This anniversary, celebrated in China on a truly Grand scale, in fact - first, that the country welcomes as the second, in fact, a world superpower. Over forty years have passed since the reforms of Deng Xiaoping, China has made a giant leap, and its competitor, the Soviet Union disappeared from the world map. Why they did it? And we do not? What is the basis of the "Chinese miracle"?
The answer to these and many other issues - subject, of course, not for a relatively small article. Here it is time to turn in several heavy volumes, but it's worth a try to present at least the abstract of the thoughts that constantly arise in this regard.
Crossed the river and found the rocks... and saw a cat
In the early 70-ies of the last century, when the "Great helmsman" of China have left this world, his successor, Hua Guofeng, had put forward the ideological concept of the "two Absolutes": "all the decisions of Chairman Mao we should protect completely all instructions of Chairman Mao we have to follow." Based on this setup, and bulk purchasing in the West technologies and factory equipment, Hua Guofeng, had hoped to revive the economy.
But it quickly became clear that so it will not work. And if they released something worthwhile, then at least a few decades, that China is somehow to be lived, and the Communist party of the country - to be able to retain power. Deng Xiaoping, their political weight surpassing Hua Goffena, suggested a different formula, which is the usual translation is: "it doesn't matter what color the cat, it is important that it catches mice". That is - no matter how you call what is happening in the country: the NEP, "the development of commodity planned economy" or "policy of reform and opening", "socialism with Chinese characteristics" – it is important that people no longer starve, and shops filled with at least some everyday products.
With 1979, with the historic plenary session of the CPC Central Committee, which adopted the program of fight against poverty of the population, and it seems to me that to count this era of reform that brought China to its current heights. But only after ten years, the people and the party could feel the relative results of the occurring changes. Before that the country had, in the words of Deng Xiaoping, "cross the river feeling for the stones". And it now all seems simple enough - then neither the population nor, importantly, for the party elites, the success was obvious, accompanied by a vast number of errors and the bitter inner-party struggle.
And here is fully manifested first, in my opinion, the feature of the Chinese reforms that ensured its success - the national idea and support it on the Chinese traditional institutions. China has built his national-oriented model, meaning it is not sought as Russia, first to arrange a "Westernization" mechanically copying the experience of managing society, the economy, education, and then hastily "reversing" back and feverishly looking for new ideas for self-development.
No, methodically applied the principle that was formulated in China in the nineteenth century - "use the West for Chinese". It is necessary to use all useful copy, all that you can apply, but to preserve the cultural core of the nation. All for the sake of a two-fold purpose: the rebirth of a nation through a strong economy and social justice. The revival of China as a leading nation in the world. Actually - this is the "Chinese dream", an initiative with a truly Chinese tenacity and methodicalness.
In the end, I think that suddenly for the country's leadership, emerged as another of the ruling elites. Yes, they are getting rich, but working for their own state, because only it gives them the opportunity to be elite.
New China started with the economic position much lower than the Russia of the 90s. With a completely broken economy, outdated understanding of the external world and the formation of the 60-ies of the country and the party methodically moved to his dream. Showing flexibility, cunning, politeness - and, if necessary, Adamantine stubbornness. And here's the second reason for the success of the country's leadership never focused on any one idea. Something useful the market take from him all the best. In some matters it is necessary to use the power, to show the authoritarianism - apply force so that little nobody seems.
But the main thing is not to stick out their own ambitions on the international stage, not to claim a leading role that requires, among other things, a huge cost. Where possible - to avoid any confrontation, even with a partner who is obviously weaker, not to mention the confrontation with the United States, who dream of some "ultra-patriots" of the former USSR. But in matters of principle, respect for the interests of the country - stand to the end, if necessary, demonstrating "military-political grin."
The third reason - ranging reforms, Chinese leadership is not going to become a "part" of something, to fit into the existing world-system. Creates its own. China has built and is building around a comfortable friendly world "napichavanie" of his country with money, technology, raw materials, ideas. Technology from USA and Western Europe, raw materials for the Chinese economy - from Russia, Central Asia, Africa and the Persian Gulf. Instead, a cheap and relatively quality products.
But even this situation is Beijing is perceived as obsolete your. Today, China promotes a new gently, his model redistribution of raw materials, global logistics, financial and banking system. The result of which should be the inclusion in the Chinese orbit dozen States in need of protection the Beijing and Chinese investment.
And finally, about the fourth on the list, but not least because of the success of Chinese reform is a bet on the confidence of the people. People need to understand what makes the guide, and at the same time check your Bank account grow there income. Exactly, and nothing else. The government in China is a source of social justice, and it alone can implement it: not to allow officials to steal large companies to take orders from small business, to give to private companies to win in the courts of the giant corporations.
All the years of reforms, China remained by itself, and only worked on itself. And he had a plan of development, which often is adjusted depending on the situation, but not fundamentally changing. All the technological, financial, economic achievements, all the borrowing experience - Western, Soviet, Japanese - all goes to the Treasury of national development. As shown by the achievements of China - it is quite working and promising strategy to ensure constant movement of the country to new heights.
But China never was a country where rivers of milk and honey. The most acute problems he has more than enough, and some of them are extremely dangerous for the future of the country. However, more about that tomorrow.
The author is sincerely grateful to the outstanding Russian sinologists, Professor Aleksey Maslov, Ivan Saenko, Alexander Gabuev and Michael Korotkova materials and thoughts which were used in the preparation of this material.
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