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The demographic crisis in Germany
Material posted: Publication date: 12-04-2020

For anybody not a secret that the instability in the country, and the world in General, affects the demographic situation of a region. In a rapidly changing political and economic situation in the world, people for the most part are experiencing uncertainty: they cautiously look to the future and worry for themselves and their families.

If we consider the situation globally, the demographic situation, particularly in Western Europe, is generally characterized as deplorable at the moment and regressing in the long term: low birth rate, the large flow of migrants, the increasing life expectancy and the desire of indigenous people to leave the country. Germany in this case is no exception.

Germany is ahead of all countries of the European Union in terms of population. Also from 2016, Germany's population steadily growing by 0.06%. This coefficient, though positive, but does not solve the problem of demographics. In 2014-2015 saw the biggest population growth since 1992. According to the Federal office for statistics Germany, population of Germany at the end of 2018 82.9 million, and in 2019 - to 83.2 million. However, it's worth noting that the main source of population growth in Germany is the flow of migrants.

Migrants choose Germany because of the very large package of social assistance. Thus, the indigenous Germans are increasingly showing dissatisfaction with the large tax burden and large items of expenditure for migrant workers, and actively vote for right-wing, advocating for tougher immigration laws. The majority of migrants and refugees from Asia and poor African countries trying to integrate into the development of a European society to assimilate. Some of them do it successfully, but there are those who ignore German hospitality and is a direct threat for the indigenous people of Germany. Should I remind you about the high-profile murders and beatings of pensioners etc ...

However, the most important cause of depopulation in Germany, analysts believe the low level of fertility. Young couples are not in a hurry to have children. They prefer to strengthen their positions in the workplace and focus on a stable income, which will help them to support a family. Girls, like men, strive to first build a career and then have children. Although still a career for them is in second place after family values (according to the social survey), the average age of first birth is 30 years. For comparison, in 1970, German women had given birth at 24 years old, and in the GDR at all in 22. The average number of children at the citizen of Germany – 1,57. It is known that the overcoming of depopulation and ensure a simple reproduction of the population the total fertility rate (TFR characterizes the average number of births a woman in a hypothetical generation in her entire life) must be a minimum of 2.15 children per woman of reproductive age. Therefore, Germany will not soon be able to overcome the crisis demographic situation.

Another factor that mainly affects the depopulation, – long life expectancy. Medicine in Germany today is at the proper level, also the Germans care about the environment. Elderly Germans and migrants from poor African countries filled in a demographic hole that was formed as a result of low birth rates. However, this is only a temporary solution. At the moment it is recorded change in proportion of young and elderly citizens. It is expected that in the future the number of citizens of working age (20 to 60 years) will decrease by 2050, a quarter, and boys and girls under the age of 20 — 30%. At the same time, the number of people aged over 60 now stands at 25%, will increase to 37%. In this article on social spending in the state budget of Germany is not the last place. Pension insurance allows to provide decent living conditions for termination of employment. So grows small every year working-age population pays taxes, but the money goes on the maintenance of migrants and retirement benefits increasing of the population older than 67 years (equally for men and women).

Slightly less important but still significant factor in the crisis demographic situation among the population of Germany, is the flow of emigration. According to a survey by the Institute for the study of public opinion YouGov, an immigrant is ready to become every second resident of Germany (more than 55% of respondents). Most often as a motive to leave Germany were the desire to live in a more relaxed setting. On living without stress in other countries hope, according to the survey, 38% of Germans who are ready to become immigrants. Other reasons for emigration are quality of life (33%) and weather (31%) and the desire to live in a more stable political environment and earn more money. Based on these data, we can conclude that the Germans were still willing to leave their home, which also has a negative impact on the demographic situation in the country.

Summarizing all the above, it should be noted that the high rate of population does not indicate a positive demographic situation in the state. There are many factors that affect the demographics of the country. For example, the birth rate, life expectancy, and immigration and emigration flows. The government needs to take into account all the criteria and take them into account in its policy, including demographic. In turn, the demographics of the country is very closely linked with the economic and social sphere. The authorities need to count your resources and power in such a sensitive issue, as care of its citizens, especially in today's economic crisis.

Zhivotova Vlad

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