Xinjiang and in Tibet there are wide layers of the population dissatisfied with the ongoing Beijing policy. These grievances result in a different kind of anti-government protests, riots and even terrorist acts, but the Chinese government also carries out various activities aimed at stabilizing the situation in the region.
The national policy of China is influenced by two main factors. Historically, the predominant Han Chinese is the defining typological characteristic of the multiethnic Chinese state. Han, as a numerical majority of all the peoples of China, is a part of it, which in the course of history has secured a dominant political, economic and cultural role in the country. The leading role of Hans, which form the ethnic core of China, is one of the most important factors that have a global impact on the national situation in China.
It is also worth noting that the bulk of national minorities inhabits the Western and southwestern regions of China, and these lands are rich in natural resources, which, of course, required a fast growing China for further development. Therefore, the main objective of which is the leadership of China in its policy towards the national areas, remains unchanged - to retain them as an integral part of the territory of the PRC and, to the extent possible, by peaceful means to carry out socio-economic and political transformation, which provides the breakdown of the traditional economic and social relations within them and the subsequent realignment of the ruling political elites and their subordinate unified leadership of the CPC, on the one hand. And with another - creation of economic, political and ideological foundations for the irreversibility of the process of integration of national regions into a single China, bringing into them political directives of the CCP and their complete subordination to a single Central leadership.
China in various ways contributes to the implementation of these goals. But analyzing the policies of China in respect of national minorities can be traced to a single trend. It consists in the fact that for a long time, China has sought to assimilate indigenous people with Han Chinese, in order to create "one nation". We can say that largely it is impossible, at present almost all administrative units markedly the predominant Han population. Of course, in a country where lives only one nation, easier and more effective to pursue a policy for the implementation of any specific goals. But, nevertheless, there are regions that for various reasons cannot be completely assimilated by the Han Chinese. In regions such China, it is already possible to say, forcibly instills in the population a sense of love for "the Motherland". In turn, this causes a feeling of "discontent" among the local population, resulting in various protests and riots. As we can see, China takes this very seriously and, with all the rigidity suppresses various manifestations of separatism, which can contribute to the separation of the country into separate independent States.
Overall, the historical, socio-economic and political reality in China is that you can't disagree with the main directions of the ongoing Central and regional governance, national policy, involving as a key element of the continued stability in national areas and their integration into a single economic and state mechanism. Another way to date does not exist, and the strengthening of separatist tendencies is unlikely to promote the development of national regions in the direction of a truly civil society and the national revival democratic.
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