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The views of the military-political leadership of the PRC on security and defense
Material posted: Publication date: 26-06-2017
The growth of global challenges and threats, further aggravation of the international situation in the regions of traditional interests of Russia and China, the complication of relations with the West objectively bring together the positions of our countries, which aim to conduct independent foreign policy experts believe that Sergey and Alexander Nebrenchina.

An important role in the evolution of the views of the Chinese leadership on national security and defence played XVIIIth Congress of the CPC. The Central military Commission of China, headed by XI Zinopin, President of China, took the course to further strengthen the people's liberation army of the country, including the people's militia and people's armed police. A course on the solution of internal problems, including the creation of prerequisites for further strengthening of defensibility of the country, the Chinese government took following the session national people's Congress in 2016[1].

International activities of the PRC is consistent with the "conceptual foundations of foreign policy, XI Signorina[2]. The Chinese leadership proclaims the path of peaceful development, strictly taking into account the interests of the country as a strategic choice made by the CPC at the present stage of development. As priorities and scope of tasks of the construction of Maritime power, the increasing role of "soft" cultural forces of the state, maintaining state security and social stability. There is also the question of modern trends in world military development and promoting military innovation in the Chinese armed forces. According to si Signorina, "the new world military revolution is a comprehensive and in-depth, covers all areas of combat and military construction, has a direct impact on military power and total power of the state, the question of the strategic initiative"[3].

Experts believe that when the XI Jinping, China's diplomacy is gradually moving away from "reactive approach, leading to greater Pro-activity". The current leadership of the PRC believes that the country's foreign policy needs to distinguish Chinese specificity, style, position." The PRC's diplomacy aims to protect the sovereignty, territorial integrity and Maritime rights of the country, effectively solve territorial disputes, including around the Islands.

In connection with the growth of the internal contradictions in Chinese society spoke of the need to overcome the ideological crisis of the Communist ideas in the development of capitalism in China no longer work as effectively as before, largely contrary to the provisions of Confucianism. The ideological and political reformation in Chinese society inevitably lead to changes in attitudes and perceptions of the country's leadership to development of military components of the country. Therefore, the Chinese side in this area is very gently and slowly, taking into account both the internal political, economic, demographic, socio-cultural realities and the international situation, the character and content of modern challenges and threats.

As you know, ethical-philosophical teachings, was developed by Confucius in 551-479 BC, still stands as ideology, public ethics, political ideology, scientific traditions, a way of life. Along with the implementation of the course for the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics, as the root idea of the Chinese state comes the concept of "great unity". It involves the consolidation of the Chinese society based on the laws and inevitability of punishment, not moral norms, as demanded by Confucianism. A new national doctrine of "great unity" is largely historical and geographical character, its Central axis, according to researcher N. Vavilov, are not ethnic processes of the formation of the Chinese nation, and "its mystical Foundation of centers of origin of the United States and centers of power..."[4].

Thus, a significant portion of the Chinese population, by the Han refuses the purity of Chinese origin. Meanwhile, an ethnic group of Sino-Tibetan language family ranks first in abundance among peoples of the world (about 19 % of the total population). It remains the largest ethnic group in China (92 %), including the special administrative areas of China Hong Kong (95 %) and Macau (96 %) and Singapore (76.8 per cent).

According to the constructions of contemporary Chinese scholar Li Lin, benefiting from special support in the leadership of China, in his four-volume "Our China" the center of Chinese Imperial power is located in Northwest China, on the border of the provinces of Shaanxi, Shanxi and Henan, in the County of Shen, province, Shensi ("land to the fuse from the Shen" - translated from Chinese). It is interesting that mountainous and desolate territory of the present province of Shaanxi is the birthplace of the current Secretary-General of the Communist party of China, President of China, Chairman of the tsvs. In accordance with the writings of Li Lina, a mystical space in China is part of the larger Eurasian space, in which the Middle East and Central Asia, and Northern Eurasia plays the role of "passive start", and China – the active power[5].

Thus, the Western doctrine foreign expansion is opposed to the Chinese concept of active attraction of foreign peoples to the "Central state". In this context, one should consider the extension and implementation of political, economic initiative "Economic zone silk road", the heart of which is the XI'an (province of Shensi). As says Yuri Tavrovsky, this task will require huge efforts and resources in a few decades this will change the transport system of China, there will be new exits to the outside world, will be built an alternative infrastructure, balanced accommodation industry[6] established a "new growth point" and millions of jobs.

According to the views of the Chinese leadership, strategic TRANS communication is created by historical "suggestions" of the VII-XIII centuries not only as an important commercial traffic, but also as a "time-tested" way of cultural communication and "unity of Nations" based on ethics "heritage of the great YASA of Genghis Khan". According to the ideology of the revival of the road from China to Europe, Russia recognizes the right to remain a "key", an indispensable partner for the joint development and prosperity. Along with the "Northern neighbor", an important role in the revival of the Great silk road meant to play the Central Asian countries[7].

The idea of the silk road project is creating a transport corridor through Central Asia, Iran and Turkey to EU markets and, above all, Germany. To date, developed several key routes of the silk road. The first "Northern" from China through Russia to Rotterdam and London. The second is through Central Asia, then a ferry from the port of Aktau to Baku and then to Turkey. Third: in the South – Iran, Syria and Turkey to southern Europe. Fourth: China – Mongolia - Russia in the area of the Russian Far East. Fifth: China - Pakistan. Sixth: The China - India - Bangladesh - Myanmar. The seventh is the Maritime silk road of the XXI century[8].

According to estimates of the Chinese side, the total population residing within transport corridors, may be about 4.4 billion, the size of the economy – 23 trillion. dollars. According to Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador of China in Russia, "the participation of different countries in the construction of "One belt, one road" promotes "rasplanirovke" waves of economic globalization in the direction of more widespread benefit, and a larger tolerance, but because it inevitably will become a new driving force and project management of globalization. China is ready to actively must bear international responsibility for the promotion of sustainable growth of global trade and investment"[9].

It is interesting that, initially, one of the transport corridors planned to send through Ukraine. However, a sharp aggravation of the situation in Ukraine in 2014 and the subsequent armed conflict in the Donbass, forced China to give priority to the "Northern route" through Russia to Europe. As reported in the Internet, the adoption of this decision largely contributed to a strong pressure on Beijing from powerful international forces, committed to the development of new state ("New Jerusalem") on the territory of five Ukrainian regions (Odessa, Nikolaev, Zaporozhye, Kherson, Dnepropetrovsk)[10]. According to experts I. Berkut, it was necessary to prevent the strengthening of China's role in internal Ukrainian Affairs, which inevitably have happened if along the Ukrainian route was built the appropriate infrastructure development[11].

In favor of the "Northern route" was the fact that Beijing a lot of concern the buildup of the military-economic potential of India, which continues to be regarded as a potential enemy. As written by experts, despite the fact that Beijing and Delhi are actively cooperating within the SCO, we can not exclude that the contradictions can lead to serious complications in relations between the two countries, until the emergence of the armed conflict, according to the expert G. Sadulayev, "the third world war will be between China and India. Moreover, for the possession of Africa. Very Africa, no one asks..."[12].

In case of aggravation of relations with India, Beijing is counting on the effect of the development of Russian-Chinese relations. Including with this in mind, China, along with other routes of the "silk road", intends to implement the China-Europe land corridor with the participation of Russia. In its strategy, Beijing sees Russia as a reliable ally that provides the back, preventing the consolidation of China in Central Asia, neutral in "the coming confrontation with the likely axis from Japan, USA and India"[13].

According to experts, the implementation of several transit routes of the project "Great silk road" greatly reduces the economic and trade risks the PRC with worsening political and military situation in various regions of Central and South-East Asia and, in particular, in the waters of the South China sea. At the same time, the Chinese government pays special attention to the military buildup and enhancing the combat readiness of troops as a factor of military-political support for the implementation of its geo-economic strategy. It is no coincidence that the Chairman of the CMC, XI Jinping put forward before the army with new unit – "to be able to conduct a victorious war"[14] considering a more active policy of the PRC.

Under the influence of global changes on the international scene, but in the interests of its own security, China is actively implementing the concept of security with Chinese characteristics. It is comprehensive and, in understanding Chinese leadership includes the state sovereignty, territorial integrity and military security; addresses the issues of political and social stability, resources and environment. In the field of international relations, the Chinese government encourages mutual respect of sovereignty, non-aggression and non-interference in internal Affairs, equality and peaceful coexistence. In concrete terms we are talking about military-political, financial-economic, information and cultural, energy, environmental, technological, food security.

Of particular importance for China is energy security, when guaranteed adequate and reliable energy supplies at reasonable prices, and supply arrangements do not compromise the core values of the nation and do not interfere with the achievement of other objectives"[15]. We are talking primarily about the "adequate and reliable supplies" of hydrocarbons and, in particular, oil[16]. In this regard, the leadership of China attaches special importance to ensuring security of sea and air traffic. In particular we are talking about the control of energy supplies through the Gulf of Aden, Taiwan, Hormuz, Malacca Straits[17]. There is an interdependence world oil prices and growth of the Chinese economy. China benefits from the fall in world oil prices, as reduced production costs, the previous growth rate of the economy.

In the quest to ensure its energy security, China is the world's first world's first mined from the ocean floor in the South China sea "combustible ice"[18]. The world began to talk about the new "carbon revolution", comparable to the shale revolution in America. According to estimates of experts, if China will really be able to bring the mining hydrocarbon on an industrial level, that Beijing "will have one very important trump card in the battle with the United States for first place in the list of the most developed economies in the world"[19].

In conditions when China took the lead in world trade, in terms of GDP equal to USA, and R & d surpassed the EU, the Chinese government implements in the international arena with its solutions in the financial and economic sphere. Beijing is making efforts to turn the yuan into the new reserve currency, creation of own payment system CIPS independent from the West –SWIFT the development of a "world Bank" in Asia – the Asian infrastructure investment Bank (AIIB)[20].

Currently, China gives special attention to information security of the state and society. Ever since the events in Tiananmen square in 1989 when a student demonstration on 4 June (Keith 六四事件) in Beijing was actively supported by the world's media, the PRC leadership has realized the power of information from outside interference. Currently, Beijing itself already uses the tools of "soft power" to achieve the objectives of foreign and domestic policy. In particular, mass protests in Hong Kong in 2015, the Chinese government successfully neutralized without the use of "tanks"[21].

However, in today's world the focus of the Chinese authorities aimed at ensuring well-functioning and dynamic defense and security. As noted in the White paper "national defense 2015" in the military-political sphere, the efforts of the Chinese government aimed at achieving the following goals and objectives: strengthening of the territorial integrity and security of the country, prevention and providing resistance to the aggressor; the suppression of separatist tendencies and to promote complete unification of the country; prevention of armed subversive activities and ensuring overall stability; strengthening the military construction and the modernization of national defense and the armed forces and the defense of peace and opposition to aggressive expansionism[22].

In another "White paper" that is essentially a new military doctrine that clearly shows all changes of the defence strategy of the state. Its essence is - "we don't hit you if you can't touch us"[23]. In this key position set out in the White paper remains the same - the third world war will be. As stated in the editorial article of the newspaper "Global Times", part of the holding of the Communist party of China "Zhenmin Zhibao", no matter when, it is unknown who will start it, but it will happen, so you need to be ready for it. And, most likely, the war will be with US - that this statement sounds in the Chinese White paper[24]. According to estimates by the authoritative American analytical and research organization RAND Corp, the conflict between Beijing and Washington could begin by chance, in particular, in the regions of collision of mutual interests around Taiwan, the Philippines, Brunei, China and South Korea etc., Along with the U.S., the main competitor of China in the region is Japan. These countries are anti-China policy on the authorities of the Philippines, Vietnam and other countries in the region.

In its confrontation with the US and its allies of China in recent times is counting on support from Russia, which fear in the West. In the case of full-fledged military-political Alliance of the two countries "the threat of a third world war becomes more than real"[25], believes George Soros, the notorious Atlantic geo-strategy, American financier, trader, which has a considerable influence on the position of Washington, Brussels and London.

In the current phase of the military policy of Beijing based on the principles of non-participation in military blocs and unions, non-use of nuclear weapons first, support the creation of zones free of nuclear weapons; the refusal of the deployment of armed forces on foreign territories, with the exception of participation in peacekeeping operations under UN auspices. At the same time, China is committed to realizing the security concept of a new type based on international trust.

National security strategy is based on protection of independence and sovereignty, the defense of the socialist path and is guided by the policy and the party line, defined in the XVIII national Congress of the CPC, the NPC session in 2016. A critical component of security strategy is a defensive policy, strictly according to the national interests of the country and, above all, the priorities of political and economic development of China at the present stage. As stated in 2016 in the US, the foreign Minister of China Wang, "we unite all people in China in a common effort to realize the Chinese dream of national revival..."[26].

Over the years of the new Chinese leadership headed by XI Jinping, that is, with 2012, China's foreign strategies aimed at protecting the interests of national security, there have been some changes. Change and the interpretation of the concept of national security, and the means of its foreign policy mechanisms. Speaking at the XVIII Congress of the CPC, XI Jinping, in particular, stressed: "...it is our duty rallying and leading the party and diverse people, taking the historic baton, and continue to fight hard in the name of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, in the name, so she could more firmly and confidently stand among the Nations of the world and to make a greater contribution to humanity,[27].

In the concept of security experts identify the following main principles: mutual trust is the Foundation of relations; mutual benefit is the goal, equality guarantees, coordination means of implementation of the concept. These principles complement each other and form an organic whole. Mutual trust involves overcoming differences in ideology and social systems, the abandonment of the mentality of the cold war and politics from a position of strength, with exemption from mutual suspicion and hostility. It is assumed that all countries must constantly keep an open dialogue to inform each other about their policy on security and defence, on the most important stock in this area[28]. Mutual benefit refers to the satisfaction of the objective needs of social development of countries in the era of globalization. In the new concept highlights the principle of "common security" and rejected "absolute safety" of one country at the expense of security of others. Equality is the idea that all countries are equal members of the world community. Only equality can be a guarantee that countries will be able to solve security problems through dialogue and consultation. Coordination involves the resolution of disputes through peaceful negotiations and the implementation of broad and deep cooperation on security issues, in order to prevent hidden dangers and to avoid wars and armed conflicts[29].

Under the influence encompasses the world revolution in military forms of war are undergoing a fundamental change, and characterized by the transition from mechanization to Informatization. China, like other developed countries, makes corresponding changes in its national security strategy, boost the re-equipment of armies of high-tech weapons and military equipment are developing new military doctrines. In China realize that the role of individual countries and the balance of power in world politics remain the same, so you should be prepared for any change in the international situation.

China's strategy in the sphere of military security is to implement preventive measures of political, diplomatic, economic and military nature, aimed at creating favorable conditions around China and reducing instability factors[30]. Since the reform and opening up, China has achieved tremendous economic success. Available economic development is a material base of China's implementation in the 21st century the policy of four modernizations[31]. If the achievements will be destroyed by war, it will be impossible to achieve long-term goals of the program of four modernizations. Why China needs to defend the achievements of the policy of reforms and openness, and its peaceful ambiance, carrying out a strategy of defense against the enemy outside the state tries hard to avoid war.

In contemporary China, the construction of national defense is based on strengthening the economic Foundation. The safety of continuous development of the economy, greatly increasing the economic potential of the state - is the basis of resolving any issues, including the modernization of national defense. The economic base of the four modernizations in China is located mainly in the coastal areas, there is therefore a need in the security policy to put first the defence of the coastal areas. Therefore, Chinese leadership put forward to the army requirement: "to fulfill the sacred mission of protecting land, sea and airspace, protect the unity and security of the state"[32].

Policies of Beijing in the field of military security is aimed at preventing war and reducing the factors of instability, with the aim of ensuring external and internal conditions of implementation of the national strategy of China aimed at achieving the status of a great power occupying a dominant position not only in the Asia Pacific region, equal in its political influence, economic and military power to other powers of the world. According to the sinologist Devyatov, A. P., "the combined power of China and abundant human resources, and strong economy adjustable and independent financial system, and sufficient military power, advanced science and technology, and sophisticated intelligence with subtle diplomacy, and the foreign Diaspora, and conceptual autonomy, and cultural immunity, and healthy life"[33]

In relations with Russia, China is for greater convergence and coordination in the field of politics and diplomacy, energy and military-technical cooperation. The desire of the parties to leadership as part of the development of the innovative advantages of the new technological order is forcing Beijing and Moscow to strengthen cooperation in scientific-educational area. On an ongoing basis by the cooperation between Chinese and Russian educational institutions, including in terms of exchange of teachers and students, educational materials. Great expectations of the parties associated with the initiation of a joint educational project. In 2017 the University "MSU-PPI", which began to receive its first students[34]. For China it is important that the international University is planned to conduct the training and in the interests of the military-industrial complex.

Rejection of attempts to isolate individual countries, including Iran and Russia in the international arena, and encourages China and Russia to more actively push for reform of global governance, the existing world order and modern international law. As noted in the official comments to the Agency "Xinhua", Chinese-Russian partnership is a response to the so-called pivot of the US to Asia and the anti-Russian sanctions...[35]. According to foreign experts, "neither China nor Russia" alone is not able to confront the United States, but in interaction they are unable to compete successfully with global power in military, political and economic spheres[36]. One recent example was the joint performance of Beijing and Moscow against the deployment of U.S. forces missile defense system in South Korea.

China today is actively cooperating with Russia in the BRICS group, considers the Russian Federation as the second after the United States, "player" issues of strategic stability and the nuclear-missile sphere. In the Asia-Pacific region, China sees Russia as the main partner of the SCO, which opens up the possibility to search for variants of interaction with her new threats in Central Asia; Boao Asian forum, a member of the" six-party meeting on Korea and China. not without the participation of Russia intends to transform TRANS-Pacific trade partnership (TTP). Last of the Lima summit, which was attended by United States, shows that Beijing is committed to develop this structure under their leadership and in their interests[37].

Despite this, Russia remains the proponents of "containment of Beijing" remain anti-Chinese sentiment and fears of China's actions, causing some damage to Russian interests. Here in Russian-Chinese relations simultaneously with the positive trends in new "fields of tension". They are based on the unwillingness of Russia to recognize China's important global economic role to accept the de facto and the desire of Beijing to strengthen its political role in regional and global politics. This kind of mood in the ruling elites hindered the development of trade-economic relations between the two countries. The volume of Russian-Chinese foreign trade is considerably inferior to the amount of economic and trade cooperation between China and the United States and Europe.

Currently in Beijing fear that Moscow to the detriment of Chinese strategic interests to go to improve relations with Washington. In this regard, China has repeatedly and publicly emphasized that no attacks and pressure from outside, "the promises and other" do not force China to change its attitude to the "marriage"[38], a mutually beneficial partnership with Russia. At the same time, according to media reports, China is preparing for further confrontation with the United States, including the use of missile weapons.

Overall, the growth of global challenges and threats, further aggravation of the international situation in the regions of traditional interests of Russia and China, the complication of relations with the West objectively bring together the positions of our countries, aimed at conducting an independent foreign policy. However, as history shows, is extremely important in the development of bilateral relations and, above all, military-political, trade-economic spheres to prevent semiotic benefits to the detriment of the partner, mutually sensitive to national interests, strictly abide by the agreement, to avoid zaideologizirovannosti in planning long-term cooperation.

 

Sergey and Alexander Nebrenchina

 

[1] see: New Chinese fun training strikes against bases and ports of the United States. // KP. No. 11 (563), March 23, 2017 – 10.

[2] Denisov I. Evolution of China's foreign policy under XI Jinping the. // "International life." May, 2017. SS.40-54. //https://interaffairs.ru/jauthor/material/1253

[3] see: ibid. SS.42-50.

[4] Vavilov N. Uncrowned king of red China. – SPb.: CARPE DIEM, 2016. – P.24.

[5] ibid. P.25.

[6] Yu. Tavrovsky Great scope: Russia and the new silk road. / "Tomorrow". April, 2017. – C. 4.

[7] the Information dimension of "soft power". – Moscow: ANO TSSOP, 2017. -S. 169.

[8] Ostrovsky A. eagle, the dragon and the bear the bear. // "Arguments of the week". No. 18 (560), may 11, 2017, p.5.

[9] Hui Li. Let the "one belt One road" to bring even more value to the world. // "International life." May, 2017. – S. 27.

[10]see: Berkut I. Who won? //Rassvet. June 23, 2017. /https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hARHzhNoass

[11] ibid.

[12] See: Sadulayev G. the fall of the city on the hill. //http://politobzor.net/show-135414-padenie-grada-na-holme.html

[13] Hui Li. Let the "one belt One road" to bring even more value to the world. // "International life." May, 2017. – S. 27.

[14] ibid. P.11.

[15] Li Zhidong. An econometric study of China's economy. Energy and environment to 2030 // Energy security. - 2003. - №32 - P. 1140.

[16] Zhou Wenzhong. China's foreign policy and China's relations with the United States and Europe in the new century // Express-information. - 2005. - No. 5. - S. 20.

[17] S. M. Nebrenchin Actual problems of Eurasian security. //Information-analytical portal: Politics" [electronic resource]. Mode of access: http://www.geopolitica.ru/article/aktualnye-problemy-evraziyskoy-bezopasnosti?nopaging=1#.Vs_qk_mLTrc

[18] we are not Talking about some kind of mystical substance, about the connection of water and natural gas, turned into a crystalline solid under high pressures and low temperatures. In the hydrocarbon there is nothing "revolutionary". Its reserves around the world is quite vast (including in Russia), but until recently, to get it so far no one dared for technological and financial reasons.

[19] see: Vorob'ev V. China puzzled the world's hydrocarbon revolution. //https://rg.ru/2017/05/18/kitaj-ozadachil-mir-uglevodorodnoj-revoliuciej.html

[20] See: The cloister L. de-globalization of the world system. //International life. August 2015. P.37.Why China is creating "the world Bank in Asia." // Keep: the economy. [electronic resource]. Access mode. http://www.vestifinance.ru/articles/49279

[21]China has done. //Vzglyad: Delovaya Gazeta. [electronic resource]. Mode http://vz.ru/world/2014/10/8/709339.html

[22]the Military doctrine of China 2015. Defensive. [electronic resource]. Access mode. www.gov.cn/zhengce/2015-05/26/content_2868988.htm

[23]See: Newspaper of the government of China has warned the United States about the imminent war. //http://csef.ru/ru/oborona-i-bezopasnost/340/gazeta-pravitelstva-kitaya-predupredila-ssha-o-skoroj-vojne-7390

[24] ibid.

[25] See: S. M. nebrenchin of the Information dimension of "soft power". – Moscow: ANO TSSOP, 2017. - S. 101.

[26] Top diplomat outlines priorities diplomacy. [electronic resource]. Access mode. http://www.chinaview.cn/

[27]Press release new Secretary General of the CPC Central Committee XI Jinping after the Congress. //Wikipedia. [electronic resource]. Access mode. http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/ce/ceukr/rus/xwdt/t990635.htm

[28] A. Bolyatko Ensuring China's national security // Problems of the Far East. - 2003. - No. 4. - P.37.

[29] Yu Xiaoli. The geography of China's national security // Express-information. - 2007. - No. 7. - S. 45.

[30] chuphrin G. I. China in the twenty-first century: globalization of security interests. - M.: Nauka,2007. P.55.

[31]Official website of the Embassy of the people's Republic of China in the Russian Federation. [electronic resource]. Mode of access: http: //china-embassy.org /eng/xwdt/t70234. htm

[32] Yu Xiaoli. The geography of China's national security // Express-information. - 2007. - No. 7. - S. 45.

[33]Deviatov, A. P. Practical Sinology. A basic textbook. – Moscow: "Vostochnaya kniga", 2007. – S. 392.

[34]See: The largest Eurasian humanitarian project. //"Arguments of the week"no.22 (564). June 8, 2017.- P.4.

[35]See: Mikhail Titarenko, Vladimir Petrovsky. Russia, China and the new world order. // "International life." March, 2015. S. 39-40.

[36]Looking at the United States. Russia and China "attach" Union. // http://politobzor.net/show-131100-poglyadyvaya-na-ssha-rossiya-i-kitay-krepyat-soyuz.html

[37] Board. //"Tomorrow". No. 13 (1217). March, 2017. – C. 1.

[38] the New Chinese fun training strikes against bases and ports of the United States. //KP. No. 11(563), March 23, 2017. – S. 10.


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