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The role of Chinese communities in Southeast Asia
Material posted: Publication date: 01-11-2016
This article focuses on the Chinese community of Southeast Asia. It discusses the role and influence of the Chinese community of Southeast Asia on the development of the region. It is shown that the overseas Chinese to actively participate in all spheres of life of Southeast Asia: form a; basing their business; participate in policy; adopt the culture of the countries of residence, while maintaining their identity. It is important to note that residents of countries in the region, contradictory to the presence of Chinese in their countries (South East Asia).

In the context of globalization and regionalization [6] increasingly there is a trend of increasing influence of Chinese communities of South-Eastern Asia (hereafter sea) in the region.

The Chinese community of Southeast Asia is a powerful force, widely represented in the economic, political and social spheres of life in the region [1, p. 148]. The Chinese government has sought to use Chinese living abroad to strengthen foreign policy positions of the state [5, p. 158]. At present, mainland China sees the Chinese community as agents of policy of the PRC. However, it is worth noting that in the near future, it is hardly feasible, due to the ambiguous relationship of the inhabitants of the countries of the region to the presence of Chinese in politics and the economy of their countries.

Example of cooperation of China with the overseas Chinese of Southeast Asia is the organization of recreative and recreational activities for the workers of the metallurgical industry. Modern trends of globalization and regionalization encourage management to take comprehensive measures to ensure rehabilitation and recreation of employees [4, p. 79]. The optimal solution to this problem is the creation of objects of recreation and rehabilitation. But the creation of such objects appears to be costly. There is also the problem of the lack of certain climatic zones, necessary for quality and comprehensive rehabilitation. For example, in China is no sea dry climate. This is an incentive to cooperate with the construction business of overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia for the construction of recreation objects on the territory of other countries [4, p. 80].

In the beginning of XXI century the problem of intensification of the struggle for natural resources among various national elites and the Chinese community have reached a new level [1, p. 148]. Different countries react differently to the actions of the Chinese community in this fight. This mixed reaction is due to the specifics of the country and its development. The consequence of different reactions to the presence of the Chinese community, especially in the economy and politics are different levels of influence and the overseas Chinese are different chances for victory overseas in the struggle for resources.

Despite the fact that the opportunities and the situation of Chinese communities is different in different countries in the region, it is possible to identify a common trait of all the overseas Chinese of Southeast Asia. First, the Chinese community of Southeast Asia are actively cooperating with China, especially in financial terms. Most of the Chinese investment in ASEAN countries pass through banks in Singapore and Hong Kong. The choice of banks depends on the tax benefices or other type of business. Singapore banks are active in the financial operations of the overseas Chinese of Southeast Asia. Such assistance increases the chances of success in the struggle for resources. Also, Singapore banks provide banking advice. Thanks to the Singapore banks, the overseas Chinese is easier to understand the specifics of taxation for specific industries. All of the above means that Chinese capital is not just located on Deposit accounts, and is in permanent circulation in the rapidly developing sectors of the economies of Southeast Asia. Second, the overseas Chinese of Southeast Asia effectively integrate in the social environment through "formal assimilation" [1, p. 148]. The Chinese communities of Southeast Asia adopt names common in the countries of the region, perceived cultural traditions, beliefs. Moreover, "formal assimilation" is used to prevent the negative attitude of the representatives of the national elites to the Chinese ethnic group. Third, despite the "formal assimilation", the overseas Chinese maintain their identity. An important element in preserving identity are the preservation of the Chinese language as the language of correspondence and the formation of Chinese enclaves known as "Chinatowns".

The ratio of residents to overseas Chinese is different in different countries of Southeast Asia. To illustrate this statement, consider the interaction of the Chinese community Singapore and Malaysia. In Singapore, home to 75% of the Chinese. Government policy is balanced, all nationalities living in Singapore, are actively involved in the life of the country. The Chinese population has firmly consolidated its leading position in the country, actively interacting with other national elites, because the Malays, Tamils, Bengalis, Punjabis. In Singapore, there is a polarization of society.

Otherwise, things are in Malaysia where the Chinese population is about 27%. There at the legislative level to restrict the activities of the Chinese community from reaching the political, military spheres etc. are actively promoting the development of the Malay economy, the Malays. As mentioned above, the overseas Chinese have overcome this barrier "the formal assimilation."

Talking about Malaysia, not to mention its economic development. The most successful Chinese businessmen in Malaysia establish relationships monopolistic type in the region of Southeast Asia, as well as banking and industrial centers of Hong Kong [2, p. 355]. Examples of cooperation of Chinese business in different areas are: the film company SHAW Brothers - Chinese joint Malaysian-Singapore business Malaysia, MUI Bank, interacting with the Singapore chain of stores and shopping centers of the brand Beng. Malaysian Chinese Corporation Tan's Group to share with Berjaja company is engaged in construction business [2, p. 356].

It is also important to show the interaction of the Chinese community with the Union of Myanmar. Chinese capital in Burma are not homogeneous. It is divided into "formal Burmese" and capital from China and Singapore. "Formally, the Burmese" the capital – the capital of the Chinese, who by "formal assimilation" became citizens of the state. Capital from Chinese banks and Chinese corporations. These companies and banks act as lenders, the main requirement of which is the installation and maintenance of the equipment by Chinese citizens of the PRC. Capital of Singapore is also represented Bank of Singapore and several companies. Thanks to the support of its Northern neighbor Burma may, on the one hand, reforms on the other – forced to follow the paradigm of the interests of China in the region, often at the expense of the interests of non-Chinese groups [3, p. 168]. Such adherence to the interests of China leading to ethnic clashes.

In Myanmar, the Chinese community is divided into several categories. The first category – overseas - takes up 6% of the population. Citizens of the state. This category has all the formal rights of the state of the Union of Myanmar [3, p. 164]. Another category builders Corporation CNPC (China national petroleum Corporation), located in the country under the agreement, Myanmar and China on the construction of gas and oil pipeline. Traditionally, Chinese corporations are attracted to your expertise in construction of various facilities abroad [3, p. 165]. Given these facts, the number of Chinese in Myanmar accounted for about 12% of Chinese. The presence of the Chinese in Burma, and in particular their activities there creates a certain kind of social tension.

To summarize, we can conclude that the results of the activities of the overseas Chinese are ambivalent. On the one hand the struggle for the resources of the overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia are positive: the Chinese community get a number of benefices with the support of the PRC, the PRC beneficial cooperation with Chinese minorities in the countries of the region, the activity of the overseas Chinese in ASEAN countries has beneficial effects on the development of these countries. Notwithstanding the above positive outcomes of participation of the Chinese community in the economic and political issues Southeast Asian countries, there are several reasons due to which the results of the struggle for various resources in Southeast Asia for the Chinese capital are negative. The main reasons for the negative results of the struggle of the overseas Chinese for a variety of resources, in my opinion, are the high activity of the national elites in the traditional sectors of the economy and a negative attitude towards the Chinese in Southeast Asian countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam.

Southeast Asian countries are one of the dynamically developing regions of the world, and Chinese communities play an important role in their politics and Economics.

Literature

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  2. Changes in the geostrategic map of Asia and North Africa in the early twenty-first century. Ed. by A. M. Khazanov / the Institute of Oriental studies. – Moscow: Center of strategic conjuncture, 2014
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Nikitin Sergey


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