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The history of origin and development of the “soft power” concept. The new approach
Material posted: Publication date: 13-11-2015
The work presents an attempt to shape a new approach in defining the role and universal significance of the “soft power” phenomenon in its historical perspective. Based on consideration and logical inference of the key elements which constitute the necessary base for deep comprehension of this phenomenon, the author gives own definition of “soft power” according to which the latter is not an exceptional invention of the authors and practitioners of the politics of the 20th century (although the very term was originated then) but, what is more important, it went along with development of social relations since the Hellenistic Antiquity. Based on studying the works of the authors who directly touched upon the phenomenon (Machiavelli, Toynbee, Nye), it will be proved that soft power is a weapon of mass influence which is not inferior to the modern military means of “hard” power.

Introduction

For the last years lexical use of diplomats, other official government officials and the persons anyhow connected with sphere of the international relations, especially, with its geopolitical plane, included the term of "soft force», used in the widest context. Almost instantly the term has had time to "remove" to mass media and even in daily dialogue of people, the interested and watching modern changes in the policy world. As a result of such fast distribution and popularisation to use, the essence of the given word combination has been "successfully distorted mass-media thanks to what by soft force today in most cases mean any action, except the military man, directed on realisation of own interests.

In our opinion, similar, obviously incorrect, sense simplification kontsepta soft force has destructive influence, first of all, for those who uses the term for a designation of processes and actions of actors of a world policy. Washing out of borders of definition at the expense of similar wide treatment complicates in a designation of the concrete phenomena which within the limits of similar definition can be interpreted as display of soft force though as a matter of fact have not something in common with it. In addition, the too general definition creates difficulty for the researchers which subject of studying is directly given phenomenon, and also as a whole for the scientific environment where there is a consideration and an empirical explanation of soft force as the integral component of the international relations of 21 centuries.

To overcome a similar vagueness, in the given work we will try to make most particularly and clearly formulated definition of soft force, using, first of all, the theoretical approach based on consideration of process of historical development, and also logic of change of those elements of public relations which can be carried to concept of soft force, thus originally being guided by that definition kontsepta which was issued by the American politologist Joseph Naj in the work with the same name “Soft Power. The Means to Success in World Politics” [1]. Within the limits of the given work it will be shown that both wide, and narrow definition of soft force give the chance to us to consider the given phenomenon in historical prospect, i.e. long before occurrence of the term. Differently, absence of the formal term is not meant yet by absence of the phenomenon, therefore one of the main ideas, otstaivaemaja in the given work, is based that soft force as the historical phenomenon existing throughout almost all history of the state development, meets long before occurrence of terminological definition of the given phenomenon. On the basis of specified, we will track what elements are intrinsic for formation kontsepta soft force as these elements changed during separately taken moments of history of mankind, and also than especial the approach of the decision of questions was characterised and achievement is more whole in not military way.

Then we will address to last time interval and we will analyse modern outwardly, - and internal political display of soft force on the basis of what it will be shown that in philosophical aspect (unlike chronological), the ancient world and the world today's inherently differ nothing: from a position of realisation of soft force: that occurred then, occurs and now. The cover of shown actions, along with their technical form (that we call an institutionalization of soft force) can change, however a core that constitutes a basis of the approach of soft force, invariably, and in this respect a century twenty first as well as a century the twentieth, is unique nothing.

Historical bases of occurrence of judgements about «soft force»

To begin consideration of historical development of not military approach in international and vnutristranovyh relations, what today have got used to call soft force, a certain point of support is necessary to us, being based on which we could track changes of elements of soft force in historically movable process, in a counterbalance of studying of soft force, as motionless, from the point of view of a time interval, the phenomenon. The given approach is based on our original statement that soft force - not a twentieth century invention, but the phenomenon meeting in the history of a society since ancient times.

For the decision of a similar problem it is necessary to generate the minimum basic definition of soft force. As it has already been noted in the introduction, all those definitions which consider soft force only as the approach on purpose achievement by a not military way, are too wide and do not give to the researcher of real possibility to study a phenomenon and to conduct at least conditional delimitativnye borders. So if to consider soft force only as not military way of achievement of the purposes, there are quite natural questions: whether is ideological struggle between two antagonists display of soft force under the relation to each other? Whether it is possible to consider religious mirouchenija or church, how social institute, how special forms of soft force? It is obvious that within the limits of aforementioned wide definition, unequivocally to answer these questions difficult. On the one hand, the religious doctrine is, first of all, a peace way of belief in belief questions. However, if church how social institute, and it it is possible to consider its activity as realisation of soft force (church, instead of belief) where in that case to carry a number of the historical events accompanying development of church institute and a known thanks to affective and rigid component, such, how, for example, crusades or, more widely, numerous examples of religious intolerance or violent imposing of opinion? It is obvious that soft similar actions to name difficult.

Therefore more convenient point of support from which it will be possible to make a start by consideration of historical process of formation of soft force, narrower definition of last, given by Joseph Najem in own way differentiating soft force from all other types of influence is. According to Najju, there are three types of force: forces of compulsion (pressure and imposing of own will by means of rigid force), force of belief (declination zaschet money) and force of cultural influence, or cultural prompting (to induce the person voluntarily to wish what you you you wish itself) (Nye, 2004, p.2). In our opinion, force of cultural influence, prompting of the person to voluntary acceptance of the point of view of the actor of the given prompting defines essence of action of soft force more close. The second type of force mentioned by Najem, is fairly differentiated from two "extreme" (military and cultural): it is difficult for ranking to any of these two. Nevertheless, in our opinion, force of belief by means of payoff though it is extended rather widely in human practice, however it is fundamental it is not something independent and should be more likely considered as a possible accompanying appendage of two "extreme" types.

Almost for half a century to Najja, the British historian and the researcher of the international relations Edward Karr also has noticed an increasing role of force of prompting under the decision of questions in the international environment. Edward Karr considered that there are three types of force: military, economic and "forces over opinions" (Carr, 2001, p.102). The fact that wrote Carrhae about «to force over opinions» in 1939 when over Europe and all civilised world threat of nazi and fascist dictatorship which, naturally, in the policy had no communication with soft force has already clearly hung is rather remarkable, however occurrence and distribution of a plague of 20 centuries became possible in many respects and thanks to that force over opinions about which spoke Carrhae.

Practice of use of soft force is erroneous for attributing only by last two centuries. Experience of realisation of cultural influence which so is widely propagandised today, has already been endured to us. And practically during all historical epoch. Here it is necessary to note at once an important component given hypotheses: soft force as the policy of cultural prompting of voluntary action, always went and goes hand in hand with force "firm", military, i.e. can accompany it, but thus clearly to differ from last.

Perhaps, one of the first similar examples of realisation of "soft force» in the history is the policy ellinizma, arisen as a special phenomenon in second half of 4 centuries BC and connected with a name of great commander Alexander the Great (356 - 323 BC) . Brilliant military victories and seizures Macedonian were accompanied by powerful cultural influence which it osoznanno carried with itself(himself) and has left after itself. If to try to make the compressed definition ellinizmu it is possible to notice that it is a policy or, if to be more exact, political culture, lasting some centuries [2], being a synergy of Ancient Greek (western) culture and east outlook, met with each other thanks to Alexander the Great campaigns which literally words vzhili huge drevnevostochnoe a cultural heritage in a paradigm Ancient Greek civilisations, having given birth to something new, but having kept in this new prepotent position of Ancient Greek culture (both in quantitative, and in qualitative senses). Here it is necessary to notice at once that process of familiarising of two cultures to each other occurred in the specified nonequilibrium format of a synergy, i.e. In such form where the offensive western Ancient Greek culture has incorporated culture east, rather the reverse, similar nonequilibrium merge, in a counterbalance to equivalent synthesis, characterises political culture ellinizma and allows us to identify it as that display that we call the soft force which element is specified neravnovesnost cultures merged with each other.

Thus, proceeding from original definition and the designated differentiation, it is possible to notice that in soft force it is inherent neravnovesnost its elements and an accurate orientation of action, and the first feature grows out of application of the second. And though, as sets an example ellinizma, the original politiko-cultural program of the subject of action has unidirectional character, nevertheless, at realisation of soft force always elements of object with necessity are incorporated by the subject of action and become a unit of the new culture which has evolved unequal proportions where object elements have merged with prepotent elements of the subject, without having dissolved completely in it, but having given rise to something new. Somewhat, neravnovesnost elements and, as a rule, originally planned unilateral orientation of actions on implementatsii the desirable gives the chance to us to say that in the concept of soft force, though and in a latent condition, nevertheless, de fakto nalichno perception of relations between the subject and object, as unequal relations of the winner and won. At once we will notice that the similar perception not only generates false illusions at the subject of influence about the exclusiveness, but also has direct negative effect on achievement of desirable result: the perception of relations on type «“ And ”cultural influences on“ In ”» as vertical relations of domination-submission essentially reduces possibility of achievement and preservation of long-term effect from similar influence. Such scenarios are complicated by result achievement at which the object of influence will voluntarily divide the point of view of the basic actor, refined the politician on distribution of own influence of the subject would not be what. It is possible to understand that the given statement concerns not only the Greek culture which have come in due course to decline, but also any to other, directed on distribution and podstraivanie other cultures under own conjuncture. Here that the well-known English historian and philosopher Arnold Toynbee writes about it:" Europeans considered themselves as the Elected people - are not present necessity to be ashamed to recognise it: any of last civilisations looked at itself and the heritage thus; and when they (Europeans) saw, how other nations one for another reject own cultural heritage in favour of European, they without hesitation could congratulate and, and new turned "(Toynbee, 2009, p. 105). Whether the similar self-glorification will lead to inevitable decline - will show time. About it it will be told in the third chapter. However, till now the history learnt us to that each civilisation considering with the centre of the world, and the others - crude barbarians who in general should be grateful to that tsivilizatsionnaja the culture will extend and on them, with inevitability falls a victim of own self-confidence and arrogance.

Coming back to ellinizmu, we will note, why above we have used in relation to it a word combination of political culture, or politicians of cultural influence, placing emphasis on a political component of the given phenomenon: being an example for soft force, ellinizm, first of all, became a product of distribution and fastening of the Greek culture in a synergy with culture of the East (in collective sense which, first of all, is understood as culture of Ancient Persia). This synergy was based not only on a recognition of importance of humane principles of the Greek culture, distribution of the Greek language, philosophy, the literature and poetry, but also on retranslirovanii the Greek experience of building of public structure of mutual relations, including political. A vivid example to it is widely extended during an epoch ellinizma the system of classical slavery, occurrence ellinisticheskogo monarchy type - a political child of the Greek policy and east despotism. Thus, in delimitatsii borders of the most correct definition of soft force it is necessary to consider and the given element of influence: soft force is including retranslirovanie political culture of the subject of action on Wednesday of object of action.

On the basis of deducing of intrinsic elements for definition of soft force, last appears at us in the following exhaustive formulation: soft force is a policy of cultural prompting of voluntary action and retranslirovanija political culture on the corresponding environment in which result the subject of the influence originally assuming unilateral influence, enters in sinergeticheskie nonequilibrium relations with object of action on which basis the new culture including elements of both cultures, but keeping dominating roles of culture of the subject of influence is formed. The given formulation meaningly is not adhered only to sphere of the international relations. In the following chapter it will be shown, what place found kontsept soft force including sphere of interstate relations in the subsequent stages of history.

Parity of "soft" and "rigid" forces: from the Greek-Roman world till New time

Why the history knows such phenomenon, how soft force? It is obvious that in the most general sense, the reason consists in the human nature, its congenital propensity to solve this or that question not only by force of arms, but also force of a word, or as ancient Roman politician Mark Tully Tsitseron would note, «force of a feather». «There are two kinds of activity which can erect the person to the higher step of advantage: activity of the commander or the outstanding orator. From the last, preservation of the blessings of peace life depends on the first - reflexion of risks of war... For full prosperity of the state in the conditions of the world, and war” the sword and feather union ”» (is necessary for Tsitseron, 1962, 30). We see that at the approach of Tsitserona also there is an idea about communication and soputstvii rigid force force soft as it was designated above.

As a unit of the general Greek-Roman world, Ancient Rome, both republican, and imperial, [3] was an example of a similar combination of a sword and a feather in which specifies Tsitseron. If to dare to call the similar policy soft force it is possible to notice that in affairs interstate soft force of Rome was shown most distinctly in cultural integration of the conquered people and tribes, their resettlement on territory of Rome and the subsequent assimilation together with others not Roman, but primordially living on territory of empire ethnoses. The given policy was not and could not be absolutely successful (the barbarians attacking to Rome, and remained barbarians, having destroyed, eventually, the Western empire), however she has allowed Roman empire to create flexible, to measures of time, system of public relations and to exist hundreds centuries. In addition, thereupon it is possible to notice distinctly that in "a citizenship" question the Roman tradition also sets to us an example of the successful decision of the vital issue pravonadelenija: realising irreversibility of expansion of empire and increase in number of people living in its territory, the Roman authorities should understand that all these people will be anyhow involved in social processes of the state. For suppression of centrifugal tendencies among «not Romans», along with force of a sword force of a word, a force of law and integration which has allowed Romans to expand essentially concept of "citizen" have been used also, having created a category «Latin citizens» and allocating with the essential rights not only inhabitants of Latsija and Appeninsky peninsula, but also the conquered territories and even those states which were allies of Rome.

For the sake of justice it is necessary to notice that the similar policy of Rome though was successful, however in the Roman system of public relations, their investment with the private rights, it is possible to name process of integration of new weights soft with the big reservation. A vivid example to it, perhaps, are civil wars, the revolts shaking Rome on decades. Nevertheless, success of the given historical project allows us to consider it as display of soft force of cultural influence. Soft force is based on possibility and mochnosti to form preferences of other people most, and doing it so that they thought that do and prefer something of the own free will, i.e. voluntarily. Accordingly, when desires of people to get the driver's licence of citizens and aspiration of the Roman management to integrate new weights in own culture have coincided, the mechanism of soft force has worked.

Nevertheless, as sets an example Rome, and rigid force possesses in certain degree the appeal inherent in elements of soft force. It, first of all, concerns beliefs in military power and invincibility of the owner of rigid force that should play roles in formation of the agenda and voluntary, conscious desire of submission to similar force (desire which, it is necessary to recognise, can be very often based on sensation of fear and fear). Having made historical jump during the Middle Ages epoch, we can notice that the given approach has found the response and the next centuries to what ingenious products of the Florentine writer and politician Nikkolo Makiavelli unambiguously testify. The Italian author safely says that any state in relation to submitted should use such policy at which the last simultaneously both were afraid, and loved the governor, and were afraid more, than loved. According to Makiavelli, for object in view achievement there are two ways of actions: a law way (as a human way) and a violence way (as a way animal). But the law way very often appears maloeffektnym. Therefore people as describes their Makiavelli, resort sometimes by second way. Sovereigns should be able to use in both ways equally, developing in itself both human, and the animal nature. Therefore a sovereign should podobitsja two animals - to a lion and a fox. Following their animal nature as the lion is afraid of traps, and a fox - wolves, a sovereign should imitate the second to avoid and bypass traps, and to a lion to win enemies (Makiavelli, 2002, 85).

On an example makiavelistskogo the approach, we see that the Middle Ages as the historical stage characterising the period of development of the western civilisation, also combined elements both rigid, and soft force. In general, it is necessary to stop separately in brief on mutual relations of these two types of forces, considering, including, medieval experience.

Above we noticed that one type of force directly adjoins to another. Nevertheless, on Najju, "soft force does not depend from rigid" (Nye, 2004, p.9). However, the analysis of development of the international relations and internal political decisions allows us to assume that as independent kontsept soft force nevertheless has arisen within the limits of rigid force and has gemmated from it that gives the chance to Najju to consider it in a similar way. However it is impossible to approve with confidence about full independence of soft force of the rigid. Whether can use the state in the policy and practise soft force without possessing a powerful and impressive military arsenal, efficient army, strong economy? Probably, no. Anyway, the history does not know examples when the weak states only at the expense of own cultural influence and belief a word and a feather could be an attractive example which others would follow. Therefore the aforementioned statement of Najja should be reconsidered. The author gives an example Vatican which would seem does not possess rigid force. However consideration of the given city-state in a separation from a historical context and logic of its formation is an incorrect way. Vatican, first of all, as an image collective, an image of the western Catholic Christianity, is based on powerful institute of the papal power which, in turn, has the most powerful tool of belief and compulsion - belief. All history of Catholic church with the centre in Italy proves, what even the possession belief did not contradict simultaneous use of the most complicated mechanism of influence by the military means which were based including, but is not exclusive, on belief. Speech, certainly, goes about crusades, an award of Jesuits and the whole institute of inquisition which extended in the violent way a Catholicism flame worldwide. Therefore it is not necessary to forget that roots of Vatican today's leave in century tradition of possession powerful institute of compulsion and the military decision of questions. On the other hand, would be still bolshej an error to approve that rigid force gives the chance to solve any question. Rigid force has generated soft force, but full otverzhenie the gemmated daughter has for it no any reasonable sense. To retain power on violence, terror, reprisals, oppression it is possible, but the similar policy is how much far-sighted and strong? And today very many politicians and the people playing not last role in the world political, wrongly consider that military actives are the unique solving tool in achievement of the purposes, underestimating a role of soft force. Similar short-sightedness of Naj calls anything other, as "one-dimensional vision of the three-dimensional world" (Nye, 2004, p.5). [4]

In similar vision not last role is played by erroneous perception of a parity of the power and religion. Questions by which we were set at the very beginning of work, and also an example of a policy of Vatican are to it characteristic examples. If to consider religion from the point of view kontsepta soft force it is possible to tell that the core of any religion - belief, - gives the chance voluntary submission. In this respect, the religion possesses an enormous internal charge which, in comparison to rigid force (if to consider religion as force of soft type), can appear much stronger instrument for purpose achievement.« Another's aggressive religion with all evidence much more serious and direct threat for a society, rather than aggressive foreign technology … the Deep reason consists that if the technology operates first of all with superficial factors of life the religion gets directly into heart; and though the technology too finally can have serious destructive effect on a spiritual life of society in which it has taken roots, this effect is shown not too quickly »(Toynbee, 2009, p. 290-291). Differently, religious influence creates more long-term effect of influence. Considering religion in a context of soft force, it means that soft force can be much more effective, than force rigid.

Soft force is not only possibilities and promptings to voluntary action, but also institutes, standards and rules which draw attention and are desired for implementatsii other actors. Similar standards, institutes and structures form complete system of soft force which is based, basically, on three base resources: on culture of the country and those its aspects which are attractive to others; on political values of the given country which are accepted also by other countries; on foreign policy model of behaviour of the country which is accepted as legitimate and has moral authority (Nye, 2004, p.10). Taking the next step to historical prospect in a direction by our time, it is possible to notice that similar resources during New time Great Britain possessed. The state where «the Sun» never goes, has created one of the most successful and attractive imperial models in the history on which long time many powers equaled. British and, especially, in peak of the power, the Victorian style of board, a political system of Britain, the mighty army, invincible fleet and extending ekspansionistskaja the politician within centuries did this state by a houling locomotive of the Western world which showed the claim as well on the world east. However, and the given educated model could die away sooner or later. The statement about irreversibility of fading of the British power is based on its similarity with empires of this kind, including, certainly, with Rome. Self-confidence in own boundless power became the basic error which was admitted by Great Britain, like errors of the previous great powers. Like Rome, Great Britain has believed that she is a director of the end of history. This illusion in practice has been proved through a policy of mainly violent planting of own "ideal" model, in a counterbalance soft implementatsii." The Englishman of the Victorian epoch indulgently though and with curiosity and a pity shade, but without any fear or a bad presentiment looked at vital performance of less happy inhabitants of other places and times struggling and perishing in a high water stories, - almost the same as pases any medieval Italian cloth rescued dushchi is self-satisfied look from height Paradise kushch at tortures doomed, got to the Hell. Charles the Great - such is fate - remained in the history, and sir Robert Uolpol though and under the threat of defeat, but has managed to get out of storming foam of a surf while we, all the others, were cosy arranged above an inflow line in an advantageous position where nothing could alarm us. Probably, someone from our more backward contemporaries also went on a belt in a stream of receding inflow, but what to us to them?" (Toynbee, 2009, 14). Undoubtedly, Great Britain was great power, the locomotive of economic and political development of time, however, first, the given domination was based on compulsory expansion and military expansion, and, secondly, it lulled vigilance of Great Britain, operating on it like bewitching sounds of mythical sirens, so sweet on hearing, but pernicious for any seafarer.

Great Britain, like Rome, conducted both rigid, and the soft policy. However, finally she has preferred force of military pressure that has reached the apogee in English-burskoj war of 1899-1902. Fastening of a priority to military way of achievement of the purposes became for the Great Britain, the same as and for all other powers which have chosen a similar way of influence, a delay-action mine. Subsequently Great Britain has kept the leading position in the world, including in the economic and political environment, however to apply for individual domination and leadership could not any more.

Than soft force could help to delay, at least, Great Britain an inevitable decline? If we approve, what in long-term prospect of rendering of influence on object soft force is more effective (on an example of the same religion) in what similar efficiency from the point of view of the actor of influence consists? In our opinion, the answer is covered in the following: in normally functioning societies the state is the unique institute possessing monopoly for a use of violence. That is rigid force. Whether the situation is similar and in a case with soft force? No. And it does soft force by more powerful tool. It is not obligatory to state most to realise the cultural policy on planting of own model. It is enough to infect people with idea about correctness of such model, to create conditions for voluntary introduction of model and its maintenance. State work in this aspect institutes can carry out, the organisations and the structures which are at different public levels and not having direct communication with the power. Voluntary following of the specified line - that realised quality of soft force which does its effective and helps to create the strong base of belief in correctness of own belief, including their result of an independent choice, and fidelity to the given belief which is stabler, including in the time relation, in comparison with a policy of military compulsion of fidelity.

However soft force the same as also rigid, has the borders of influence. Than they are outlined? Power of rigid force, such as, for example, a weapon of mass destruction, first of all, the nuclear weapon and its destructive abilities, limits this force. Rigid force limits itself because of degree of own rigidity. Whether soft force has borders? Probably. The history of the previous epoch proves that dispersion and influence of soft force, as a rule, was limited to geographical borders of the area under control to the actor, and contiguous territories to it, thus not imev possibility to make an area of action with wider or to surround the whole world entirely. Ellinizm has not promoted for borders of the former empire of Alexander the Great, the culture of Rome created strong influence on allies of empire in relatives to it on spirit the countries (thus, having already a print of experience of influence of the Greek-Roman culture ellinizma), and Great Britain though possessed colonies in five continents, however kept in their mainly military way, as has led this power to inevitable decline.

«Soft power» in a context of modern globalisation processes. An institutionalization of "soft power»

We already mentioned that the history has quality to repeat and that besides a cover and the form implementatsii, the present has in a quantitative sense given to us not enough the new approach from the point of view of development of soft force. The twentieth century has given birth to the term of soft force, but did not become the father of the phenomenon. The century of atomic weapons and two world wars cannot apply for a birth and monopoly of the approach of soft force. Nevertheless, nevertheless it is possible to allocate this century especially from all previous epoch, and that it costs independently, in many respects is a merit of change of the form of application of soft force.

The history is similar to a wheel which is capable of rotation, however for presence of such action, for a wheel it is necessary to create corresponding external conditions, in a combination with which it is capable to rotate. If soft force is the wheel put in action by an epoch ellinizma a century the twentieth and those changes which in it have occurred are the environment, forced to turn a wheel with a speed, unprecedented earlier. Two devastating world wars have proved not only tupikovost decisions of questions in the military way during an epoch of splitting of atom, but also the increased role of not military ways of recutting of the world at the expense of application of economic, ideological and cultural-valuable tools of influence. As a result, the understanding of an urgency of not military mechanisms of influence and their huge potential became a key of success for those who could make audit over errors of last generations about a priority of rigid force over soft and deduce for itself corresponding lessons. The United States of America became the first state which has incorporated not only own experience of two centuries, but that is more important, experience of other countries. With refusal of a policy of an isolationism and the beginning of active participation in the international relations, to the middle of the last century of the USA could absorb and digest thousand-year experience of cultural influence of Europe and grope that way to prepotent success which has been rejected the Old World and in particular Great Britain in the course of a pursuit of world supremacy by mainly military methods.

In the policy of an ideological antagonism it was possible to communism and Soviet Union, the United States universalizirovat the Western world, keeping it in an orbit of loyalty by means of a mould of uniform cultural-valuable space in which participants voluntarily did not leave it. Solidity of similar formation did not cause doubts up to the end of Cold war while there was external "threat". As soon as Soviet Union has broken up, practical necessity to be in radius of influence uniform universalizirovannoj systems from the point of view of external threat has disappeared, however system, at the same ingenious approach of the United States could be transformed: the USA that was not possible before to anybody was possible, namely, to keep own prepotent position in the West by means of suggestion to the Europe ideas about necessity of the uniform approach practically to all questions of the world political and okolopoliticheskogo. Having created conditions for long-term cultural, economic and, including, military influence on continent, the USA could universalizovat the Old World and universalizirovatsja together with it in something new that we have got used to name the general term "West". Differently, America could create not simply a certain parity between own military man and not military influence, but also institutsionalizirovat the last, create complete system of cultural-mass influence which has destroyed antagonistic system of the Soviet sample as it is accepted to speak, without a uniform shot then, having realised own power, has started to extend on other world.

Similar survivability of the American model of soft force is based on a number of features. These features were shown as during an epoch of Cold war, and now, successfully having endured last. First of all, for investment of soft force with feature of universal influence, it is necessary to create an external counterbalance similar to it from other actor who would pose threat not only for those who adheres similar universalizma to the American sense, but also for those who is in a median condition between two systems. The communism became such threat in the opinion of preachers universalizma." As soon as something goes at random under circumstances not yielding to control, we there and then accuse the opponent that it it has littered plevelami our field, and it automatically we justify the errors and inability to conduct own economy. Certainly, it is an old story. Centuries ago, when about communism still anybody also did not hear, our ancestors found a whipping boy in Islam. In XVI century Islam caused the same hysteria what the communism causes in the XX-th century, and basically for the same reasons in the hearts of West Europeans. As well as communism, Islam - movement antiwestern, though at the same time it as though the heretical version of the western belief; as well as communism, it perfected klinok Spirit, against which powerlessly material weapon "(Toynbee, 2009, 29). Toynbee, undoubtedly, the rights. However it loses sight of that feature that western universalizm was not simply material weapon: Material klinok has been turned by more refined tool of non-material influence of ideas about universality of principles of freedom, a private property and the democracy, skilfully appropriated by the United States to itself, passed through millstones of own interpretation and started up in conveyor manufacture on other world. Such mechanism became deadly to communism. Comprehension both creative, and a destructive power of soft force, its wide application, have allowed America to become the individual winner in Cold war and to capture all globe shcheptsami universalizma. However preservation of system of the unipolar world led by the USA lasted not for long." If this feeling of delight also captures for a short while the European minds quickly would dissipate under the influence of doubts. Distribution of the western culture from Europe worldwide, can be. And a great cause in a quantitative sense, but how about quality? If during this moment Europe has been deleted from the Life Book, the Western civilisation could support the European standards in the conditions of an alien environment where it is replaced? If Europe has disappeared, the Western civilisation could remain in general? Or, if Europe remains in live, but loses the position of the superiority - that with all evidence and overtakes it, - whether the Western civilisation though and rescued from destruction, to avoid decline and degeneration can?" (Toynbees, 2009, p. 104) Questions by which Arnold Toynbee more half a century back, apparently, was set are actual and today, with that only the reservation that the European standards in a century twenty first is not enough otlichimy from standards American, first of all, as have grown together with each other, have created universal for both systems valuable installation. Nevertheless, this system possesses congenital defect which as it seems today, not in a condition to cure even parents of the given system. The lack institutsionalizirovannogo the approach of the American soft force consists in its aspiration to total equalising of all objects of influence by a uniform crest of standards favourable to it. America, having grown together with Europe (at least, with its western unit), refuses more to grow together with other cultures and civilisations, preferring to equal all under itself prokrustovym a bed liberal universalizma.

Here we would like to address again to Toynbee, whose deep understanding of the international relations has anticipated the changes which have occurred in sphere of last." That circumstance that the opponent threatens us more likely with that bares our lacks, rather than that force suppresses our advantages, proves that the Call which he to us throws, proceeds not so much from pego, how many from ourselves, It, actually, occurs thanks to recent enormous lifting of the West in the field of technology - to fantastic progress in the field of "know-how", - and it that allowed to our fathers deceptive possibility to convince itself that for them the history has quite safely come to the end "(Toynbee, 2009, p. 30-31). Apogee of such approach to consideration of history and own role in it is the well-known work of American politologist Frensisa of Fukuyama which has proclaimed the end stories. [5] however its approach as well as belief of supporters western liberal universalizma in eternal domination of the last, already have found practical refutations.« Whatever high was level of material life, it will not free soul of the person from the social justice requirement; and unequal distribution of the goods and means in this world between exclusive minority and the deprived majority has turned from inevitable harm to intolerable injustice as a result of last technical achievements of the West »(Toynbee, 2009, 33-34). Technical innovations of last decades of a steel not simply the tool to achievement of new heights, but also the means of operation used for fastening of existing prepotent position of the West. Last tries to keep monopoly for well-being and to adhere it to own universal cultural-valuable system, putting, thus, other world before an accurate dilemma: or to accept the given system, to introduce it and to use its blessings, including material, or to reject and become the contender. In this sense, "democratic" western universal liberalism is completely not tolerant. For the countries which initially were not entering into given system for geographical or other reasons, «there is a fatal question: whether somebody can borrow another's civilisation partially, without risking to be gradually retracted in its acceptance entirely?» The answer to this point in question has besides given Arnol Toynbee to whom we will address. Considering relations between the West and the Islamic world in a global context, Toynbee writes:« These concentric attacks of the modern West to the Islamic world have marked also present collision between two civilisations. It is obvious that it is a unit of larger and ambitious plan where the Western civilisation has the purpose no more and not less as inclusion of all mankind in a uniform society and control over everything that is on the earth, in air both on water and to what it is possible to put for advantage has put modern western technology. That the West makes now with Islam, it simultaneously does and with all existing nowadays to civilisations - Pravoslavno - the Christian world, Induistsky and Far East, - including and the escaped primitive societies which are in a stalemate even in own citadel - in Tropical Africa. Thus, modern collision of Islam and the West not only more deeply and more intensively, rather than any of former, it also represents rather characteristic episode in aspiration of the West to westernize the whole world; The enterprise which will be considered, possibly, as the most important and almost for certain to the most interesting in the history of the generation, endured two world wars, so, Islam faces again the person with the West, driven into the corner and this time in more adverse for it circumstances, rather than during the most critical moments of Crusades for the modern West considerably surpasses it not only by force of arms, but also in economy on which is based finally military a spider, but more all - in spiritual culture - the unique internal force creating and supporting external that of display that we name a civilisation "(Toynbee, 2009, 160-161; 177-178).

As truly notices Toynbee, the same question of absorption by soft force of the West costs not only before Islam, but also before other civilisations. It, perhaps, the century twenty first, as a century of globalisation also is characteristic: any action made in sphere of the international relations, at least between two civilisations, with necessity will have any effect on all system of the international relations as a whole. That world and those civilisations which it is possible "nezapadom" to name fine realise it, as well as that try to impose to them. «How religions and civilisation degrees differed among themselves parody the world on skin colour, language, all - Russian and Moslems, Hindus and Chineses, Japanese and all the others - will answer a question of the western researcher on their relation to the West equally. The West, they will tell, is arhiagressor a modern epoch, and everyone will have a example of the western aggression» (Toynbee, 2009, p. 252).

Throughout all Cold war and during the period which has followed it, the United States really could inspire to the whole world inviolability and competency of own universal postulates. It Was possible to them thanks to mastering of the main lesson of soft force: the country can reach desirable result in the international relations not only force of military compulsion but because other countries, admiring level of its development and prosperity, want to follow it an example, to imitate it, to follow it. As fairly marks same Naj, soft force create not only high culture (poetry, the literature, the state education system), but also mass (it is possible even in bolshej to a measure) which is aimed at mass entertainment. When high and mass culture are combined, when limitation and uzkonapravlennost systems of values changes on a wide circulation, there is a creation of "universal culture" (Nye, 2004, p.11). Today similar culture possesses only the USA. Before, the universal culture sat on a pedestal of world history only during an epoch of the Greek-Roman and British sovereignties. However, if universality of culture during an epoch of Rome and the Victorian epoch was limited to empire possession (tribes and the people behind its limits not very much and adopted it, remaining adherents of own pagan cultures, like numerous tribes of barbarians) the culture of the western liberalism is unique that is disseminated worldwide. In our opinion, the key guarantor of similar success proliferatsii cultural influence was the element of availability of culture of the United States: in this sense if to consider universalizm culture of the USA as the system based on two types (high and mass), that, more likely, culture of the USA more weighs to mass nature, its element is occupied bolshee with a place, than high culture. Often soft force appearing in an informal kind through distribution of mass culture, can have more effective influence on minds of people, than an official line of foreign policy departments. It is much easier to convince people to follow democracy, than to impose it and compulsorily to force to follow it (Nye, 2004, p.17). It is Thus quite natural that conducting and enticing other countries the example in an area of own action, anybody in the America did not promise that real life in these countries will be identical to the American public model.

The conclusion

In the conclusion of work we would like to pay attention to one interesting question connected with the nature of soft force. Joseph Naj considers that soft force is a product of a democratic society. In our opinion, it is impossible to agree with full confidence with the given statement. And business not only that it existed and it was applied and in undemocratic societies.

That in democratic political modes at the expense of her the nature and specificity, resort more to peace belief, than to violent, does not grant to us is right to approve that soft force has arisen in democracy and as those modes which are called authoritative or even totalitarian, are completely aloof from a policy of soft force. Moreover, as the history proves, it is erroneous to political kontseptam, like soft force, to attach a cliche "good", or "bad" phenomena. They are necessary for considering only from a position naked pragmatists and efficiency. Frequently soft force was means of transit from democracy to authoritarianism and totalitarianism." Soft force - is attractive force ", and" resources of soft force are those actives which make, generate the given appeal ", - approves Naj (Nye, 2004, p.6). However quite often given appeal became the reason of origin of the most cruel and ugly displays of human aggression, like the nazism which has come to power under an applause of democratic elections.

Soft force is a weapon of mass influence which does not concede to modern military means of rigid force. Its influence is so impressive that if rigid force is capable to destroy object soft force forces it to voluntary transition to the party of the subject, dividing values, belief of the last. As well as in a case with any weapon, using soft force assumes responsibility and presence of the conscious approach on its application. The purpose should not justify means. The desire to reach the unified system of cultural values and sights should not conduct to annigiljatsii cultural-valuable system of object of influence. The humane mission and the main task of soft force expires from its nature expressed in definition given by us: application of soft force is, first of all, a synergy which is giving rise to new culture. Such culture should not only represent to the world something new, but also enrich own bases on which it is based. The tree cannot exist without the roots. The more deeply and more strongly they, the the trunk and a crone will be more healthy. Like a tree, and the new culture based on roots preceding it of cultures, should not repudiate and reject them. Similar action is followed inevitably also by fading of this new culture. In due time a successful example of a birth of new culture became ellinizm, kept both the Greek-Roman culture, and east culture. It also has died away eventually, however has had time to leave before it the enormous historical and cultural heritage which has held in remembrance about most ellinizme forever.

Similar creative orientation anticipates in advance success in business of realisation of soft force. Refusal of aspiration of total control or that is even worse, absorption of culture of object of action, its replacement with the aspiration directed on development of mutually acceptable result is the unique scenario at which will probably avoid past errors. In such paradigm soft force not only will earn, but will get also the is humane-creative element, capable to give to us chance of preservation and augmentation of riches of a heritage of the previous epoch.

The list of references

  1. The big Soviet encyclopaedia in 30 t., gl. red. A. M.Prokhorov, M: the Soviet encyclopaedia, 1969 - 1978
  2. Makiavelli Nikkolo. "Sovereign" Publishing house "Астрель", M, 2002
  3. Toynbee Arnold. «A civilisation before history court. The world and the West», Publishing house "nuclear heating plant", M, 2009.
  4. Fukuyama Frensis «the End of history and last person», nuclear heating plant Publishing house. M, 2009
  5. Tsitseron Mark Tully. "Speeches". In 2 t. t. I-II. Publishing house of academy of Sciences of the USSR, M, 1962
  6. Carr Edward Hallet. «The Twenty Years’ Crisis 1919-1939», Palgrave, New York, 2001
  7. Nye Jr. Joseph S. «Soft Power. The Means to Success in World Politics». First ed. New York: Public Affairs, 2004

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[1] Literally: «Soft force - means to success in a world policy». The Lane: A.G.

[2] Formal date of fading ellinisticheskoj cultures the establishment of the Roman domination in territories where dominated ellinizm, and falling of the last ellinisticheskogo is considered the states - ptolemeevskogo Egypt in 30 BC (see: "Ellinizm" in the Big Soviet encyclopaedia in 30 t., gl. red. A. M.Prokhorov, M: the Soviet encyclopaedia, 1969 - 1978) Nevertheless, such binding of a huge layer, the whole historical phenomenon to concrete individual date seems incorrect. Even in the absence of the state which formally supported similar political culture, the nature of last, as well as any culture, predetermines its "fluidity" in the time relation. Differently, even after falling ptolemeevskogo Egypt and distribution of the Roman stoicism as new dominating culture, ellinizm could not be destroyed suddenly, but that it seems more natural and probable, died away gradually.

[3] This differentiation in fact can be considered normal, because of their type of social organization, ethics and foreign policy of Rome, regardless of its formal political system, it has always been the spirit of imperial and imperial character, manifested in the three designated levels.

[4] Loyalty to this statement can be illustrated by the most vivid historical example of the last thirty years, namely, the collapse of the Soviet Union without firing a shot.

[5] Fukuyama Frensis «the End of history and last person», nuclear heating plant Publishing house. M, 2009

Akop Gabrielyan


RELATED MATERIALS: Politics and Geopolitics