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Material posted: Publication date: 09-12-2021
The PRC's policy in the field of technology in general and information technology in particular follows from the general policy of the country - China, the oldest civilization on the planet, is confident that it is returning to the usual historical role of an economic, cultural and technological leader.

Digitalization of industry and logistics. To achieve this goal, the PRC considers it necessary to increase the potential in the field of IT and communication technologies based on 5G, artificial intelligence (AI), microelectronics (see materials of the 19th session of the CPC Central Committee).

Regulation of national cyberspace can be defined as the desire to find a balance between formal non-interference of the state in cyberspace, legislative protection of personal data turnover and the need to collect and use information about citizens. At the beginning of 2021, several laws were adopted in China.

For the first time, the law establishes an exhaustive set of rules on data collection and protection and can be applied to foreign data processors, unlike the 2017 Cybersecurity Law. Entered into force on May 1, 2021.

The Civil Code enshrines the right to privacy and the principles of personal information protection. It defines personal information as various kinds of information (first name, last name, date of birth, identity card number, biometric data, residential address, telephone number, email address, health information, information about places of stay, and others) that are recorded in electronic or other form and allow, individually or together with other information, to identify a certain individual. The Code establishes the legal basis for the processing of personal information, obligations for personal information processors, the rights of individuals to their personal information and the obligations of administrative bodies to preserve, non-disclosure and non-proliferation of data obtained by them in the performance of official duties. The Supreme People's Court defines a "dispute on the protection of personal information" as the basis for initiating a civil action in accordance with the Civil Code. The law came into force on January 1, 2021.

The Law on Cryptography is intended to regulate the use of encryption, promote the development of the encryption industry, ensure information and national security, public interests, protect the legitimate rights of citizens, legal entities and other organizations. The law refers to cryptography as "technologies, products and services that apply certain transformations to information to ensure encryption and authentication." The implementation of the law is monitored by the State Cryptography Administration in cooperation with the National Directorate for the Protection of State Secrets. The law defines three categories of encryption: basic, basic and commercial. Basic and basic relate to ensuring national security. Commercial involves interaction between commercial structures.

Creating an alternative strategy for regulating global cyberspace. China is striving to form a legal framework for behavior in cyberspace that could be adopted by the world or regional community in the absence of legally binding international treaties and international legislative regulation in this area.

Ensuring the country's technological leadership in four areas: AI, 5G, supercomputers, space.

China is a leader in the introduction of 5G. By 2023, China could get full 5G coverage and be ahead of other powers. By 2025, 40% of the world's 5G users will live in China (500 million people). Experiments on the introduction of 5G are being conducted in Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen. Exponential increase in the volume of transmitted data due to the deployment of 5G networks will contribute to the creation of peripheral data centers (mini-data centers on the periphery of the network), where the most demanded data will be stored for quick access to them. The number of such data centers will increase by 700% by 2025. Despite the geopolitical tensions, other countries are turning to China as the largest supplier of equipment for 5G networks.

Purpose of use

Number of satellites

China Russia USA
Observation 177 30 408
Communications 49 87 1250
Earth Science 2 2 3
Space Science 15 9 39
Technology development 71 15 128
Positioning, navigation, time 49 29 34

Based on the materials of the STC FSUE "GRCHTS"


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