In this regard, the West discusses the findings of the study lead analyst of the International centre ciberpolitica the Australian strategic policy Institute, Samantha Hoffman. Its main conclusion is that China is not limited to the defensive strategy of turning the country into a high-tech society, and striving to transform, ultimately, the first nearest neighbors, then the sphere of influence, and finally – the whole world on the Chinese patterns of high-tech management on the basis of traditional Confucian values (global Engineering consent. The Chinese Communist Party's data-driven power expansion, Report No. 21/2019).
Using the state enterprise of Chinese technology companies and partnerships around the world as with Western companies, universities, China is building a global ecosystem of digital control. This system incorporates constantly updated data warehouse, development of secure cross-border cloud-based storage system, own hardware and finally, a full range of artificial intelligence.
Most of these components develops and manufactures China itself. It borrows the other in the West, mainly in American companies and reworks itself. Third – takes from the partner countries and allies, primarily from Russia.
According to Samantha Hoffman, Chinese liberationism or cyberconference, is the first in the history of the world the state machine functioning based on strict rules (algorithms). The algorithm, in contrast to legislation, always cruel, unambiguous and not intended different interpretations or adaptations to the situation. The algorithm is so fashionable nowadays smart contracts is conditionally executable program. I.e. under certain conditions the program, in spite of everything, carry out certain actions.
In fact, China is the world's first creates a fundamentally new preventive automated state machine, which is designed not only for internal but also for external use. According to the authors, in reality, the Chinese leadership has set the task to create a system of effectively functioning state apparatus as a giant machine, of course, free from corruption, nepotism, theft and other deficiencies inherent in government structures at all times and all over the world.
According to the findings of the Australian report, for the ruling group of the party of the Chinese state modern high technologies, including big data, artificial intelligence, supercomputers and cloud computing and smart cities, systems of continuous surveillance video, etc., are valuable tools for creating algorithmic control not only China and the Chinese people, not just allies and partners in China, and in the future all of humanity.
Some Western think tanks, and behind them the intelligence circles have come to the conclusion that the likely real purpose of China is not information and communication the country's sovereignty and the eternal preservation of the rule of the Communists in China and reworking all over the world for the Chinese algorithmic patterns according to Chinese historical tradition and worldview.
Without such broad prospects, until recently, remained obscure to the amazing generosity of China in technology transfer in e-government monitoring and control over civil society in relation to Chinese friends and allies. From 2017, at present, China has transferred hardware and software, organizational and ICT solutions in the field of surveillance and control over citizens millions of yuan and dollars to their allies and customers across the planet absolutely free of charge.
Few people realize, writes Samantha Hoffman - what a Grand gesture of China in the Western free replacement hardware and communication solutions in the Chinese, a huge scale to facilitate the creation of systems of state management and national security and finally, opening of branches of Chinese companies and development centers in the partner countries, is not than other, as a tool of globalization, the Chinese state surveillance and control over behavior.
With the same is associated and seen in the community Five eyes (Five Eyes - unified cyber command of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, UK and US) growth, starting from 2015, a grant or concessional supply of software and hardware for the armed forces and intelligence agencies of the countries-partners, confidants and friends of China. In fact, through the replacement of the Western Chinese servers, computers, routers, and so forth celestial places under the control of the PLA armed forces of other countries seeking friendship with China.
Digital tools revolutionising old art of manipulating public opinion. In the twenty-first century, the West finally recognized the power and superiority of Chinese strategic art. It is necessary to state, says Hoffman, that only today, Western military, intelligence officers, politicians imbued, but not yet fully imbued with the consciousness that the world can be more devastating than war, and manipulation are more effective than coercion. In fact, the whole Chinese strategy and tactics, Dating back thousands of years of continuous development, based on the preference of indirect, subtle and therefore the most efficient power. It is no exaggeration to say that algorithmic dominance is a technological implementation of the famous treatise by sun Tzu and other Chinese military thinkers offering a workaround and not a direct way to victory in the confrontation, "not the path of war, and the cunning way".
Advances in data collection technology, artificial intelligence and behavioral soft coercion, finally let the Chinese at the instrumental level to implement that at the level of judgment was well known to them several thousand years ago. If the traditional Western advertising and propaganda are quite rude methods of correction the opinion of the population, the algorithmic politics allows not only to manipulate, and to create and use deep, down to the instinctive setup of the masses, defining their actions in the real world and the virtual. This allows the target groups not to stick out their dominance, but in reality with a high degree of probability, to achieve the desired results due to the weak impacts and economical use of resources.
Perhaps one of the most striking results achieved by China is the silence of the intelligence community, politicians, civil society in the West regarding Chinese expansion of intellectual processing of data worldwide, across borders, etc.
Oddly enough, the first time the danger of behavioral aggression was recognized on both sides of the Atlantic as a result of the scandals around the presidential elections in the United States. Miraculously, the West shaken by scandals related to the political consulting firm Cambridge Analytica using data for the 50 million members of the social network Facebook to carry out targeted operations associated with voting for trump and Brexit.
In addition to Cambridge Analytica attention involving illegal behavioral effects, media is constantly being drawn to Russia and elusive Russian hackers. It is Russia, according to Hoffman, wrongly, is accused of the widespread use of digital technology for the manipulation of public opinion in the United States and several European countries.
The report notes that no one says anything about China. Moreover, it seems that the Chinese deliberately used as their unwitting accomplices prone to sensationalism and superficial generalizations of American and European media. According to the Five eyes community, instead, to explore the main global Chinese behavioral initiative - they are focusing on secondary – specific program Cambridge Analytica and methadonemaintenance Russian interference in the presidential election of 2016.
To make the world harmonious with the party
CCP doesn't even hide inside of China to its fundamental objective is to provide not just domination in the global information space, and to turn the whole world into a resource for Chinese development. General Secretary XI Jinping, as already noted, the main purpose of the development of the country calls "the Formation of a community of common destiny for humanity."
The Toolkit, which is designed to eliminate in the Bud the threat of party and state security known to the leadership of the party and the state as a "social loan". Through the formation of a system of indicators of social credit to citizens of the state and quantify this trust by every citizen of the CPC seeks to create the world's first solid global tool and ensure party leadership of behaviour based on equally coercion and encouragement.
The Chinese leadership believes that the greatest threat to the ideological, cultural and political security involve not national problems, but are formed and appear from the outside. The principle of "external little threat of destructive large internal problems" is a fundamental principle of Chinese domestic policy, which underestimate abroad. The Chinese, relying on five thousand years of continuous history, came to an unshakable conclusion: really devastating for Chinese unity, prosperity and peace, the problems always start from the outside. The inner turmoil or superimposed on the external catastrophe, or created them.
Here is the main secret of Chinese policy. This secret is absolutely not comprehended by Western leaders, intelligence community and researchers. The Chinese, even for internal events, always looking through the lens of external. For the Chinese civilization, unlike the Western, characterized by a particularly close attention to external rather than internal events, risks, threats. This is largely due to the fact that in the course of its history, China has never sought politically to expand beyond the rather limited area of the basins of the Yangtze river and the yellow river, which historically existed a Chinese nation.
For a first century attempt to take control of external processes, and thus the external risks and threats was the occupation after the Second world war Tibet uiguria that were not previously part of the Chinese Empire. The Chinese elite over the past 50 years concluded that the direct capture hostile territories generates the Chinese have more problems than fighting with them. The topic of Tibet was dissolved from China and India, had a negative impact on the perception of China in the Anglo-Saxon world. Occupation uiguria undermined Sino-Muslim relations.
Currently, the Chinese leadership solves the problem of stabilization and harmonization of the situation in Eurasia on the basis of the formation of a joint sphere of co-prosperity, provide, including effective collective security system of sovereignty. Western intelligence this system is interpreted as China's effort to spread China's neighboring States Chinese system of governance and of monitoring the behavior of citizens on the basis of the data. According to one of the articles published in the party's Chinese publications, "the engineering behavioral data not only harmonizes national relations, but also can be successfully used outside the framework of the Confucian principle: the differences are not obstacles to harmony.
Now, in more detail, about the mechanisms algorithmic impact.
GTCOM is one of the leading companies in the field of big data and artificial intelligence. The company was established in 2009 as a subsidiary of the Central propaganda Department, directly controlled the world's largest publisher and teleradioveschateley in foreign languages - China Publishing Group. This structure currently publishes literature, and also conducts Internet and broadcast in 65 languages in 200 countries.
GTCOM originally was supposed to create and provide modern software and hardware for the collection, processing and storage of data for the parent company. Currently, however, this activity is only a small segment specialization GTCOM.
GTCOM performs major contracts for the creation, adaptation and exploitation of the platforms big data for the PLA, Chinese intelligence, the largest government and commercial companies. The company is also responsible for creating the material-technical base within the framework of forming the system of social credit.
According to the American intelligence community, GTCOM is either the largest or second (after Axiom, United States) Agency for dealing with unstructured data. GTCOM has created and effectively operates perhaps the world's most advanced integrated repository of time series data, individualized data on individuals and legal entities, financial transactions and Internet of things data. Although much of the data about the companies are classified, the representatives of the Five Eyes community are convinced that GTCOM surpasses the NSA's capabilities of collecting and integrating heterogeneous information, including structured and unstructured data, video, audio, images, sensor data, financial transactions data, standardized object, data, legal, physical, city data, etc.
Network of partnerships and alliances GTCOM collect all kinds of data. So, one of his many platforms Insaidersoft involved in imaging, collects 10 terabytes of data a day and about 2.5-3 petabytes per year. 10 terabytes is 4000 hours of video high-frequency. 5 trillion. words. 3 a petabyte is equivalent to 20 billion photos or 1.8 trillion. pages. I would like to emphasize that this is just one of the 12 platforms that have created and which works GTCOM.
Evaluation of the NSA, another platform YeeSight integrates 12 of the most advanced software in the analysis of natural languages and allows the day to analyze up to 700 billion texts a capacity of 4 typewritten pages. Recently GTCOM has created the world's largest corporate semantic translation with a matrix of 35 by 35. Ie connected to the platform daily in online or archive mode to transfer arbitrarily large amount of text with 35 in 35 languages.
To reinforce the information aggression, China in relevant international forums proposed and secured approval of the initiative "Understanding is the key to cooperation." Under the initiative, all States and legal persons – participants of the initiative "One belt and one road", and its components are "Digital silk Road" necessarily connected to the translation system GTCOM. Thus, they de facto transfer all data, including domestic nature, the Chinese government in the face of the GTCOM. In the framework of this initiative is currently in the system GTCOM reloadable stored in online data mode at 30 million legal entities and 500 million individuals, residents and registered outside China.
GTCOM is part of the party-state ecosystem the actors responsible for forecasting, elimination of political risks and public security. The value of this system goes far beyond the original framework for building the best semantic translation system from Chinese to foreign languages and Vice versa."
In 2018, the Director of big data GTCOM Liang HOU said: "by listening and interpreting transazioni data in real time, the company introduced new standards support operational and political security for the whole country and its separate regions... Only by timely recognition of images and voices, as well as convert the video to a video with following recognition, the country has managed tens of percent to reduce the risk of political and state security".
The key difference of the Chinese system from all others is functional, not departmental, specialty. For example, in the UK, the United States, Australia each segment, for example, the Ministry of foreign Affairs, Ministry of defense, intelligence agencies etc. have their own storage, processing and analysis of heterogeneous data. In China, the departmental stores as there are none. All these functions are performed by GTCOM. In the framework of the functions each Department has its own volume tolerance. The vast majority of specialists in data warehousing are convinced that the Chinese approach to efficiency and effectiveness significantly, perhaps by orders of magnitude, than traditional Western.
Starting in 2015, the Chinese leadership put forward the approach: "data words". Traditionally, the leadership of the party and the state received information about the mood in society to ensure political security, based on traditional, established in the West, sociology. The main tool of information was surveys. After the Declaration of the initiative GTCOM also, like many companies on both sides of the Atlantic undertook an analysis of the social media. The difference between Chinese on the one hand, and Europeans and Americans on the other, that the second and remained at the level of behavioral analysis of social networks. They continue to play with the number of tweets on a particular topic, their emotional stress, frequency of citation, coverage, etc.
The Chinese, taking into account the significant difference between words and deeds, first used for the behavioral analysis social data, and the results of surveillance data of the financial transaction data received from the sensors of the Internet of things, etc. as of today, China in the face of GTCOM is the only power with the tools of mass monitoring of the practical conduct and not speech. The Chinese method allows to predict and analyze sentiment in real time, not only in the InfoSphere, but in fact, in everyday reality, to evaluate not only words, but much more importantly, actions.
Among the recent initiatives undertaken by GTCOM – the establishment of the Institute 2020 or the Institute for cognitive and behavioral research. The main task of the Institute 2020 at the present stage is "the development of fundamentally new technologies of machine learning, deep neural networks, natural language processing, speech recognition, formation of text arrays purposeful, unconscious influence". These technologies are in accordance with the tasks set before the Institute, should be let by the end of 2020, to create the first working platform identification of texts and visuals on the criteria used to evoke particular emotions, the formation of deep-seated beliefs and enhance the settings and dominant.
In other words, China is the world's first is going to move from analysis of texts, in both Chinese and English and other languages not only by criterion of the content of the text appeals or motives to "violent, reactionary, anti-social actions, the presence of pornographic and other confidential information", and automated identification and assessment of behavioral effectiveness of texts and visual media.
With platform is meant not only to measure, and thus improve the effectiveness of the impact-generated content on the behavior of the citizens of China and other countries, but you can recognize these actions and their impact from foreign States and foreign operators information.
The fundamental difference between the Chinese system used in the United States is the rejection of the use of purely quantitative formal characteristics, the amount of information involved in the operations of social media accounts, frequency of citation, reference weight etc. the Chinese are going to measure is not in itself information, as do the Americans, and the emotional, cultural, and most importantly, the behavioral effects generated content.
The head of the Institute Jawa Ti June in addition to the leadership Institute, is a Professor and head of the Department of computer science and technology Harbin Institute of technology (HIT – similar to the American MIT). The Institute is a so-called one of the "seven sons of the national harrow PRC", i.e. one of the seven leading Chinese research centres, most significantly contributing to the research and development for the PLA.
As for weapons, based on the data, including the technology of behavioral influence, China will test a different sequence. Fundamental research based on them and applied research carried out within the framework of the GTCOM, complemented by instrumentation funded by the National Fund for natural and computer Sciences of China and the developments created in the framework of the National programme of research and development intelligence of China. These sistematizirovat become, if we are talking about the IT field in application programs, platforms, and given for use inside China in the framework of the Program of the State Council and outside of China within foreign policy initiatives of the Ministry of foreign Affairs of the country.
It should be emphasized that in fact GTCOM performs the function of the IT division for the whole of the Chinese leadership. This allows you to develop all informational, analytical and software tools of the most different Chinese ministries and departments on the same hardware, information, personnel and organizational basis. Because all of the platforms China's national security, including not only ministries and agencies but also the regional units of the Ministry of public security in the most sensitive regions of China, like Xinjiang and Tibet, based on the same platform - GTCOM, it makes compatible all the databases and knowledge of Chinese ministries and agencies, the state, political parties and other organizations.
In fact, China became the first country in the world where, at least in the framework of internal and external national security is a single integrated, so-called "seamless" (in the sense of a lack of barriers and boundaries) information environment encompassing data, software, and infrastructure.
As example is the cooperation between the GTCOM and Haivun Data (HD). HD is the developer, and accordingly, a niche contractor on all police soft. Not so long ago, the company managed to create an effective detection technology of micro-movements of the lips that allows you to read lips on video, where there is no audio. After the technology was developed and has been used to identify people within the framework of the activities of the police, the HD has transferred the development of GTCOM. The result has been to combine a system of silent reading with computer-aided translation. China has been a fantastic tool for information extraction from video streams, transmitted from different countries of the world.
GTCOM actively represented in the United States. She was in new Jersey and California as a foreign joint-stock companies "GTCOM Technology Corporation". The leaders of the company are Yang Guoqing and Tom Nigro. Company in the United States has positioned itself as a strategic partner Alibaba, Cisco, Microsoft and Softbank. In the United States GTCOM stresses that is also associated with formal China, like the parent company.
Despite attempts by the current US administration to block, or at least significantly narrow the company's activities in America, it fails because of the position of the computer industry. On the one hand, American IT company, in spite of the Great Chinese firewall, continue actively to work on one of the three largest planetary IT markets and therefore strongly support requirements of the administration of the tramp's isolation, Chinese companies in the U.S. market.
On the other hand, in a number of areas, particularly related to automated translation systems, as well as behavioral content analysis, GTCOM offers highly competitive solutions that use leading American IT companies, including Google, Facebook, etc.
Management through the convenience of
The Chinese party-state control technology more and more than not are challenging, but not coercive. A much more effective control over the individual and organizations can be obtained not through fear and coercion, and through the creation of instinctive desires to become a part of something, and in exchange, use convenient, economical and effective solutions that something. In the Chinese school of management this type of leadership has been called "managing by convenience."
In managing through the convenience of going on the exchange of autonomy on the ability to cheaply or free to use something comfortable and attractive for everyday needs or other important for a person or organization tasks.
According to Chinese doctrine, the government office through the convenience is implemented through the provision of free public services. For example, the system of traffic management in smart cities based on artificial intelligence can improve the quality of life for residents of congested cities. Accordingly, the government, or rather the city administration in exchange can expect from the citizens about greater compliance with public order and discipline.
As practice shows, for the vast majority of citizens of any problem that their data is collected and monitored, there is no if in exchange they receive first-class free services. Actually payment for services or data management through the convenience has become a reference model for the development of the English-speaking Internet since the mid 90-ies. Is free search engines that collect data of their customers - this is the most pure management model through the convenience. If to the West it was an accidental discovery in the early period of Internet development in China management through the convenience of is a historical tradition that date back centuries.
Global data system
There is a common misconception that only manufacturers of apps and other software, such as search engines, social networking, computer games, e-Commerce, etc. become owners of third party data. First of all, the owner of any content becomes the owner of the infrastructure and hard, wherever he was located physically. The one who made the server, gadget or supercomputer, uses it as the external terminal for receiving data processed installed software.
The most important position is still not a conscious policy, is that the property data is determined, first of all, no property in the software, and even no property in hard, and a monopoly on the production of hard. Manufacturers of hard servers, computers, gadgets and different kinds of communicators – can always get the data processed on his computer, regardless of the physical location of this server.
So the Chinese, looking at the data, see ownership of them, the main prerequisite of modern sovereignty. Accordingly, they understand that sovereignty can be respected only if hard, and not in their own view, and in the production of the initial basic components of computers – microprocessors, memory, graphics cards, etc. not just in the territory of a state, and completely under his control. Therefore, China is not so much Baidu and Alibaba, what, first, Huawei, and Lenovo GTCOM.
Only fully own production and therefore full control of the production of hard, software and big data guarantees in today's world, state sovereignty.
The Chinese, having huge financial resources, has not gone the way of buying shares in companies engaged in hard of all kinds and systems of telecommunications, and has invested in the creation of even inferior to the American, Japanese, etc. supercomputers and gadgets, own production lines of major components including CPUs, graphics chips, memory, etc. In the end, China, unlike, say, the EU, fully in control of all three components– hardware, software and data in the aggregate provides full information sovereignty.
The concept of the Five circles
According to public reports prepared in the framework of solving the Five eyes community, currently China is implementing the concept of five directions and the five circles in the framework of the tasks of XI Jinping to transform the "conglomerates of data in big and smart data, opening the way to knowledge, harmony and co-prosperity". Currently and in the near future Chinese science, business, the state administration is focused on comprehensive development and implementation of advanced information and communication technologies, which ultimately transform China into an information is the number one power. This occurs in five areas. They include:
- the creation of a fully self-sufficient industry of computer components and telecommunication systems for supercomputers, servers, personal devices and gadgets. Tasked to produce Chinese supercomputers and servers are fully at the expense of the components, including processors, memory elements, graphics card, etc., developed and produced in China;
- achieving a leading position in the field of software packages of artificial intelligence in all their diversity, integrated into the Chinese platforms, artificial intelligence;
- securing a global leading position of the Chinese manufacturers of optical fiber, telecommunications equipment and software solutions for 5G networks – the backbone of the Internet of everything;
- the transition from vertical integration within the big data inherent in modern large-scale information repositories to seamless, distributed system of repositories of structured and unstructured information, and multi-format data representing a single information environment;
- the development, production and effective management of a comprehensive range of devices related to the Internet of everything, as well as controls and monitoring, together representing the external sensory periphery single information environment.
Currently tasked to provide consolidation of the current leadership of China in the field of IT technologies for monitoring, verification and harmonization of mass behavior. According to intelligence analysts, China currently has implemented the concept of the five circles of data use in the interests of the Chinese people and the state. In this concept, fully demonstrated the Chinese style of thinking. He suggests merging the ancient traditions with current capabilities.
The ancient tradition of China is a specific world political geography. Picture of the world in Chinese is expanding from the centre, depending on interest and of conflict with China circles locations.
The center of the world is China, which is the self of the country called Middle earth. In the inner circle is the main harmonization through the data, using data as "a way to include every Chinese, every Chinese family, every village in China, every Chinese city and every Chinese province public joint harmonious prosperity of China under the leadership of the party and state".
The second circle consists of the countries included in the global project of China "One belt and one road". Here data is the key to a harmonious consideration of the interests of certain countries and peoples in the targets of the Chinese project of United way.
The third circle consists of the countries – friends and allies of China, regardless of their participation in the project "One belt and one road". With regard to these countries using data provided by symbiotic co-prosperity friends within the Chinese leadership.
The fourth circle is the country that in some areas, cooperating and collaborating with China and others competing with it. Relatively they implemented the course for a powerful presence and confidence through the use of benefits. Have in mind that China is still open for engagement with the same by the United States and offers the conditions of competition and mutually beneficial cooperation, including in the smart processing of large data as a way to preserve interaction even in conflict situations.
Chinese leaders explained the relationship at this level in the following way: "it is Difficult to expect that the contradictions between the United States and China can be completely negated. However, decisive are not contradictions, and interaction within global trade, knowledge exchange, people, culture. The normalization of relations does not imply a transformation of China in the United States, and the United States to China, and the preservation of originality and diversity. Each country must be approached with its yardstick, not someone else's criteria. This should be based, and information exchange."
Finally, the fifth circle covers the entire global world. Within this range the stated policy on the growth of connectedness due to the growth of the exchange, including information.
The Chinese are convinced that to ensure the informational independence of the state are insufficient, as provided by the law of China about Internet safety 2017 can provide storage of all data in the country, and to prohibit the transfer of data outside the country without the permission of the authorities.
The essence of information technology is that by itself property on software and hardware and telecommunications networks are insufficient to ensure the country's sovereignty. Unlike the physical world where the transition of ownership means full transition of control over it, for the information of the case.
When copying and transfer of information, it, being in another place does not disappear from the original location. In this regard, the true ownership information is only one who is guaranteed from its authorized or unauthorized transfer to the side. According to the official views of the Chinese leadership, the real sovereignty provides not property in itself, but creating your own, is produced entirely within the country of hardware and touch technology systems. Only in this case, the country can guarantee itself from copying and transmitting information on the party, including rival and hostile States.
Many provisions of the report of the Australian Institute for strategic policy is discussion. However, it deserves not only careful study, but thinking in Russia described the concept of information leadership. A course on monitoring and corrective control of the mass behavior is not a Chinese prerogative, and a worldwide phenomenon. The same processes at the scale of megacities occur in the US and the UK, South Asia and Latin America. The ever-increasing fragility of the world in combination with an avalanche-like increase of complexity and power of technology make the national security agencies and law enforcement around the world to improve the efficiency of its work, including due to the growth of awareness, the shift from investigation to prevention of offenses, incidents, riots, etc.
In these conditions a sober understanding of their own strengths and weaknesses, advantages and disadvantages, find your way to the consolidation of information sovereignty as found its friendly China.
Elena Larina, Vladimir Ovchinsky
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