Scientific and technical progress is changing the forms and methods of political action. In history this has happened many times and found quite a logical explanation: innovations in the sphere of mass communications strengthen the interdependence between social groups, thereby devolvera managerial prerogatives of the state.
While national governments still retain a powerful apparatus of repression – the secret police, the army and the police, they often become hostages of public opinion, the formation of which passed into the hands of television, radio, Newspapers and the Internet. Society has never been so active and sensitive to the different processes and events. America standing at the forefront of scientific and technical progress, serves as the principal beneficiary of Informatization of international relations; organizing a non-violent coup by mobilizing the masses through social media, the White house turns into a secret centre of the world revolution, about which dreamed all the revolutionaries of the past.
In a broad sense, scientific and technological progress leads to the fact that modern man, along with the existing reality, immersed into a new space, information environment, Western scholars have named "cyberspace". The political activity of social groups is gradually shifting to social networks, interactive multi-user web sites, whose content is filled by the participants. Presenting an automated social environment, networks allow you to talk to a group of users United by common interests .
The launch of the first ever social network was held in 1995 in the citadel of global innovations – United States. The name of the resource led to its popularity - "Classmates" ("Odnoklassniki" - the Russian analogue). The project has been so successful that over the next few years there will be a number of similar services. The beginning of the boom of social networks is officially considered 2003-2004, associated with the creation of "LinkedIn", "MySpace" and "Facebook". For comparison, if LinkedIn was created for the purpose of establishing and maintaining business contacts, owners of "MySpace" and "Facebook" have relied on the satisfaction of human needs for self-expression. After all, in accordance with the pyramid Maslow, that self – expression is the highest human need, even ahead of the recognition and communication. Since this period, social networking has become a sort of Internet refuge where everyone can find technical and social basis for its own virtual "me" .
Like any innovation, social networks have positive and negative developments: on the one hand, each user gets the ability to communicate and to share the fruits of actions with multi-million audience of a particular social network; on the other, he finds himself hostage to a fundamentally different form of stereotyping in which the nonconformist and the manifestation of dissent among a single person is amenable to massive influence from the electronic media.
On the doctrinal level, the changes in STC and as a consequence in the world, driven by globalization and communication interdependence, embodied in the national security Strategy of the United States from may 2010 it officially recognizes globalization is "the product of leadership Washington and the ingenuity of the American people"; stated the desire of the US Administration "to use all the opportunities it provides", at the same time the need not only to lead change in the world, but also "to adapt to them, to promote national interests and to maintain leadership". Emphasizing strengthening the collective impact of non-state actors in political relations, America intends "to support interaction between people – not only through government channels worldwide .
In practical terms, we are talking about a new instrument of social engineering, which creates previously unknown models of decision making, changing cognitive (cognitive) basis of modern man. The Internet, being planetary the information superhighway represents not only a channel for Commerce and entertainment: "it has a decisive influence on contemporary conflicts, not only in the field of espionage and military action, but also in determining what information reaches people around the world" .
Leveraging on its technological capabilities, the U.S. government is pushing the initiative "Civil society 2.0" (civil society 2.0), released by the state Secretary H. Clinton on November 3, 2009 during your stay in Marrakesh (Morocco). Its essence consists in the civil society for "building local capacity and ensuring local organisations and individuals rights and opportunities for the implementation of irreversible change." With this purpose, "Civil society 2.0" offers "advice to non-governmental organizations and civil societies to maximize the use of digital technologies" .
The potential of this initiative is to be realized through the development of technological cooperation with corporations and activists around the world who will support the policy of the State Department, the world Bank, the UN and related non-governmental organizations that, in the opinion of creators of "Civil society 2.0" will allow you to determine the demands and needs of public organizations in the field. To involve wide layers of the population, American diplomacy intends to cultivate meaningful for each individual theme, such as "disaster response and risk management, environmental issues, the development of material welfare, freedom of information on the Internet, the problems of discrimination against women and new approaches in education" .
Social networks play the role of triggers anti-government protests in developing countries in which U.S. strategists use a technique of nonviolent resistance. This technique may block military action the Middle East and North Africa, to damage their already fragile legitimacy.
Contrariant in Egypt that removed on 3 July 2013 of President Mohamed Morsi – a clear example of this. Civil movement Tamarud ("Rebellion"), which has United liberal and secular opposition, including the "national salvation Front", through social network brings millions of his supporters on the streets of Cairo, Port said, Suez, and Monavie Sharqiyah, reinforcing thereby the determination of the authors of the revolution - the Supreme Council of the armed forces. Transport arteries of the capital and major cities were paralyzed by protesters, turning the power "Muslim brotherhood" in fiction. The lack of gasoline and grain everywhere in the country, coupled with the July heat just finished their work.
- Filimonov G. Yu., Tsaturyan, S. A. Social networks as an innovative mechanism of "soft" impact and control of mass consciousness. "Politics and society", Moscow: Nota Bene, No. 1, 2012. – S. 65 – 76.
- National Security Strategy, May 2010 http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/rss_viewer/national_security_strategy.pdf.
- Lynn W. Defending a New Domain: The Pentagon's Cyberstrategy. Foreign Affairs, Sept/Oct. 2010.
- H. Clinton. Remarks at the Forum for the Future. Marrakech, Morocco. November 3, 2009. http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2009a/11/131236.htm.
- What is Civil Society 2.0? http://tech.state.gov/profiles/blogs/what-is-civil-society-20-white.
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