The youngest in two hundred years of British Prime Minister David Cameron during a fight in 2000 years the press called a model of a progressive conservative, but also populist. In the early 2010s, after Cameron became Prime Minister and promised voters to hold a referendum on EU membership, no one would have thought that the vote will put an end to his brilliant career. But on 23 June, the country voted for Brexit, Cameron, contrary to its earlier statements, announced the decision to resign. "I fought against secession with all my heart, but the British chose a different path," the Prime Minister told journalists on the threshold of a residence on Downing street.
The team from Notting hill
David William Duncan Cameron was born in 1966 in London and was the third child of four children. Cameron is a descendant of king William IV through his illegitimate daughter and a distant relative of Queen Elizabeth II. The Prime Minister's father Ian Cameron was an invalid: he was born with a deformed leg, which later had to be amputated and was blind in one eye. Despite this, Cameron, Sr. had a successful career in the investment Manager. The mother of Cameron worked as a magistrate.
Early years, David spent in London, then the family moved to a former rectory near the town of Newbury in Berkshire. In seven years, David enrolled in the prestigious private preparatory school for boys Heatherdown, which is called the main supplier of students to the prestigious Eton College. At Eton, the source of manpower of the ruling elite, was after school and Cameron: to him, this College has produced 18 British Prime Ministers. In 1988 Cameron graduated from Oxford University with a bachelor of science in interdisciplinary course in politics, philosophy and Economics.
The first experience of political work Cameron was in 1984, between Eton and Oxford, sitting on three months at the headquarters of the member of Parliament for the Conservative party, Tim Rathbone. After that, David spent three months in Hong Kong, where he worked as a shipping agent in the company Jardine Matheson. In the same year, Cameron visited the then Soviet Union. He later told the BBC that during this trip to Yalta, he tried to recruit two of the KGB agent in plain clothes.
During his studies at Oxford, Cameron was not engaged in politics. As explained when Rathbone, who was cited by the BBC, he "wanted to enjoy life." While studying at the University, Cameron was part of the student club "Bullingdon" (from the word bully — a bully), whose members were known dersimi antics and heavy drinking. However, one of the teachers of Cameron, Professor Vernon Bogdanor, has called him one of the most able students.
After graduation, Cameron got a job in the research Department of the Conservative party, where he worked for several years. There he worked in the team of the future interior Minister David Davis, which was engaged in the preparation of speeches of the party leader John major. The group was named among the "gang of scoundrels", but firmly behind them has been called a "team of Notting hill" in the name of the district where they lived most of the members of the group. Subsequently, based on this team Cameron will form its own government: it included the present Chancellor of the exchequer (Finance Minister) George Osborne, Minister of justice Michael Gove, Minister of culture ed Vasi, business Minister Nicholas boles, head of the Secretariat of Prime Minister Edward Llewellyn. The team attributed the development of the plan of PR-campaign against labour in the field of taxation, which became one of the key to the unexpected victory of the conservatives led by John major in the parliamentary elections of 1992.
David Cameron, 2005 Photo: Reuters/Pixstream.
In 1992, Cameron was appointed the political adviser to the Chancellor of the exchequer in the government of John major Norman Lamont. In this post he found the "black Wednesday" collapse of the pound on 16 September, in which the UK had to increase interest rates, devalue the pound, to withdraw from the European monetary system and to let the pound in a "free floating". In the early 1990s, Cameron wanted to be a member of Parliament, but decided to start to gain experience outside of politics. Seven years he worked for the Director of corporate Affairs at British media group Carlton Communications. At the same time in 1994 and 1997 he was trying to participate in parliamentary elections, but both times unsuccessfully.
To get the parliamentary mandate in the house of Commons Cameron was succeeded in 2001 by County Witney Oxfordshire, when occupying the place Sean Woodward moved to the labour party. From that moment began a rapid ascent of Cameron on the political ladder. First, he was a member of the parliamentary Committee on internal Affairs, and then was given the post of education Minister in the shadow government of the conservatives (in power then were the labour party headed by Tony Blair).
Cameron played a key role in writing the election Manifesto of the Party 2005. At the same time he announced his candidacy for the post of leader of the party. At that time, his chances of winning seemed low: among his competitors was his former patron, David Davis, the former shadow health Minister, party co-Chairman Liam Fox and a veteran party member of Parliament from 1970-ies Kenneth Clark. The victory went to Cameron due to the constructed image of the "new conservative" — a young, modern, liberal-oriented social agenda. At the party Congress he said expressive speech without notes. Later it became his signature style.
As leader of the party, Cameron in the next five years gained considerable support among voters against the background of falling of a rating of the labour party: he promoted cooperation with the European Union, was actively engaged in the issues of education, environment, protection of the rights of women, migrants and sexual minorities. The media called him a populist in the house of Commons, Cameron worked on all sensitive issues. First, in 2003 for the war in Iraq, and then, in 2006, the investigation of the circumstances of its beginning. He voted against a ban on Fox hunting, against the proposed labour anti-terrorism laws, for a fully elected house of lords against the ban on Smoking.
Threat of referendum
The post of Prime Minister Cameron got in 2010, at the age of 43 years, after the conservatives for the first time since 1992, won the parliamentary elections. Such a young Prime Minister in the UK has not been since 1812. However, the advantage of the conservatives made up only 20 seats, so Cameron had for the first time since the Second world war to form a coalition government partners the conservatives were the liberal Democrats.
David Cameron and Queen Elizabeth II, 2010
At this point, the question of EU membership was one of the most talked about in British society. In a country considered the EU as a necessary evil back in the 1970-ies, when the United Kingdom joined the Union, to avoid stagnation in the economy. Cameron was a major proponent of preservation of membership in the EU, but favoured greater autonomy to the UK in the EU and against depending on the political decisions of the EU.
In January 2013, Cameron's policy speech in which he stressed that he remained committed to the preservation of Britain in the EU, but promised in case of victory at the next election in 2015 to conduct on the issue of a referendum and in parallel to achieve the expansion of rights in the EU. Winning elections and strengthening the advantage of the conservatives in Parliament, the Prime Minister kept his word. In November 2015 he sent to the President of the European Council Donald Tusk, a Memorandum containing the demands, in the event of default of which the UK threatened to withdraw from the European Union.
Among the requirements was a rejection of the obligation to participate in building a closer political Union, the financial guarantee non-participation in Euro support and additional restrictions on the entry of migrants from other EU countries. "We want to protect our country from further political integration with the EU and to strengthen the power of our national Parliament. Since we joined the EU [in the 1970s], Europe was on its way to becoming a political Union. We never wanted, " said Cameron after the meeting of the EU Council on 19 February 2016. I don't like Brussels, I love Britain. My job is to do everything in my power to defend our interests."
In the end the agreement was reached. Britain received the right to interpret the political decisions of the EU and achieved independence for their financial institutions. In addition, for seven years, from 2017 to 2023, the British government was right not to pay social benefits to migrant workers from other European countries.
At the same time it was stipulated that the agreement will enter into force only if the United Kingdom notifies the Council of the EU on the decision to remain part of the European Union. This could happen only by referendum.
The collapse of hopes
The Prime Minister of great Britain David Cameron. Photo: Geoff Caddick/AP
Cameron believed that reaching agreement with the Council of the EU will tilt the society in the direction of continued membership in the European Union. He was going to use it as a factor of pressure on the EU and to attract new supporters. But the situation got out of control: a lot of Brexit supporters were even among members of his party. One of the leaders of the campaign for withdrawal from the EU became a friend of his youth, Cameron, justice Minister Michael Gove. In the midst of the campaign Gove said that the government has spent on campaign leaflets 9.3 million pounds ($13 million) of taxpayers ' money that it had "no right". All were printed some 27 million brochures. A group of eurosceptics to Get Britain Out has initiated the collection of signatures with a demand to stop the government campaign of agitation of the population for continued membership in the EU. An online petition on the government website, signed by more than 100 thousand people.
In March last year in the center of the scandal was one of the treasurers and the main sponsors of the Conservative party billionaire Peter Cruddas: as the newspaper Sunday Times, he offered his assistance in organizing secret meetings with Cameron and Britain's Finance Minister George Osborne, who remained an opponent of Brexit and getting insider information, and also offered the opportunity to influence government policy in exchange for donations for the party. On the day of publication of Cruddas resigned from the Treasury post.
In early April 2016 Cameron and himself was in the center of the scandal, his name appeared in "Panama", and the man himself was suspected of tax evasion. About offshore he reported to the British Parliament.
Big impact on the campaign had a position of one of the most popular politicians of the conservative party, an eccentric former mayor of London, Boris Johnson, joined the supporters of Brexit. In late may, he said that "every year only due to migration from EU countries we add to the British population of the whole of Oxford. Johnson accused Cameron that he "will forever give control of the system of immigration and refugee status" and that the system is "out of control". As the newspaper Times, as a result of the influx of migrants the population of the UK in 2015 for the first time exceeded 65 million people, almost 40% of migrants settle in London.
Back in early March, Cameron was saying that he would not resign in the case of a decision of the British to withdraw from the Union. "No," he said in Parliament on the question of the representative of the labour party, Richard Berguna. By April, the Cameron's rating has fallen to 30% — this was the lowest mark since his appointment as Prime Minister.
Brexit — political failure of Cameron, the perpetrator of which in many respects — he appreciated the results of the campaign the British newspaper the Independent. As the Prime Minister Cameron and I took a controversial and sometimes risky decisions. Unlike his predecessors, he supported the holding of a referendum on Scottish independence. Contrary to the skepticism of the British politicians Cameron hoped that in this way he will enlist the support of the majority and this will allow for many years to save the country from possible recurrence of this problem. Then he won in the fall of 2014 for keeping Scotland part of the UK receives more than half of the population.
"During this campaign I fought the only way I know how — directly and spoke passionately that thinking and feeling, head, heart and soul. I hold nothing back, " said Cameron in a speech to reporters in the afternoon of June 24, when the outcome of a referendum on Brexit was already clear. But the British people made a very clear decision to go the other way, and the country needs new political leadership that will lead it in this direction."
The new Prime Minister of Britain after the resignation of Cameron in October 2016. Boris Johnson and Michael Gove — among the main candidates for this post.
If not Cameron, then who
The resignation of David Cameron needs to happen before October 2016, when it will host the annual conference of the Conservative party. To request a withdrawal from the European Union will have a new Prime Minister, confirmed Cameron.
To find Cameron successor, the Conservative party, has a majority in Parliament must choose a new leader. The procedure, if several candidates, members of Parliament from the party will vote on each candidate while the candidates remain only two, of which General party voting only the party has about 150 thousand members) will elect a new leader. He will become Prime Minister.
The favorite of the race, the British media called Boris Johnson. Among the possible contenders also include Michael Gove, George Osborne and the Minister of internal Affairs Theresa may. The last major poll on "Who would you support as the new leader of the Conservative party?" was conducted by the sociological service YouGov in February 2016. The majority of respondents (43%) supported Johnson, another 22% Osbourne.
It is possible that the resignation of Cameron to lead to early parliamentary elections. Under British law they can be held, if they will perform two thirds of the members of the house of Commons. As stated by The Wall Street Journal, Professor of political science, University of London Queen Mary, Tim bale, the conservatives can initiate new elections to consolidate its majority in Parliament.
With the participation of George Peremitina
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