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The Arab-Israeli conflict: causes, mechanisms and major events
Material posted: Publication date: 10-11-2014

The Arab-Israeli conflict for decades remains one of the most explosive among the middle Eastern "hot spots," the escalation of events around which may at any moment lead to a new regional war, and also significantly affect international relations in General.

The conflict between Arabs and Jews from Palestine began even before the establishment of Israel. The roots of the conflict go back in the period of the British mandate and even in the earlier period when the position of the Jews in the Ottoman Empire and Palestine was determined by Islamic religious law, according to which the status and rights of religious minorities was below Muslim. The Jews then were subjected to all sorts of discrimination by local authorities, concentrated in the hands of the representatives of the Arab nobility, and with the local Muslim population. Such a situation could not fail to leave a mark in relations between the two peoples.

In addition, the roots should be sought in the clash of psychologies of the two peoples: Arabic population, which was committed to the old religious traditions and way of life, belief in the spiritual authority of the government and representatives of the Zionist movement, which brought with them from Europe a completely new way of life.

In 1917, after the proclamation of the Balfour Declaration in Palestine, relations between Jews and Arabs began to deteriorate and develop into a political conflict, deepening with each passing year. The conflict is fueled by the influence of great Britain, and later Germany and Italy – on the Arab population.[1]

Since 1947, already in full swing, there was a war in Palestine to create a Jewish national state. In may 1948 was proclaimed the state of Israel on the basis of the Resolution № 181 of the UN, adopted in November 1947. Arab countries reacted very negatively to what is happening through non-recognition of Israel that led to the escalation of the conflict between Israel and the neighboring Arab countries. During the Arab-Israeli war (1947-49). Israel managed to defend its independence and take possession of West Jerusalem and part of the territory allocated to Palestine under the UN mandate. In this war Iran was not involved, that is connected with overcoming of serious consequences of the Second world war.

At the time the next Arab-Israeli clashes (the six-day war, 1967), Israel went deep into the Sinai Peninsula, captured the Golan heights, West Bank, Gaza strip and East Jerusalem.

However, in 1970-e years, Iran continued to cooperate with Israel in terms of trade and in the sphere of defense and security.

During the Yom Kippur war (1973) Iran has provided a small and implicit support to Israel in the form of fighter jets and other military equipment. The war ended with the victory of Israel and the defeated Arab countries-members of OPEC imposed an embargo on oil supplies to countries supporting Israel, and strongly overestimated the price of the oil barrel, which led to the "oil shock" in the world.

After the 1979 Iranian-Israeli relations rapidly deteriorated. The key idea raised in the Iran of that time – the spread and expansion of the Islamic revolution outside the state. Israel has control over Jerusalem, where the al-Aqsa mosque (the third holiest Shrine of Islam), has become a stumbling block.

In 1981, Iran rejected a plan to create a Palestine on the West Bank of the river. Iran began to declare that Palestine should be established within its former boundaries and the presence of Israel undermines the interests of the entire Islamic world. Subsequent presidents of Iran promoted a negative attitude toward Israel, and built its political course in the anti-Israel spirit. On this basis, Iran has acquired allies such as Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, Turkey and other Arab countries.

In September 1980 and began Iran-Iraq war over the border area, took over all the attention Iran. Both warring parties have received enormous financial and military assistance from the outside, and a separate structure In 1988 the war ended in a draw.

In 1995, Iran is subjected to sanctions by the US, which is expressed by the prohibition of supply of arms, joined by Russia. Only by 2001, Russia has restored the supply.

In 1997 the President of Iran was Khatami, who was later replaced by Ahmadinejad. Khatami tried to bring Iran out of isolation and establish contacts with the West. However, he had to face religious leaders forming the anti-Israel public opinion.

Against this background, in the early 2000s, States willing to support Israel and attracted the attention of the IAEA to the actions of Iran. Iran in 1968 signed the Treaty on the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons and ratified it in 1970. Now, the IAEA has called on Iran to accept Additional Protocol to the NPT allowing unauthorized checks of any objects on the territory of Iran on their compliance with the non-proliferation Treaty.

In December 2003, Iran signed it in Vienna at the Headquarters of the IAEA. From this moment the world community has been drawn into the discussion of the Iranian nuclear program. This document gives the IAEA the opportunity to agree to the implementation of Iran's nuclear programmes. Iran has demonstrated a complete openness of their actions in relation to international obligations.

The Iranian Parliament has still not ratified the Protocol, therefore, Iran does not consider itself obliged to report to the IAEA inspectors.

In the period of Khatami in power, he has made attempts to IAEA ceased to discriminate against Iran and recognized its right to conduct nuclear research under the NPT, pointing out that according to the Treaty Iran has the right to pursue the full nuclear cycle, including uranium enrichment. However, over time it became clear that the harder Iran has been proven right, was the irreconcilable position of the West, which is fully shared with Israel. Therefore, since 2005, Iran has sharply toughened its position and again drew the world's attention to Israel as the possession of the actual nuclear weapons.[2] [3]

In August 2005, the authorities in Iran comes Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. In June 2006, Ahmadinejad proposed to hold not only in Iran but also in Europe, the referendum on "What feelings are you experiencing nationals compared to Israel?". Ahmadinejad denies Iran nuclear bomb and believes that Iran has every right to nuclear development. He focuses on the presence of nuclear weapons in other countries, especially Israel, and sees no reason to worry, because the era of nuclear weapons was held.

Today Iran holds the world in suspense. Is an open information war between Iran and Israel, USA. Come into force new sanctions, the UN receives regular reports of the IAEA, but it only leads to increased isolation of Iran. However Ahmadinejad with a new force develops nuclear capability. Each year, the IAEA collects new evidence in favor of Iran's development of nuclear weapons. Iran continues to say that the program is peaceful. Widely discussed Iran's nuclear program. In early 2012, Israel began discussions with the US about invading Iran and bombing its nuclear facilities. With this goal in regular negotiations. Israel argues his position that he fears for his fate, he is forced to act radically.

The Arab-Israeli conflict currently involves four parallel processes: a peace process between Arabs and Israel; the process of phased destruction of Israel; the process of strengthening the Arab-Israeli conflict; the process of global confrontation of Muslim civilization to the rest of humanity.

The presence of Iran's nuclear program does not rest neither Israel nor the world community.

December 19, 2012, Israel gets an air strike on multiple targets in Iran, which, presumably, are elements of infrastructure of the Iranian nuclear program. Within 30 minutes after the Israeli attack, the air force of Iran making several unsuccessful air raids on Israeli cities – tel Aviv, Haifa, Dimona, Beersheba. Some bombs also fall within the city of Jerusalem.

Armed conflict could potentially escalate into a regional or even world war, which will be drawn into the USA, Arab countries, Russia, China, Britain and France and other countries of the world.

In the case of the continuation of the conflict expected a huge damage due to the bombing of the nuclear facilities and military operations on the territory of Iran in particular, where the threat will be primarily civilians. This also applies to other countries in the middle East region, who will later be involved in the conflict. It is very important now not to allow the conflict to grow to a regional scale and the more – world.

The UN Security Council must intervene and create mechanisms to confront the deteriorating situation in the region, as well as contribute to the speedy end of the armed conflict and the beginning of a peaceful settlement between the parties.

December 19, 2012 at 6:00 Israel began to cause pinpoint strikes on some objects of Iran, namely the Iranian nuclear object in Parchin located 30 km Southeast of Tehran. As the goal of Parchin was not chosen by chance. It is on this military base, IAEA inspectors and Israeli intelligence have discovered the development of nuclear weapons. Iran has started to enrich uranium to 20%, which is absolutely unacceptable. This situation undermines the peaceful nature of Iran's nuclear program, since enriched uranium within 5% is sufficient to sustain the operation of nuclear power plants.

In the spring and summer of 2012 in the court of world public on the website of the Institute for Science and International security (ISIS) were posting pictures of the Parchin military base, made by satellite. Iran once again refused to let the IAEA inspectors to check on the Parchin base. On this basis, Israel has decided to strike preventive blows on a nuclear facility. USA, in turn, supported him.

The actions of Israel Iran reacts immediately. Within 30 minutes after the Israeli attack, the air force of Iran pay a return of unsuccessful air raids on Israeli cities – tel Aviv, Haifa, Dimona, Beersheba. Some bombs also fall within the city of Jerusalem.

The mobilization of American air and ground forces. USA pulls to the borders of Iran its ground forces from Afghanistan and the Arabian Peninsula and naval forces from the Persian Gulf Now before the world community the question arises: to Decide whether the regional leaders to intervene in the fighting, or you'll end up bombing of nuclear facilities, as in Syria and Iraq? How to react to the UN Security Council?

Iran is more dramatic situation. Iran without the support of the Arab countries will not be able to resist the US and Israel. What the outcome of the conflict is unknown. Iran is unlikely to want to give up nuclear ambitions, as it did Iraq and Syria.

The Arab-Israeli conflict is one of the most acute international problems and the problems of migration (of Muslims in Europe and the inhabitants of Central Asia, Russia) in the modern world are also acute.

 

Sotskova V. P

 

Literature

  1. Rapoport M. A. the Perception of Jewish immigration to Palestine, the Arab public 1882-1948 from Saint-Petersburg, 2013. – 71 S.
  2. Mesamed V. Israel - Iran – from friendship to hostility. URL: http://www.centrasia.ru/newsA.php?st=1266528060.
  3. Druzhilovsky S. B., an Iranian-Israeli relations in light of the development of the Iranian nuclear program. URL: http://www.iimes.ru/rus/stat/2006/04-05-06a.htm.
  4. The Treaty on the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. URL: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/npt.shtml.
  5. Vladimir Mesamed. Israel-Iran: from friendship to hostility. URL: http://www.centrasia.ru/newsA.php?st=1266528060.
  6. Quotes from the statements of Ahmadinejad. The Israel Project. URL: http://www.theisraelproject.org/site/apps/nlnet/content3.aspx?c=ewJXKcOUJlIaG&b=7713555&ct=11229957&notoc=1#.UIfWd28xpR0.
  7. Information center the middle East. Atlas of Northern Africa and the Middle East. URL: http://middleeast.org.ua/atlas/index.htm.
  8. Resolution № 181 of the UN General Assembly of 29 November 1947 URL: http://daccess-ddsny.un.org/doc/RESOLUTION/GEN/NR0/040/42/IMG/NR004042.pdf?OpenElement.


[1] Rapoport M. A. the Perception of Jewish immigration to Palestine, the Arab public 1882-1948 from Saint-Petersburg, 2013. – 71 S.

[2] the Treaty on the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. URL: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/npt.shtml.

[3] S. B. Druzhilovskiy Iranian-Israeli relations in light of the development of the Iranian nuclear program. URL: http://www.iimes.ru/rus/stat/2006/04-05-06a.htm.


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