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Moscow - Tehran: new ways of relations
Material posted: Publication date: 28-03-2017
The head of the Islamic Republic of Iran in Moscow, discusses topical issues of bilateral cooperation. His meetings at the highest level with the Russian side, aimed at achieving a breakthrough agreement between Russia and Iran in the current complicated international situation.

Prospects of Russian-Iranian cooperation

International developments recently, the growing crisis in the world economy and Finance largely determined the improvement of the bilateral relations between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Russian Federation. Active military-political cooperation between the two countries on the normalization of a crisis situation in the middle East, primarily in Syria has fostered business relations and further development of trade-economic cooperation. To a considerable degree of rapprochement between Moscow and Tehran in the international arena and, in particular, in regional Affairs was facilitated by the fact that against Iran and Russia continue to operate Western sanctions, forcing the country to seek new partners for economic development.

Modern Iranian potential

Iran (until 1935, Persia), is one of the oldest countries in the world. History of Iran, written sources, covers nearly five thousand years, and more than 2,500 years, the country is among the most influential political and cultural world centers. Iran has access to the Indian ocean and the Persian Gulf, is located at the intersection of transcontinental paths, bordered by Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, Armenia, Iraq, Oman, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Turkey, the largest economies of the region.

In the Islamic Republic of Iran has about 80 million people, of whom over 60 percent are ethnic Persians, who occupy key positions in the Iranian establishment. Besides them, there are a significant number of Azerbaijanis (16%), Kurds (10%), larov (6%). Despite the Islamic nature of the state, where 85 % are Shiite Muslims, Iranian society is characterized by high level of tolerance towards representatives of other nationalities and faiths. Even the struggle with world Zionism, proclaimed by the government as one of foreign policy priorities does not affect the tolerant attitude toward Iranian Jews and their Holy sites.

In Iran, a strong democratic tradition, government authorities are formed on a selective basis with broad participation of the civilian population. The head of state is Rahbar, today is a great Sayyid Ayatollah Ali Hosseini Khamenei. The Supreme leader is elected by the Council of experts and accountable to it. The Rahbar is the Supreme commander of the armed forces, head of military intelligence. The Supreme leader appoints people to key posts in the state: the presidents of the courts, the head of police and the commanders of all branches of the military, as well as six of the twelve members of the guardian Council of the Constitution[1]. The President of the country now, Hassan Rouhani, is the second man in the state. An influential body of government is the unicameral Mejlis (Parliament), which is formed on a democratic basis.

Modern Iran is actually an alternative to the existing Western model of development, which still dominates the world. The country has created a social Muslim law, the state internal policy is based on the principles of Islamic justice, international activity is carried out taking into account national interests[2]. A country with more than 2500 years of history and unique Oriental culture facing the future. Science, education, information technology and the Internet has entered daily lives of Iranians, the majority of which is young people. State plans provide for the development of e-government, national information network security and user identification. In 1992, Iran became the second country in the middle East connected to the world wide web, and since then the government has made considerable efforts to develop ICT infrastructure in the country. The number of Internet users in Iran is approaching 40 million people, 49% of the total population, 80% of the mobile users[3].

Iran has large natural resources, in particular, is the second after Russia the world's gas reserves and the third-fourth - of oil[4], as well as large deposits of coal, iron ore, manganese, zinc. Modern Iran is self-sufficient independent state with a relatively developed industry, based on modern technological developments, a strong agricultural sector, high level of social support of the population. During the years of the economic blockade, the Iranians raised its domestic market, has greatly developed the productive, commodity economy, strengthened the position of national business. Joint comprehensive plan of action (JCPOA) for the lifting of sanctions with Iran, signed in July, 2015 in Vienna, envisages a list of measures aimed at limiting uranium enrichment and control over the Iranian nuclear program from the International atomic energy Agency (IAEA). In the same year, the parties to the agreement started the implementation of the measures stipulated in the plan. However, the United States later began to depart from the agreements, largely preserving the regime of sanctions against Iran.

Currently, Iran's economy is showing signs of recovery. The current government led by President Hassan Rouhani (Iran's Prime Minister and President combined) in the year following partial withdrawal "crippling sanctions" the West has managed to improve almost all the macro indicators of the Iranian economy. Double-digit inflation, which for decades pursued IRI reduced to 7.5% in 2016, the GDP growth amounted to 7% when it was freezing mark, there is an impressive volume of investments – about $ 10 billion. A positive role in improving the socio-economic situation in the country is having a return of Iran to the world energy markets, in particular, the country is actively increasing its oil sales.

Iran is not by chance claims to be the regional superpower. He is the leader of the Shiite world and the Persian-speaking countries (Afghanistan, Tajikistan), an influential member of international organizations (UN, 1945, OIC, OPEC, etc.). Iran is actively involved in the settlement of crisis situations in the extensive region from the Suez to Tibet, has a significant impact on the development of the countries of Central Asia and the Caucasus. The status of a regional superpower Iran rests on the religious-political, energy and military power of the country. Iranian armed forces are the largest not only in the Persian Gulf, but in the world. Their numbers more than 900 000 people, they are quite well armed and equipped, characterized by high morale, which is largely determined by the fact that Iran is a theocratic state, in which as the official religion adopted Islam of the Shiite areas[5].

In General, the modern Iran is a clear example of successful independent development in other countries. In the plans of the Islamic Republic of Iran the prospects of development of the country determined until 2025, the basis of the forecast laid is proportional to national development, taking into account cultural and historical characteristics based on moral principles and Islamic values, religious democracy, social justice, legitimate freedom and protecting the dignity and human rights. The document determined the direction of national development at the economic, scientific and technical leadership of Iran in the region of South-Western Asia, including Central Asia, the Caucasus and the Middle East[6].

Today Iran is among the few countries in the world that actually are sovereign and do not develop under external control and direction and independently according to their national interests. Currently Iran, keeping the continuity of the course – neither the West Nor the East", its foreign policy was based strictly based on their national interests in the international arena defends the position of the Shiite world.

Cooperation in the international sphere

Currently Iran and Russia stand together against the plans of further destabilization of the situation in the vast region from the Suez to Tibet, redrawing the geopolitical map of Eurasia. Along with China, they are, in fact, the main opponents of the West who tries to reformat the world in their interests. To successfully counteract the negative development on the southern borders of Russia, it is important to take measures in advance, including to enable modern Iran in the Eurasian context of Russian foreign policy. This suggests a more active involvement of Iran in the activities of international organizations with the participation of China and Russia and, in particular, the SCO and BRICS, building a joint diplomatic efforts to resolve conflicts in the vast region from the Suez to Tibet, including around Afghanistan, the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (North Caucasus), the Caspian sea.

Strategic area deter further interference in the internal Affairs of the region extensively by the US and its allies is Syria, where Russia and Iran, not without the political support of the PRC, tackling international terrorism. Three countries — Russia, Turkey and Iran — are working together to resolve the situation in Syria. Kazakhstan has become a political platform for holding large-scale international negotiations on the Syrian issue with the participation of all stakeholders, including representatives of the Syrian opposition. On the sidelines of the summit is the discussion on the division of spheres of influence in Syria[7].

But Iran in Syria pursues its geostrategic objectives that differ from the plans of Russia. In particular, we are talking about the famous Iranian project "dervish" directed to the formation of a "Shia belt".

Today it extends across the Iraqi desert through a so-called "Sunni triangle" and comes to the Syrian desert. For the first time since the Second world war, reaching the shores of the Mediterranean sea, Tehran is now fighting in the vast region on many fronts[8]. Iran is counting on this overland route that would connect the entire Shiite Crescent. At the same time Iran derive maximum benefit from cooperation with China and Russia and with the West, which gave him full freedom to work in Iraq for an indefinite period.

The strengthening of the position of Tehran in the vast region sparking protests in many Sunni Arab countries and Israel. Moscow is also not ready for the new role of Iran in the territory from Suez to Tibet, but is forced to maintain relations with Tehran, as the Iranian army units and together with the Shiite groups in other countries play a major role in ground operations. In addition, as write foreign mass media, "Russian can not fully accept the Iranians because of their loyalty to the U.S."[9]. The fact that the process of Iranian expansion in the region approved by the West, which believes Iran is a major player contributing to the spread of Western strategies to change the region.

Meanwhile, the recognition of foreign experts, Russia has contributed to Iran's return as a full-fledged geopolitical player in the international arena. Given the current anti-Iranian rhetoric of the new US administration, it will have to do even more, providing the military-political cover for Tehran, which threatens the Kremlin a serious complication of relations with the United States[10]. That is why Russia is taking advantage of the current window of opportunity, I would like to reformat the nature and content of military-political relations between the two countries based on their geopolitical and national interests in the region.

Another complex issue in Iran-Russia bilateral relations could become "the Kurdish question". As it is known today, the United States actively promote the construction of a "Great Kurdistan"[11], which may occur on parts of the modern territories of Syria and Iraq with a population of about 12 million people. Despite the fact that Russia supports the territorial integrity of Syria and all the Kurds broad autonomy, it maintains contacts with Kurdish organizations in Syria and Iraq, and even Turkey, but sees them as its geopolitical reserve in the vast region from the Suez to Tibet. While Tehran in the creation of a Kurdish state sees a threat to its territorial integrity, as in modern Iran, there are between 3.5 to 4 million Kurds. The leadership of this country comes from the fact that the American plans of building a "Great Kurdistan" directed not only against Turkey and Russia, but Iran.

However, on many other international issues and, above all, to strengthen stability in Central Asia and the Caucasus, Russian-Iranian cooperation potential remains high. It is, above all, about the settlement of the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict in Nagorno Karabakh, the development of multilateral relations with the countries of Central Asia and the Caucasus. Iran belong to the scope of their traditional national interests of the Persian-speaking Tajikistan and Afghanistan and other Central Asian countries. Joint cooperation with Russia here brings considerable economic benefits, contributes to strengthening stability in the region. Iran equally has a considerable influence on both Yerevan and Baku, so could play a greater role in the settlement of the Nagorno Karabakh conflict, along with Russia, which is part of the OSCE Minsk group.

For a long time already became regular summits of the "Caspian five" (Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan)[12]. In 2017 – the II international Caspian technology forum – "TECHNOBASE – 2017". It is intended to expand the dialogue States "the Caspian five" and other countries. According to Alexander Zhilkin, Governor of Astrakhan region, ...our countries are demonstrating a keen interest in strategic partnerships in the field of innovative technological solutions for industry and energy, ecology, youth and educational cooperation[13].

In respect of the two countries become regular meetings at the highest level, heads of international and military departments. In March 2017 in Moscow took an official visit of Iranian President Hassan Rouhani. His meetings at the highest level with the Russian side initially aimed at the achievement of breakthrough agreements between Russia and Iran in the current difficult international situation. According to experts of the two countries during the visit was expected to restart economic relations between the two countries. At the summit discussed a wide range of trade and economic matters, signed a series of breakthrough agreements and treaties, including the document on the establishment of a free trade zone between Iran and the Eurasian economic Union (EEU).

The military-political sphere

In recent years there is an active military cooperation at the state level. Steel regular meetings of defence Ministers and their deputies. As you know, in the beginning of 2015 took place first from the beginning of "zero" years, the official visit of Russian defense Minister Sergei Shoigu to Tehran. After talks with defense Minister of Iran Hossein Dekhana signed an agreement on military cooperation between the two countries.

Russia and Iran are negotiating the construction of a strategic shipping channel which connects the Caspian sea with the Persian Gulf. It is conventionally called Iranian "Suez canal"[14]. Thanks to the Iranian project, the Russian military ships can go to sea without the need of following the Turkish Straits of Bosporus and Dardanelles. According to the Iranian side. So they will be able to compete with the American fleet, which now operated freely in the Persian Gulf.

In the Syrian armed conflict Iran and Russia are actively cooperating in political, informational and purely military terms, regular exchange of intelligence. Iran plays an important role in the conduct of land operations, and Russia – planning and coordination of the fighting and air support. Iran gave Russian VKS possibility of passage through their territory bases and on airfields. Between the two countries is actively military-technical cooperation.

Russia actively intervened in the war in Syria and take a leadership role in it, is extremely important in the fight against international terrorism not only have reliable allies, but also to learn from their experience in wars of this type. At the moment such a state is Iran. According to the expert M. Nemtyrev, the Iranian military involvement in Syria and Iraq is a vivid example of a case where a state participating in the armed conflict on the side of its ally Bashar al-Assad, is experiencing rejection of themselves (Shiites) from the radical Islamists of the Sunni. However, a conflict of interest Tehran turns in their favor to increase their own military and political influence[15].

According to Western experts, in Syria, the Islamic revolutionary guard Corps has collected a variety of Shiite militias, members of the Lebanese Hezbollah to volunteers from Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan, the army, numbering several tens of thousands of fighters. These militants gain military experience under the leadership of the guard Corps, and when the Syrian war ends, they can be a valuable asset in the Russian-Iranian military cooperation. In this regard, the United States, Israel and the UK are making a special effort to not give education the strategic Russian-Iranian axis" in the vast region from the Suez to Tibet[16].

Cooperation in military-technical cooperation (MTC) between the two countries is a priority of Iran's economic growth, in particular, defense sector, which, along with the energy industry, has the potential of consistency, which is so lacking modern Russian-Iranian relations. Today Iran is interested in supplying modern Russian weapons, in establishing their own production, training specialists for their armed forces.

To date, the "defrosted" the issue of missile complex s-300 to the needs of the Iranian army. According to the Center for analysis of world arms trade, Russia's losses from the collapse of military-technical cooperation with Iran amounted to $11-13 billion. As you know, on 22 September 2010, President Dmitry Medvedev has banned the transfer to Iran of complexes With-300 and other arms[17]. The corresponding decree was signed in the framework of respect for UN security Council resolution of 9 June, including an arms embargo of Iran.

Range of military supplies to Iran is constantly expanding. In particular, negotiations on the Iranian side procurement of military aircraft, tanks, ships etc. Tehran has a special interest in getting the Russian license for manufacture of military products to Iran. Thus, in particular, Tehran is ready to establish with Russia a joint venture for production of helicopters. Now the holding "Russian Helicopters" (part of "rostec") is negotiating the supply to Iran of helicopters "Ansat" and Ka-226T[18].

Economic and trade prospects

The intensification of trade-economic cooperation between the two countries went as establishing mi's deepening military and political cooperation between the two countries, strengthen their cooperation in resolving the Syrian crisis. Currently, the parties were not satisfied with the current level of turnover, which is at the level of a few billion dollars, and strive to increase it several times, at least 10 billion, and significantly expand the range of export and import. The share of Iran in foreign trade turnover of Russia is about 0.2%, while the share of Russia in foreign trade of Iran is 1.1%, and these numbers fluctuate plus or minus 0.5 percentage points since the beginning of 2000-ies.

However, we must bear in mind that modern Iran is a Mature and competitive enough. According to the Russian marketers, if companies failed to realize their potential in Russia, to create a positive image and recognizable brand, it is unlikely that the company will be able to achieve success in the market of Iran[19]. Companies entering the Iranian market, it should be understood that the target market is widely represented by products countries importers of Iranian oil. As a rule, widespread products of Chinese, Japanese, South Korean and European manufacturers. The import of the goods is re-exported from the UAE, either directly from producing countries. For their share of the Iranian market will have to compete in a different cultural and linguistic environments. In the clan of the Iranian society, government officials make decisions on the basis of expert opinion and with the agreement of lobbyists of local industry in the face of numerous unions and associations. In the immediate vicinity of any officer representatives of other political and economic groups and clans, lobbying the interests of local producers and foreign importers[20].

Until very recently, Iranian exports to Russia were: edible vegetables and certain roots and tubers (39%); edible fruit and nuts (31%), salt; sulphur; earths and stone; plastering materials, lime and cement (6%), plastics and articles thereof (5%); products of processing of vegetables, fruit, nuts or other parts of plants (4%); pharmaceutical products (2%); organic chemicals (2%); ores, slag and ash (2%); coffee, tea, mate or Paraguay tea, and spices (1%); vehicles other than railway or tramway rolling stock, parts and accessories (1%), and others[21]. The main share of Russian exports to Iran accounted for cereals; ferrous metals; wood and articles of wood; wood charcoal; nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical appliances; fats and oils of animal or vegetable origin and their cleavage products; paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, paper or paperboard electrical machinery and equipment and parts thereof; inorganic chemicals (2%), printed books, Newspapers, pictures and other products of the printing industry; mineral fuels, mineral oils and products of their distillation; bituminous substances; mineral waxes; pulp of wood or of other fibrous cellulosic material.

Meanwhile, for the Russian side, the Iranian market is important because, unlike many other countries, there were and continue to not go to the energy and industrial products, products with high added value. Today, countries are taking great efforts to improve the situation in trade-economic sphere. Actively there is a permanent intergovernmental Commission of Russia and Iran. It contributes to the development of trade and economic relations between the two countries, promotion of interests of Russian and Iranian business. International cooperation through trade missions, chambers of Commerce and industry of the two countries, Russian-Iranian and Iranian-Russian business councils.

In recent years, have become regular meetings between Russian and Iranian entrepreneurs. At the international business forum, timed to the XIII meeting of the permanent intergovernmental Commission on trade-economic cooperation, in December 2016, it was about the development of trade-economic and investment cooperation, business support at the state level, the strengthening of industrial-technical relations, cooperation in the field of energy, agriculture, financial and banking sectors. Russia and Iran sign roadmap for cooperation in the field of trade and industry up to 2020

The five-year road map of Russia with Iran on the development of the industry involves the implementation of over 70 projects in the fields of engineering and supply of high-tech equipment. According to experts, the document contains projects relevant to the real sector of the economy and causing considerable interest from Russian and Iranian companies should be an effective tool for the implementation of priority plans for bilateral industrial cooperation with Iran. In order to simplify mutual settlements between the subjects of trade and economic cooperation Russia and Iran plan to create a joint banking Committee.

A Memorandum of joint work in the field of oil and energy. In accordance with intergovernmental agreements, Moscow will provide export credit in the amount of 2.2. billion euros for the construction of thermal power plant in Bandar Abbas of 1,400 MW and electrification of the railway section of garma—Ince Burun (495 km). As you know, in Iran at the Bushehr site already operates one Russian nuclear reactor that went into operation in 2011. Implementation of the project "Bushehr-2" is 10 years. The launch of the second unit is scheduled for October 2024, the third block will be launched in April 2026. The General contractor on the project "Bushehr-2" — JSC "ASE".

Iran and Russia at the level of the National standard organization of Iran and the Federal Agency for technical regulation and Metrology of the Russian Federation, outlined to organize and simplify cooperation in the field of standardization and Metrology, the exchange of scientific and technical information. In the field of information technology prior arrangement affect the cooperation in the field of the functioning of search engines, fiber-optic lines, as well as in the field of hardware. Completed negotiations of the parties on remote sensing satellites[22].

According to experts and, in particular, Georgy Petrov, the adviser of the President of the CCI of the Russian Federation, Russia may partially satisfy the technological needs of Iran in the field of nuclear power development, oil and gas industry, mechanical engineering, and also help in attracting investments. In this context, Russia and Iran are discussing the program "oil in exchange for goods and services"[23]. Its implementation will allow the Iranian side to expand the geography of supply of oil and Russian economic entities - would help to increase, in particular, exports of industrial equipment for the oil and gas sector, the supply of rail transport, along with buses, trucks, passenger aircraft. According to some, half the cost of oil from Iran plan to pay the money and half in goods.

During the visit to Moscow of Iranian President Hassan Rouhani, it will be a presentation of the preferences of the Russian side in the development of the oil and gas industry. We are talking about more active participation not only LUKOIL, but also Gazprom, Rosneft, Tatneft, Rosgeologia, Roszarubezhcenter and other companies in the development, production and transportation of Iranian oil. In return, the Iranians are counting on getting access to Russian gas transportation systems.

Significant prospects for development of Russian-Iranian trade and economic relations, as well as countries of Central Asia and the Caucasus promises to build a navigable canal. He, in the framework of development of transport corridor "North-South" that will connect the Caspian sea (Khazar sea – iransk.) and the Persian Gulf. At the same time new opportunities arise in connection with the start of the "silk road" that China plans to launch through Iran[24]. The southern route can be paired with the project "North-South". In the development of this transport corridor by representatives of Russian Railways, Iranian and Azerbaijan Railways has already agreed a 50% reduction in tariffs. In this regard, an interesting expansion plans for transboundary cooperation with Russia, Iran and Armenia. As is known, Armenia and Russia creates a special economic zone (SEZ), which will be operational on the border with Iran to boost trade within the Eurasian economic Union. According to experts, if the SEZ opens, it will be an unprecedented project in the CIS. For two reasons: firstly, business in the area are to be exempt from VAT, profit tax, and also property. The second feature of the SEZ in Armenian territory that Syunik region where it is created, bordered by Iran, on Iranian territory already operates a free economic zone "Aras"[25].

The rapprochement between Iran and Russia in recent years, their successful joint military operation in Syria is another reason why the US and its closest allies in the NATO bloc is subjected to Iran's political-diplomatic, financial-economic and information attacks. Therefore, the West, along with cozying up to Iran, continues to pressure Tehran, has largely maintained a regime of sanctions against Iran. However, during the years of the economic blockade, the Iranians raised its domestic market, has greatly developed the productive, commodity economy, strengthened the position of national business. And more importantly – on the background of these sanctions in Iran mobilized the spiritual condition of his people. As a result, they from sanctions does not suffer. In this respect, Russia's extremely important to the Iranian experience of overcoming Western political and economic sanctions that continue to take place.

Socio-cultural sphere

According to estimates by Russian and Iranian specialists, the increased cooperation of Iran and Russia in social-cultural sphere is an important prerequisite for the development of bilateral relations in every other sphere of cooperation between the two countries. Until very recently, here was the deceleration of the Russian-Iranian processes. On the one hand, Russia is still a strong position "economic and financial forces" in the government, which is closely linked with the West, preserving the sanctions regime against Tehran. On the other hand in Iran, there are still mistrust and anti-Russian prejudices associated with the Communist past of the country.

In addition, objectively significantly different socio-cultural ways of life in Iran and Russia, which does not allow to quickly eliminate a large number of mutual claims, mistrust and sharp contradictions. In Iran, dominated by traditional way of life, Islamic ideals and values, there is an Islamization of politics and the politicization of Islam. At the same time in Russia continue to persist and have a strong influence on state and society, the so-called liberal-democratic values and the priorities of the Western consumer society, bringing to Russia in the last decades from the outside. In the perception of the Iranian side, they remain essentially anti-religious, and therefore little different from the previous Communist ideals.

In addition, unlike Russia, where in the information space of the country is still strong foreign ideas, evaluation opinions and positions zaideologizirovannogo Western "mainstream" (call-for – ed. S. N.), in Iran, things are different. The Iranians have considerable information sovereignty, armed with the traditional origin of the state-religious ideology, conduct effective information policy, has achieved the consolidation of the governmental and non-governmental information resources, strictly control and suppress hostile propaganda, carry out its own broadcasting to foreign countries.

In this context, the most important direction of rapprochement of the parties may be the interpenetration of cultures, finding ways to overcome the mutual differences of contradictions and mistrust. And here, countries have considerable potential for the expansion of social and cultural ties. First of all, we can talk about establishing regular and long-term interreligious dialogue, capacity development of contacts between representatives of the Shiite clergy and the Islamic societies with the Russian institutions and the Russian Orthodox Church. According to estimates recognition of Iranian professionals, the Orthodox Shiite creed, and many bring their special place in world religion, respectively, Christianity, and Islam, borrowing and reproduction in religious dogma and rituals of the old national traditions and customs of the peoples, with particular respect to issues of world order in the modern era.

As you know the current Patriarch of all Russia Kirill, while still Metropolitan of Smolensk and Kaliningrad, in 1995, had visited Iran. His visit was connected with a visit to Saint Nicholas Cathedral in Tehran, which was since the founding in 1945 of the Russian Church Abroad, and then passed under the jurisdiction of the Moscow Patriarchate. In late 2010, the attention of the Iranian authorities was proposed by the document "bases of the social concept of the Russian Orthodox Church." In the media noted that representatives of the Iranian side has repeatedly noted the similarity of approaches of the Russian Orthodox Church and the Islamic leaders of Iran to many issues[26].

Currently, the recognition of Iranian professionals, the Orthodox Shiite creed, and many bring their special place in world religion, respectively, Christianity, and Islam, borrowing and reproduction in religious dogma and rituals of the old national traditions and customs of the peoples, with particular respect to issues of world order in the modern era. In Russia also see considerable potential for religious cooperation with the participation of the Russian Orthodox Church and Muslims of the two countries in establishing bilateral relations, cooperation in the settlement of conflict situations, dialogue of churches in the world, the fight against international terrorism.

A considerable contribution to the development of social and cultural ties could be made by representatives of the business community of the two countries, which are largely the bearers of their cultures. As in Russia, in Iran, entrepreneurs, along with religious leaders and soldiers, considered as one of the pillars of traditional society, the Foundation of stable and sustainable development of the country. Therefore, the intensification of trade-economic relations will provide the desired interpenetration of cultures.

However, according to the Iranian side, today this is not enough. To reach a new level of intergovernmental and non-governmental relations between the two countries it is expedient to build a strategy of cultural and informational enrichment of our peoples, the exchange of socio-cultural experience and humanitarian cooperation on governmental and non-governmental level. Along with regular business contacts and business forums, in the constant practice needs to enter the scientific and religious-philosophical discussion, exchange of achievements in the field of art, literature and cinema, information technology, education and healthcare. It is necessary to actively use the opportunities of tourism, to encourage the free movement of labour, goods and services.

In General, modern Russian-Iranian relations requires consistent work, almost day-to-day regime, at all levels of communication between countries and with the valuable participation of public organizations of the two countries. It must start and efficient implementation of joint projects with a focus on areas that Iran has given priority, and where the partnership with Russia is for him largely uncontested in nature. Russia is extremely important faster to get rid of harmful external influence and theideological prejudices in relations with this important Muslim country, what is today the Islamic Republic of Iran. It's time to build the Russian foreign policy with Iran on a mutually beneficial basis, solely according to their national interests. Active interaction of Russia and Iran in the era of global challenges and threats, fierce competition on the world markets of goods and services promises great benefits for our countries and peoples, would contribute to strengthening stability in the world and, above all, on the mainland Eurasia.

 

Sergei Nebrenchin

 

[1] see: Wikipedia. // https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%98%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BD

[2] See: S. M. nebrenchin Iran in the Eurasian policy of Russia. / / The "Herald of DARKNESS". 2013. - S. 148.

[3]See: The Internet around the world: Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia. // https://geektimes.ru/company/mailru/blog/285580/

[4] See: Oil and gas of Iran. //https://utmagazine.ru/posts/8539-neft-i-gaz-irana

[5] the Army of Iran can neutralize any non-nuclear threat. // Military Bulletin. http://army-news.ru/2016/03/armiya-irana-sposobna-nejtralizovat-lyubuyu-neyadernuyu-ugrozu/

[6] see More: Iran 2016. Business directory. //www.iranterra.ru | Terra cognitome |

[7] Zone of discomfort: a truce or partition Syria into spheres of influence? //http://csef.ru/ru/oborona-i-bezopasnost/509/zony-diskomforta-peremirie-ili-razdel-sirii-na-sfery-vliyaniya-7349

[8] See: Card to blood: "the Great devil" supports "Vilayat al-faqih" with the goal of advancing to the Mediterranean sea. //http://inosmi.ru/politic/20170313/238865190.html

[9] the Russians can't completely make the Iranians because of their loyalty to the United States.

[10] Russia is the price of his political support. //http://csef.ru/ru/politica-i-geopolitica/484/rossiya-oboznachaet-iranu-czenu-svoej-politicheskoj-podderzhki-7453

[11] Kotz, A. the US is building a "Great Kurdistan"?//KP.27.0.2017

[12] In Astrakhan to discuss innovation opportunities in the Caspian region. // KP. 22.03.2017.-P.7.

[13] international Caspian technology forum. //http://caspy-forum2016.astrobl.ru/

[14] the Caspian sea — Persian Gulf: Iran and Russia are creating an alternative to the Turkish Straits. //

http://www.putin-today.ru/archives/24212

[15]M. nemtyrev the Shiite militias in the Syrian war: the Iranian factor. //http://csef.ru/ru/oborona-i-bezopasnost/509/shiitskie-voenizirovannye-formirovaniya-v-sirijskoj-vojne-iranskij-faktor-7201

[16] See: http://kommersant.ru/doc/3254056Ось Russia-Iran. // inosmi.ru/politic/20160919/237876822.html

[17] Voenno-technical cooperation of Russia and Iran. //

[18] see: what was agreed by Russia and Iran intergovernmental Commission in Tehran. // http: //www.iran.ru /news/analytics/103850/O_chem_dogovorilis_Rossiya_i_Iran_na_mezhpravkomissii_v_tegerane

[19] See: Iran 2016. Business directory. //www.iranterra.ru | Terra cognitome |

[20] See: ibid.

[21] the Trade turnover between Russia and Iran in 2015. //http://www.rusexporter.ru/research/country/detail/4239/

[22] ibid.

[23] Russia-Iran: economic restart. //http://www.vestifinance.ru/articles/82565

[24] ibid.

[25]See: Rustem Falyakhov, Russia and Iran will bring together Armenian area https://www.gazeta.ru, 16.03.2017.

[26] See: Orthodoxy in Iran. Wikipedia. // https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%BE%D1%81%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%B8%D0%B5_%D0%B2_%D0%98%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B5


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