The development of the Arctic regions of Russia is mainly determined by the transport accessibility from the so-called mainland, i.e. the parent, in fact, warm fit according to standard parameters and conditions for life. To date all project in the transportation improvement revolve around the well-known technologies, especially intensive and costly projects are a railway and a modernization of the air Harbor. However, despite the fact that will run and run projects that will serve for decades, they are not provided a manifold increase in transport efficiency. But people want to go many times faster and cheaper, and transport of goods should be made also at times cheaper and faster than today.
But the most unpleasant that all calculations of economic efficiency of realization of the absolute majority of minerals, which are basic goods for these new highways are totally unreliable.
Typically, these resources are supplied for export, and receive export proceeds into rubles to cover domestic costs (wages, taxes, payment of subcontractors, etc.) at the rate of three times a distorted regarding the correct market rate.
The Russian Central Bank for the purchase of these dollars are issued for 60 rubles per dollar, although according to the world Bank the real value of the dollar is approximately 20 rubles. Market valuation in the world is produced not by voluntary exchange rates of the Central banks of donor countries, like Russia, which solve some obscure problems, and according to calculations based on Purchasing power Parities compare between currencies. For the ruble it is 18.9 rubles per dollar in January 2015 (according to the world Bank) when the rate of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation was declared more than 60 rubles.
And then the cost of 1 cubic meter of gas sold by Gazprom, the report should not compare (price 240 US dollars per 1,000 cubic meters) was carrying 15,000 rubles per 1,000 cubic meters, as served in the media and the report of Gazprom, but only with 4.3 thousand RUB per 1,000 cubic meters calculated in the translation of USD to RUB at PPP . And reporting the cost of gas, probably close to 15,000 rubles per 1,000 cubic meters, which can be determined from the fact that Gazprom does not have available funds and constantly attracts loans supposedly not dangerous and surely a continuous revenue. But the calculations of PPS, the picture is much worse. And the next few years, apparently waiting for court claims for confiscation of the earnings of commodity companies for violating anti-dumping laws. The first loud bell has already rung by the establishment of the US tariff almost 750% on imported steel products.
Thus all the traffic flow, focused on the export of raw materials via the North sea route, can almost simultaneously to stop. And the trillions of rubles that will be spent on creation of export infrastructure will be in doubt effective.
Therefore, in the transport development of the Arctic, we must be prepared to the worst turn of events. Transport corridors should connect Northern ports between latitude and meridians go from the seas of the North to the refining centers in the South of Siberia for export of processed products, and even part of raw materials.
Transport routes should be more efficient than the existing 10 — 20 times. That is, instead of wheel — magnetic suspension, airbags, crossovah structures, etc., located above the surface and not breaking and not destroying natural landscapes.
The great Russian transport corridor Baltic sea — the Pacific needs to find new technological contents with higher speeds up to 1200 — 1400 km per hour and throughput of tens of millions of containers, with the price of energy consumption for transportation in 3 — 5 times lower wheel system. And today, systems exist with speeds of 450-500 km/h.
The world has commercialised transport technology based on the principles of magnetic levitation. It expects the explosive development in the coming years. The process started in Japan, the Republic of Korea and China. Over-ambitious about the project at speeds exceeding 1000 km/h claimed in the United States of America.
Platform magnetogravitational basis (Fig. 1) is a platform hanging in the air at a height of 10-100 mm raised above the canvas of the magnetic force created by permanent magnets or, or electromotive method, motion, have her payload. The platform should be located on the elevated overpass, as it provides speed up to 500-600 km/hour. Provided design and precluding the gathering (accident) with overpasses 100%, which ensures the trouble-free 100%. Longitudinal movement is expanded by the linear motor. All control and regulation is carried out automatically. Working speed on each platform or combination of platforms today reaches 500-600 km/hour.
Fig. 1. Magnetogravitational cargo transport platform
Therefore, speaking about the Arctic territories, it is necessary to offer economy solutions that exceed all already started at times. And it promises magnetic levitation today.
First, magnetogravitational technology for operational and techno-economic parameters significantly superior to wheeled train technology. For example, when transporting cargo (Fig. 2).
- The track is located above ground on trestles, which virtually eliminates harm to the environment and accidents.
- There are no emissions into the environment from a moving train.
- Fully automated control, without staff on rolling stock.
- Each unit of rolling stock (platform) may be sent as a separate unit or as part of a hitch of an unlimited number of platforms, limited only by the terms of loading and unloading.
- The maximum speed of the moving platforms reach up to 500-600 km/h, while ensuring optimum aerodynamic forms of goods.
Fig. 2. General view of the automated cargo transport system
The most used are the speed of 250-300 km/h Average operating speed, for example, on the road with a distance of 500-600 km between the stations of dispatch and receipt, will reach the maximum numbers of 250-300 km/hour against the average 30-40 km/h existing wheeled technologies for freight transport, for example between a port on the Baltic sea and Moscow.
The energy cost of transportation approximately 50% of the energy wheeled high-speed railway.
Operating costs (excluding energy) is 3-4 times lower than in wheeled high-speed roads, as there is no rubbing and vibrating design. And monitoring of the trestle way is fully automated.
All this allows to reduce rates for transportation of goods from the mainland to the ports of the Arctic almost in 2 times compared with the wheel rail system. Ie even coal and wood can be transported without subsidies, which will make the wealth of Siberia irresistible competitive on world markets. And finally, the most striking and unknown to most is the cheapness of creating magnetocavitation trails. High-speed road Moscow-Kazan in the wheel version naively believe to build for 1.3 billion rubles per kilometer. How to do it with the current world cost of 80-100 million $ USA per kilometer, probably no one knows. Therefore, the project has stalled and this technological and ecological hole trying to close different circuits. But the private investor is not stupid and has seen the prospect magnetocavitation transport systems.
In the North the situation is even more dramatic: huge distances (1000 km and more); energy (use) expensive; construction of embankments and slopes cripples nature and prohibitively expensive, probably times higher compared with mainland Russia. Permafrost, swamps, temperature conditions and so on. Elevated track is built industrially and really no special schemes will not cost more than 300-400 million rubles. per kilometer, and the same number will be rolling stock with energy and supporting infrastructure. I.e. 1000 km Russia will cost 1000 billion. But the track will be able to carry each 10 wagon hitch 400 tons of cargo. Hitch only 4 hours will be that thousand miles per year will be transported 45 million tons of cargo or up to 90 million with a 20-wagon hitch with the possible prospect of increasing transportation ability of the highway with the improvement of loading and unloading. And it many times exceeds the capabilities of wheeled systems for the transport cost and velocity. And I have full confidence that in the coming years will create a great Siberian-European route from the Pacific to the Baltic. And then the container with the gifts of the sea can reach Moscow in 20 hours instead of the current 20 days, and millions of passengers (so will increase ridership on the cheapest available transport) will go from Moscow to Vladivostok in one day.
And very soon ahead magnetocavitation technology using superconductivity, which will reduce energy consumption significantly, and the speed will rise to 1000 km/h and more. Therefore, the future of the Arctic transport is not the wheel for roads, and for the "flying" trains of today and of tomorrow.
Zanin V. P.,
General Director of JSC "National Expressway",
Laureate of the State prize of the USSR
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