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Russian-Chinese relations: the main areas of cooperation in the XXI century
Material posted: Fostiychuk JulianaPublication date: 21-03-2015
Russian-Chinese cooperation is one of the most promising directions of the foreign policy of both countries. In this article examines the key aspects of this cooperation.

The Peoples Republic of China in contemporary history becomes more and more powerful geopolitical player in the world. China tries to take as more as possible active part in world matters. Involvement of the Peoples Republic of China in such organisations, as: the United Nations, ATES, SHOS, the BRIX etc. allows it to implement the national interests.

As well as China, a significant role in the world are played also by the Russian Federation. Per se, the recent player on geopolitical arena of the world, Russia has attained considerable successes in solidifying of the agency in the world, including for the account of establishment of strong Russian-Chinese ratioes.

These mutual relations play a significant role in a geopolitical conjuncture of Russia. The given interstate cooperation is especially actual in connection with the become aggravated ratioes between Russia and the West countries.

The Peoples Republic of China, being world trading power and leaning against the potential and the gained in strength role on the world scene, forms new foreign policy. This policy makes increasing impact on international-political and mirohozjajstvennye the processes directly affecting not only its proximal neighbours, but also all corners of globe. For this reason the foreign policy of the Peoples Republic of China interests many contributors in the field of the international ratioes.

In the conditions of conversion of the modern system of the international ratioes Russia also starts with the national interests formulated in Strategy of national safety of the Russian Federation, come into force on May, 12th, 2009. They consist, in particular, in consolidation of a position of Russia as great power - one of influential centres of the multipolar world, in development of equivalent and mutually advantageous ratioes with all countries and integration join. Implementation of national interests of the Russian Federation in the international orb in the area of mutual relations with the Chinese partner staticizes a problem on character of modifications happening both in the world, and in foreign policy of the Peoples Republic of China.

Now the Chinese National Republic (Peoples Republic of China) - one of the potential superstates, the state of the world largest on population (from above 1,3 mlrd the person), takes the third place in the world on territory, conceding only to Russia and Canada.

China - the second economy in the world. Gross national product for 2013 made 7,318 trln dollars, and in December, 2014 at par of consumer ability has come out on top, having overtaken the USA. China possesses the greatest in the world work forces - 803 million 300 thousand people, leading on this index India, all EU, the USA and Russia. The gold and exchange currency reserve of the Peoples Republic of China for 2012 also exceeds reserves of all other countries - 2,45 trln doll [1].

China - the fourth importer in the world (1204 mlrd dollars in 2010) and second the largest the exporter (after Germany) - in 2010 incomes of export have made 1581 mlrd dollars Rushing is inherent in this country to occupy the leading part not only in economy, but also in the politician. The Peoples Republic of China leads now the exterior

The policy promoting solidifying of a role of China in world politics, thus adheres to rather neutral position. China is aimed to impose not on purpose to political leadership a pattern communistic is administrative-distributive public model. Its task consists in becoming the equal countries playing a key role in creation of a new world order, and to show a pattern the readiness to bear responsibility for planetary development.

The primal problem which is delivered before foreign policy departments of China, consists in that already in immediate prospects it is essential to raise a role of China in world and regional processes and to convert it in equal or "almost equal" the USA the world player. Therefore a dominating line of activity of the Chinese diplomacy the proximal years there will be, apparently, a normalisation of ratioes from the USA. Despite saved discrepancies with Washington concerning democracy and human rights, a trading deficit of the USA and a Chinese yuan exchange rate, a level of a transparency of growing military expenditures of China (in 2007-2008 an annual gain almost on 18 %), etc., Beijing will be aimed most likely to lining from the USA of ratioes which, on expression of the Chinese principals, would be based on «the general strategic interests» both countries. It is possible to assume that the proximal years Beijing will try to activate «economic dialogue» from the USA, begun in 2006, and to upbuild «energetic dialogue».

The probability is high that China will continue to take favourable to the USA of a position concerning a North Korean nuclear problem in exchange on negative attitude of the USA to idea of independence of Taiwan.

But at present impairment of ratioes between the USA and the Peoples Republic of China is watched. A reason to that is neutral (and per se a support of the Russian Federation) a position of China in the UN Security Council on a situation round Syria. As «revolution of umbrellas» in Hong Kong when the Minister for Foreign Affairs of China Van And has declared became the last drop in worsening ratioes so-called that the situation in Hong Kong is a domestic concern of the Peoples Republic of China, and has warned Washington against interference tryings in it [2].

Despite growth of economic cooperation between China and Japan, in short-term perspective it is not necessary as to expect real political convergence of Beijing and Tokyo. Braking effect on dynamics of mutual relations unresolved historical and territorial disputes, negative perception by Chineses and Japanese each other continue to render, competition of Beijing and Tokyo for liderskie to a position in East Asia, and also the negative ratio of Beijing to raise of the status of Tokyo in UNSF.

On announcement of the chairman of the Peoples Republic of China Si Tszinpina follows that a priority of foreign policy activity of Communist party of China is creation of a peace and favorable international climate for development of the country within the first 20 years of the XXI-st century.

Overall objectives of foreign policy of the Peoples Republic of China are:

  • Tuning up of ratioes and cooperation with the leading countries of the world - the Russian Federation, the USA, Japan and the European Union countries;
  • Magnification of agency at emerging market economies (Venezuela, Brazil, Saudi Arabia, Kazakhstan, Egypt);
  • Formation of the Peoples Republic of China as superstates and gain of the agency (diplomatic, military and political) in the world community;
  • The extension of agency of the Peoples Republic of China in South East Asia and extrusion from the given region USA;
  • Determination of the compromise with the Chinese Republic under which control at present there is an island Taiwan and a row of adjoining islands. Under the constitution of the Peoples Republic of China the given territory is under the Chinese jurisdiction, and it should be returned in boundaries of the Peoples Republic of China;
  • Thus, it is possible to draw an output that the Peoples Republic of China will be and to promote further to the extension of the agency in the world by means of gain of its role in the leading international organisations.

The history of fruitful cooperation of Russia and China began with rendering assistance by money, the equipment and specialists in formation of the new state by the neighbour of the Peoples Republic of China - the USSR: 1949-1956 by means of the USSR industry key economic branches are created, nationalisation of the industry and agriculture collectivisation is led, the massed socialist building owing to what the Peoples Republic of China became the state with sweepingly growing rate of economy is torn. But in the late fifties there was the so-called Soviet-Chinese splitting caused by coming to power in the USSR of more liberally tuned leaders led by N.S.Khruschev. In the USSR Stalina I.V.'s sharp criticism and a policy led by it that the beginning «Great war of ideas between China and the USSR» [3] has begun. Boundary collisions round island Daman in 1969 on the river Ussuri between parts of the Soviet army and People's liberation Army of China became the conflict culmination.

In the end of the XX-th century there was the largest geopolitical event - decay of the USSR and communistic system. Between the Russian Federation which has originated on its ruins and the Peoples Republic of China appreciable improving of ratioes was outlined. Have been solved a row of territorial disputes: so, in 2005 ratification by the State Duma of the Russian Federation and the Vsekitajsky convention of national representatives of the additional agreement between the Russian Federation and the Peoples Republic of China about the Russian-Chinese frontier in its east part has taken place. This process has completed settling of boundary problems in ratioes of Russia and the Peoples Republic of China - long-term negotiating process which has been begun still the USSR and the Peoples Republic of China in 1964 and which, besides negotiations of diplomats, was accompanied also by bloodshed from both sides.

At the present stage the Russian-Chinese mutual relation is characterised by a wide spectrum of areas of the cooperation which are including intensive contacts top-level, trade and economic and humanitarian connections, cooperation on international scene, including in United Nations Security council, joint involvement in the international and regional organisations, such as SHOS, ATES and the BRIX.

Acknowledging of explicitly refined ratioes between the Russian Federation and the Peoples Republics of China became frequent visits of heads of the states and foreign policy to departments to each other. So, on celebrations 70 letija Victories in the Great Patriotic War to Russia there comes Si Tszinpin [4]. During visit are volplaned situation arguing in the world. As for celebration of the termination of the Second World War visit to Beijing is volplaned by Vladimir Putin. As China - the natural ally of Russia in its uncompromising struggle against a rewriting of history of the past war. While one and a half billion Russians and Chineses remember this terrible tragedy and remind of it to another, horrors of war and a feat of our people will not be forgotten [5].

Cooperation main routes between the Russian Federation and the Peoples Republics of China are:

  • Gain of trade and economic relations between the states. At the given stage at full speed there is a cooperation in an orb of an interchanging of resources. So, in 2004 the volume of the Russian-Chinese trade has exceeded for the first time a boundary $20 billion According to the given Peoples Republics of China, in January-September the Russian-Chinese goods turnover has increased by 7,0 % to 70 777,7 mln. dollars, including export of Russia to the Peoples Republic of China - 31 381,4 mln. dollars (+ 2,9 %), import from the Peoples Republic of China - 39 396,3 mln. dollars (+10,5 %). Rates of a gain of goods turnover in comparison with 2013 have increased on 7,1. According to the Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation Lavrova S.V.« The Russian-Chinese ratioes endure phase of unknown rise ». For 2012 of the Russian Federation takes the ninth place in the list of ten main trading partners of the Peoples Republic of China (in 2011 - 10 place). The turn of the Chinese-Russian trade in 2012 has increased by 11,2 % in comparison with previous year and has made 88,16 mlrd US dollars. On rates of increase of goods turnover Russia has taken the fifth place among the main trading partners of the Peoples Republic of China (after the republic of South Africa, Vietnam, Philippines and Hong Kong);
  • As Russia and the Peoples Republic of China actively participate in shaping and concept advancing «Economic belt of a silk way» (EPSHP). This concept creation some kind of a transportno-logistical alleyway from Asia to Europe.

Special scientific and technical cooperation. At present more than 30 institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Academies of Sciences) co-operate with various exploratory centres of China. The Incorporated Russian-Chinese centre on space weather is created. The Russian-Chinese exploratory centre on learning of natural resources, ecology and preservation of the environment [6] is opened. Now the Chinese and Russian sides continue successful interacting in the field of high technologies. One of cooperation directions is manufacture by institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences of the scientific equipment and the high technology products by request of the Chinese organisations. So, institutes of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science deliver in the Peoples Republic of China industrial accelerators and instruments for a high-energy physics, the equipment for cold gazodinamicheskogo evaporation of powdered materials, the unique high-voltage equipment, setting for a reinforcement of surfaces of metals, the equipment for thermal power stations [7].

Deep cooperation in an orb of energy carriers, development new gas both oil deposits and a spacer of new gas and oil pipes on territories of the Russian Federation and the Peoples Republic of China (including "Altai" - a designed gas conduit between gas fields of Western Siberia and Sintszjan-Uigur autonomous region in the west of China, and «Force of Siberia»). In March, 2006, during the next visit of Russian president Vladimir Putin to China, some memorandums in the field of deliveries of the Russian power resources which will allow China to raise the energetic safety have been signed and to gain independence of foreign policy of the USA and countries of Western Europe. From the Russian side the right of export of energy carriers has been fixed behind the state companies - "Gazprom", "Rosneft" and the Russian Open Society "United Power Systems". On May, 21st, 2014 "Gazprom" and Chinese CNPC have signed the contract on deliveries in the Peoples Republic of China of 38 billion cubic metre of gas annually within 30 years. The total cost of deliveries of gas to China will make 400 billion dollars, and it is the largest contract [8] for "Gazprom".

  • Integration gain on the East Euroasian space within the limits of SHOS (the Shanghai Organization of Cooperation);
  • Framing of a complex of joint efforts on counteraction to threats on all Euroasian space, such as: terrorism (including nuclear), separatism, drug-dealing, gangsterism, extremism.

After long-term break military-engineering cooperation between Russia and China has continued also. It is based on rules of the intergovernmental Agreement on the military-engineering cooperation signed on November, 24th, 1992, and the Memorandum of understanding between the governments of Russia and the Peoples Republic of China about military-technical cooperation which has been signed on December, 18th, 1992.

According to the agreement the Russian-Chinese commission on military-technical cooperation which gathers once a year in turn in Moscow and Beijing has been organised.

The important pitch by the way of development of double-sided military ratioes of Russia and China has been made on November, 11th, 1993 when the Agreement on military cooperation between the Ministries of Defence of two countries has been signed.

Signing in Moscow the president of the Russian Federation and the chairman of the Peoples Republic of China of the Contract on good neighbourhood, friendship and cooperation who envelops all main orbs and directions of double-sided cooperation became on July, 16th, 2001 is standard-legal basis of the Russian-Chinese connections and is concluded for 20 years with a possibility of automatic extension on following five years' phases.

According to the Contract Russia and China have undertaken to develop on a long-term basis equivalent partnership and strategic interacting, including in a military orb. Joint military teachings, such as «Sea interacting» which in 2014 transited in Tsingtao [9] are led, and for 2015 will take place in Sochi in territory of the Russian Federation. Military men of both countries participate also in joint military-sports, such as: tank biathlon in which China has shared for the first time in 2014 on the technics, an aviadarts and so on. The number of specialists and students of both countries trained on an interchanging has increased. Joint business trips of military men of both countries have increased. In case of origin of a threat to peace or threat of aggression Moscow and Beijing immediately come into contact and carry out consultations with a view of elimination of the originated threat. As the contract also provides joint force of the sides on maintenance of global strategic balance and coordination of acts on international scene in preventing and settling of conflicts.

The Russian-Chinese scientific and technical cooperation (NTS) is carried out on the basis of the agreement signed on December, 18th, 1992 between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Peoples Republic of China about scientific and technical and military cooperation (in 1997 period of its act is automatically prolonged to 2002) the Russian and Chinese scientists have manifested interest to various forms of co-operation (the joint venture, an interchanging of production engineering, joint scientific and developmental development) in the field of manufacture of instruments and the equipment on cleaning of liquids and an oil reclaiming, to non-polluting rehash of agricultural products and manufacture of non-polluting humus, mastering elektrodializnyh desalinating plants, the low-temperature plasma production engineering, thermovision equipment and laser technics, including for salvaging of a waste, to manufacture of photochemicals, laser printers, multiplicative technics.

China is interested in access obtaining to outcomes fundamental domestic and application studies. At realisation NTS with the Chinese partners the Russian side will run a line on the active mastering of the Chinese market of high technology products by means of passage from separate research and development development to the organisation of the modern manufactures in areas representative mutual interest.

Cooperation of the Russian Federation and China and in the field of aircraft engineering proceeds. Russia had been delivered China a combat material and armament considerable quantity. Among them more than hundred combat aircrafts and helicopters of various types. Including fighters СУ-27 of manufacture of an aviation factory in Komsomolske-on-cupid, and also their modification СУ-30МКК. Besides, the Russian side transmits China licences for manufacture СУ-27Российские specialists participated in designs of Chinese fighters J-10, JF-17, school aeroplane L-15.

In November, 2004 Russia has shared in become already traditional avia to an exhibition in Chzhuhae. During a provision meeting of the Russian-Chinese commission on scientific and technical cooperation on which it has been considered sentences of Rosaviakosmosa on a dimple of interacting of Russia and China in aeronautics development has been held. Negotiations on sohdaniju blizhne-srednemagistralnomu to airplane MS-21 have been carried on. The Russian companies, such as corporation «Dry«, had an opportunity to strengthen cooperation in an orb of development of fighters of new generation. As the agreement on which "Dry" submits access to the Chinese companies in the capacity of experts-observers has been entered into. Among offered provisions: Conducting of joint basic researches in aircraft engineering and aerodynamics, manufacture of perspectiv onboard integrated complexes REO, civil passenger and trainers and helicopters, and also aircraft engines of new generation [10].

Proceeding from the aforesaid, it is possible to draw an output: cooperation of the Russian Federation and the Chinese National Republic, undoubtedly, will bring huge favour to both states. Thanks to mutually advantageous and strategically important cooperation of the ratio between the states pass from a confrontation phase (including because of indeterminate form of setting of boundaries between the states) in a phase of "mutual and strategic friendship».

Having carried out the analysis of mutual relations between Russia and the Peoples Republic of China it is possible to come to a conclusion that all conditions for effective double-sided cooperation today are created:

  • As a result of signing of some intergovernmental agreements politiko-legal and financial and economic bases of ratioes are included;
  • The boundary problem is solved;
  • Real antiterrorist and military cooperation, including conducting of joint teachings becomes stronger;
  • Mechanisms of double-sided dialogue, including on the most sensitive problems - ecology, migration, trade structure are generated.

Determination of main routes of optimisation of strategic partnership of Russia and China should be led taking into account necessity of implementation of the concept sorazvitija. Those directions can become:

  • The further development and solidifying of double-sided and polygonal cooperation of Russia and China in the area of the United Nations Organization (United Nations) and the Shanghai organisation of cooperation (SHOS), transformations SHOS into the most influential international institute, the guarantor of the world and stability into Eurasia;
  • Activation of regional cooperation under the aegis of the United Nations and at the active involvement SHOS, directed on counteraction to terrorism, a drug trafficking and the transboundary organised crime;
  • The dimple of cooperation within the limits of Regional antiterrorist structure (RATS) and giving of new pulse to solidifying of contract-legal basis RATS, saturation of antiterrorist interacting by the new practical content that ensures the successful solution with Russia of problems of the military safety, reduces risk of origin of regional conflicts on southern and east boundaries of our country;
  • Activation of interacting of Russia and China concerning the international safety, economic cooperation within the limits of such international organisations, as Brazil-Russia-India-China-southern Africa (BRIX) and Russia-India-China (RIK). The BRIX and RIK appear today the important mechanism of the coordination of approaches to the solution of actual problems of world development, cooperation institute in the directions representing the general interest of world powers;
  • Development of architecture of the international institutes on preventing of propagation of the nuclear weapon, creation of global and regional systems of the ABM directed against Russia and China;
  • The active cooperation of Russia and China within the limits of such regional organisations, as the Asian-Pacific organisation of economic cooperation (ATES), Regional forum ASEAN (HARPS) and others.

Political integration and regionalizatsija Russia and China and partner ratioes with the countries-participants ASEAN promote solidifying of the world and safety, stability and prosperity in ATR (Asian-Pacific Region). The active involvement in framing of mechanisms of settling national, konfessionalnyh, ethnopolitical conflicts, contributing to development of joint mechanisms of preventive diplomacy, double-sided contacts at different levels, the international weight and authority of two countries can make positive impact on shaping of an arc of stability in the vital territories for them, on detection, minimisation and elimination of threats of regional safety.

At the given stage of the ratio in the history of which phases of "brotherly friendship» were replaced by the armed opposition, the strategic friendship and interacting »are characterised by both countries as«. By mutually advantageous cooperation between the countries it was possible to attain many successes in the field of applied science, an aviation both space structure and a row of other major for the Russian Federation and the Peoples Republic of China of directions. In ХХI century - a century of high production engineering - scientific cooperation of Russia and China should enter into a new phase of development. Potentials of both countries in this orb are great enough, and they should be implemented with the maximum response. Sharing of resources of the states and as consequence raise of a standard of living of the population becomes a main objective the proximal decades.

[1] http://www.ereport.ru/stat.php?count=china&razdel=country

[2] http://vz.ru/news/2014/10/2/708448.html

[3] http://smartnews.ru/articles/11749.html

[4] http://russian.rt.com/article/80557

[5] http://voprosik.net/sotrudnichestvo-rossii-i-kitaya/

[6] http://www.nbenegroup.com/understanding/innovation.html

[7] http://www.nbenegroup.com/understanding/innovation.html

[8] http://ria.ru/trend/gas_Russia_China_contract_21052014/

[9] http://www.oursarmy.ru/news/morskoe_vzaimodejstvie_2014/2014-05-18-2409

[10] http://www.sukhoi.org/exhibitions/airshowchina2004/


Vojnakov Vladislav


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