Vice-Admiral of the Russian Imperial Navy Semyon Osipovich Makarov was a famous for his love of words - "Remember the war". This phrase in the Russian-Japanese war of 1904-1905, and he engraved even in their cufflinks. Makarov in his youth, tore the applause of fine ladies, unprecedented in the world of mine attack the Turkish battleships in the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-1878 and immediately after it, deserve the respect of a gray-haired professors, his studies of the World Ocean. In adulthood he was recognized as a theorist of war and Russia's best practitioner of the development of the battle fleet.
Admiral Semyon Osipovich Makarov - date unknown. (Source; https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Файл:Макаров,Stepanovich)
Already, venerable and silver-haired Admiral was the Creator of the first linear icebreaker in the world Ermak. In the construction of the "Ermak" he received the support and assistance of Dmitry Mendeleev, the prominent practice and theoretician not only of chemistry, but the development of the Russian North and the Arctic Ocean. D. I. Mendeleev was still a prominent Russian economist and sociologist. S. O. Makarov was one of the people active and thinking. He nurtured lots of ideas, one of which he stated - "To the pole ahead!". The Admiral did not have time to test the capabilities of his steel son – "Ermak" in the campaign to the North Pole.
Icebreaker "Ermak" - date of photo unknown. (Source; https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Файл:Yermak_icebreaker.jpg)
Two attempts to get to the pole on the "Ermak" under the personal command of S. O. Makarov was unsuccessful, and soon began the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. S. O. Makarov was killed, having gone under the water, on the flagship of the Port Arthur squadron – the squadron battleship "Petropavlovsk" in 1904. His peaceful dream remembered and not forgotten. The Bolsheviks, contrary to legend, invented by their enemies, carefully studied the experience of the Russian Empire. Most of the ideas of D. I. Mendeleyev and Sergei Makarov for the development of the country and the economy and realized it was in the USSR. The Soviet leadership to the designs of D. I. Mendeleev and Makarov treated with more attention than Nicholas II and his trusted entourage. Although the First World was forced to think about the correctness of Mendeleev and S. O. Makarov, when Arkhangelsk and immediately rebuilt the Port of Nicholas II (later Murmansk), was the only window to the allies of Russia in the Entente. Had to buy abroad icebreakers, except the future port of Murmansk, immediately planned to build Alexander III railroad from Central Russia to the Port of Nicholas II.
The Bolsheviks took into account the "lessons of history". Construction and purchase of icebreakers, in the NEP period, were more active than before the 1917 revolution. In the early 30's years of XX century the Soviet Union began active development of the Soviet North, continuing the work begun in the troop Novgorod hunters of Sables and a walrus. Was established the Northern Fleet of the Soviet Navy began to develop actively in the Arctic civilian fleet. Active construction of ports for various purposes and a naval base.
Postage stamp of the Soviet Union. The icebreaking steamer "Alexander Sibiryakov" in 1977. (Source; https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Файл:A_Sibirykov.jpg)
In 1932 the icebreaker "Sibiryakov", for the first time in written history of humanity, was the "Northern sea route" in a single navigation. In 1934, the icebreaker "Chelyuskin" was on the same route crushed ice, but the people on Board were saved by the efforts of the Soviet polar aviation and this was an important and valuable experience. Began unprecedented ever in the history of the scientific study of the Arctic, including, in particular, the establishment of drifting stations "North pole". In 1938, the North was transferred grandpa ice-breakers "Ermak". Studied the possibility of air flight to America via the North pole.
ANT-25 in the US (Source; https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Файл:Tupolev,_ANT-25.jpg)
The first fly in the U.S. Arctic route in 1937, a record-breaking ANT-25 the idol of Soviet youth and a favorite of Soviet leaders – Valery Chkalov. The task was to learn the flights over the North pole, for different purposes. "Polar Explorer" has become a trendy word, thanks to the dedicated efforts of Soviet propaganda. The USSR understood the importance of the Arctic as an important economic resource and as a potentially important theater of war.
All is not in vain. During the great Patriotic War we were able to neutralize all the attempts of the Nazis to seize the Russian Arctic. Through Murmansk was the second largest flow of supplies under the program "lend-lease". Fortunately, in contrast to the era of the reign of Nicholas II, the Soviet North was already rebuilt ports, was much improved compared to the pre-revolutionary era to the capacity of the Railways has been implemented long ago, the time of Peter I, the idea of the white sea-Baltic Canal. Over the North pole was not only the flights of the higher officials of the anti-Hitler coalition, but also ferrying of combat aircraft for the red army. "Northern sea route" to function properly the entire period of the Second World war, enabling the transfer of cargo for various purposes, and the transfer between theaters of war the warships of the Soviet Navy. Wiring warships and squadrons on the future of the "Northern Sea Route", S. O. Makarov thought one of the main purposes "Ermak" and similar breakers. Admiral "Remember the war" - S. O. Makarov, was opposed to the transfer of combat squadrons to Japan through the Indian Ocean. His prediction came true a year after he died heroically on the battle bridge of the "Petropavlovsk". In 1905 a serious crossing of 2 oceans of the Russian squadron of Vice-Admiral Z. P. Rozhdestvensky, ended with the destruction of our fleet in the waters of the third oceans – the Pacific, during the battle of Tsushima.
Ermak, remembering the steps of their Creator in their decks and hands on the wheel, during the great Patriotic War went on "Northern Sea Route", providing the wiring convoys of warships and civil vessels.
The great Patriotic war and the war against Japan in 1945 ended with the total victory of the USSR and its allies. But to "force things" naturally lit allies on different sides of the other of the barricades. "Fulton speech" Winston Churchill, 1946 meant that the West is again challenged our power. Joseph Stalin and his government accepted the challenge and began to prepare the country for a new showdown.
The role of the Northern latitudes in conflict with the United States and Britain was sharply higher than in the conflicts with Germany and Japan. Arctic exploration was boosted. The large-scale construction of new ports and Railways along the coast of the Soviet Arctic. The USSR at that time were prepared, including, for offensive action in North America. The death of Stalin in 1953 made adjustments to the plans. The new leadership did not want confrontation with NATO and didn't see the point in activities in so many large-scale preparations for offensive war with the USA and NATO. The construction of the railway along the "Northern Sea Route", stopped. Abandoned in Chukotka powerful airborne divisions. Was made major adjustments in military construction ocean fleet. But the rejection of the idea of exploration and development of the Soviet Arctic, was not. Without steel pipeline along the coast of the Arctic Ocean the need for a powerful icebreaking fleet only became higher.
The maximum card with the stamp "icebreaker "Lenin"" (1958, artist E. Bulanova)(CFA (ITC "Mark") No. 2271). (Source; https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Файл:USSR_1959_pc_Lenin.jpg)
The navigation in 1960, was the first convoy wiring nuclear icebreaker "Lenin". "Lenin" had been the first civilian nuclear surface fleet in the world. He became the pride of the Soviet Union – one of the proofs of its growing economic and technical power. Lenin managed to catch the outputs of the grandfather of modern ice-breakers "Ermak" for pilotage and ships. In 1964, the "Ermak" was removed from the civilian fleet. In the same year, the new captain of the "Lenin" became Yuri Kuchiev. His commander's career began in 1946, it was the "Ermak", mate. Following the atomic icebreaker "Arktika" project 10520 was founded in 1971. The construction of the most massive series of icebreakers of project 10520 and 10521 continuation of the project, coincided with a period unprecedented in the history of our country with increasing tonnage of military and civil fleet. At the same time, since the beginning of the 70 years of XX century, the Soviet Union began an active economic development of the Soviet Arctic, Siberia and the Far East. The need for the wiring of ships and warships along the Northern Sea route has increased. These two factors have determined how the increased power of the ice breaker with higher ice classes than even the icebreaker "Lenin" and the mass series: together with the ships project 10521 total number built for him ships made up of 6 units. And to this day it is the most massive series of nuclear icebreakers in our country. In 1972, the "Arctic" was launched, in 1975, it was raised the Soviet Flag and the submarine was taken into the icebreaking fleet of Murmansk Shipping company. His captain, since the bookmark was Yu. Kuchiev. Still, as commander of the icebreaker "Lenin", he was thinking about the passage to the North Pole. And began to prepare for it by studying the possible ways of passage and the potential routes, including during Postings on "Lenin" under his command naval convoys in the Arctic and individual flights of the "Lenin."
The icebreaker "Arktika" in 2006; (Source; https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Файл:Russian_Nuclear_Icebreaker_Arktika.jpg)
Already in 1975, the icebreaker showed their power – they were carried out the transaction via the Northern sea route, diesel-electric icebreaker "Admiral Makarov". In October 1976 they were taken out from ice captivity, the icebreaker "Ermak" and the ship "Captain Myshevsky" and the icebreaker "Leningrad" transport "Chelyuskin". It was the first "star watch" the newest nuclear-powered, but not the last.
"Arctic" was given a chance to fulfill the dream of the Admiral S. O. Makarov, the Russian conquest of the North Pole ship. It was the world's first linear icebreaker ice-class "Icebreaker9" (LL1) – the highest among the ice classes of ships. He could theoretical go across the ice of the waters of the oceans. Therefore, soon after raising the ship to the flag of the USSR, the crew began to prepare for a hike to the North pole. The idea of captain Yu. Kuchiev and G. O. Kononovich supported at the highest level. Director of the future of the expedition was the Minister of the Navy of the USSR Timofey Borisovich Guzhenko. In the preparation participated besides the sailors, scientific organization, including from among the organizations developers of the "Arctic" and its components, and among organizations engaged in the study of the Arctic and the World Ocean in different aspects. Important was the defensive aspect. The Ministry of Defence of the Soviet Union actively participated in the preparation of the expedition and its implementation. The passage to the North Pole coincided with the 60th anniversary of the great October Revolution of 1917. In the same 1977 was scheduled to adopt a new Constitution of the USSR. Hike to the most Northern point of Land in the USSR were assigned special significance. 9 August 1977 the port of Murmansk began the conquest of the icebreaker "Arktika" the North Pole. On the ice-breaker personally was the head of this expedition - Minister of the USSR Navy TB Guzhenko. "Arctic" was accompanied by air and naval forces and means of the Navy of the USSR. Upon reaching the ice, under the water she continued to escort the nuclear submarine K-438 project 671 "Ruff". She accompanied submerged "Arctic" in the event of any emergency situations prepared to assist. Underwater radio communication for our submarines of the Northern Fleet at that time already provided the radio band very low frequency (VLF) "ZEUS", created with the participation of my father J. A. Boldyreva and located near Murmansk. My dad is a part of childhood spent in the Russian North, when my grandfather Alexander S. Boldyrev worked in the fur industry.
Onboard was a group of scientists and engineers. The aim was the study of the Arctic, as a unique geographical and climatic areas, with an understanding of the operation of the submarine and its mechanisms in a non-standard until the conditions for boats and ships. Also been studied, and analyzed the features of the vessel's passage through the heavy ice of the Arctic Ocean. Since this passage was experimental, in the event of an emergency situation was taken with food for 8 months, prepared equipment and materials to create the ice airfield. Also on Board took a second Mi-2 helicopter as a backup in case of unforeseen situations with the standard Mi-2. The ship was able to go at the Geographic North pole of the Earth. Largely due to the fact that the leadership of the expedition dared to test in practice the theory of "free water" and the creation of long-term ice forecasts using the "Sunny matrix", doctor of science V. N. Kupetsky. This lengthened the route, but allowed us to avoid falling into a very powerful ice in the West Arctic. "Arctic" was held to the pole from the East of the Laptev Sea. On arrival at the destination - the Geographic North pole on 17 August 1977, it was established the national flag of the USSR and the shaft of the flag of the expedition, dog sledding Georgy Sedov who died in 1912, reaching, just, 100 km. to the North Pole. Thereby, it emphasized the continuity of the Soviet Union the Russian Empire and its predecessors the Moscow Kingdom and the Russian Principalities. And therefore their efforts and achievements in the development of the Arctic and far North. At the bottom of the Arctic Ocean pulled a copy of the coat of Arms of the USSR, the text of the anthem of the Soviet Union and the draft Constitution of the USSR, subsequently adopted as it stood on 7 October 1977. The sailors directly on the North Pole read out a congratulatory telegram from the General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee Leonid Brezhnev. For this expedition the whole crew were awarded orders and medals. Four people including the captain of the Arctic Yu. Kuchiev and expedition leader T. B. Guzhenko was awarded the title of Hero of Socialist labor.
Postal unit of the USSR, devoted to the trek to the North pole icebreaker "Arktika", the catalog Number CFA — 4745. Artist — A. Aksamit. (Source; https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Почтовый_блок_СССР_№_4745._1977._Поход_атомного_ледокола_Арктика_к_Северному_полюсу.jpg)
For the contemporaries of the hike pass "the Arctic" to the extreme point of the Arctic was equal to the flight of Yuri Gagarin into space. Soviet Union embodied a very old dream of many people.
In 1982, 20 Nov dies longtime head of the Communist party and indeed of the whole Soviet Union – Leonid Brezhnev. His name decided to immortalize in one of the construction of new icebreakers of project 10520, but was, as we are assured, made a typo in the document and the name of Leonid Brezhnev was assigned to the icebreaker "Arktika". The sailors were very unhappy with this renaming - with the support of Yury Vladimirovicha Antropov managed to return to the icebreaker it included in the history of Arctic exploration title. After the death of Yury Antropov icebreaker in 1986 again became the "Arctic".
In winter navigation 1999-2000 Arctic he spent one year in the walking on the waters of our Northern seas.
Arktika became famous for the rescue of vessels in 1983. Abnormally warm Arctic summer navigation in 1983, led, hit 6 convoys "Northern delivery" in the ice trap in Inscom the array. Among the vessels were jammed three icebreakers, including the nuclear-powered icebreaker "Lenin". The ship "Nina Sagaydak" already distributed the ice, was threatened and the supply of large areas of our North and Far East, which was meant for goods which were in the caravan. "Arctic" (at the time renamed "Leonid Brezhnev"), was already after navigation dock repair. The repair was completed ahead of schedule, and the submarine went to the Eastern Arctic to save the court. This was the largest rescue operation in the seas in the world, was rescued by 56 ships. Caravans in support of the "Leonid Brezhnev" reached its destination port of Pevek, situated on the Chukchi Peninsula. Northern delivery in 1983 in the Eastern part of Siberia and in Chukotka was made. The captain of the icebreaker "Leonid Brezhnev" Anatoly lemehov for it received the title of Hero of Socialist Labor.
In winter navigation 1999-2000 Arctic he spent one year in the walking on the waters of our Northern seas.
Icebreaker Arktika-the year 2012. (Source; https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Файл:Arktika_icebr.JPG)
In August 2008, the icebreaker was removed from the Murmansk shipping company in connection with the expiration of service and the need to prepare it for disposal.
Technical description and characteristics of linear icebreaker "Arktika" project 10520
Linear icebreaker "Lenin" project No. 92, was a good ship, I write about it even in Soviet encyclopedias for children of preschool age. Next icebreaker project 10520 created the same TSKB-15 (now "the iceberg"). But the building was entrusted to other shipyards "the Baltic factory named after Sergo Ordzhonikidze". This same shipyard in those years, began the construction of the first combat surface nuclear-powered ships of the project 1144 "Orlan".
Ships of the project 10520, like all built in Soviet nuclear icebreakers, starting with "Lenin", had mobilization capabilities in the form of the installation of artillery, rocket and not only weapons for self defense of ship in case of mobilization in wartime.
Icebreaker has 4 decks, bow and stern platform and tank. Add-on 5 - tier. Due to the climatic characteristics of polar latitudes, the movement of crew between all areas is possible without access to the open deck. In addition, the standard for ship's wardroom has a dining room, a chess and musical salons, a cinema, a swimming pool, gym, library, classroom, two Finnish saunas, a hairdresser, a photo-cabin and home workshop. Provides powerful medical base: medical unit includes: includes the clinic with physiotherapy and dental departments, operating Department x-ray room, lab, sterilization, isolation and infirmary. In this project 10520 court followed the traditions of high comfort and of ergonomics for the crew, realized even at the atomic icebreaker "Lenin" (Project no 92).
Displacement of the icebreaker is 25 840 tons. The maximum length of the icebreaker is 148 meters, waterline length is 136 meters. Structural width of 30 meters, waterline width of 28 meters. The side height is 17 meters.
The power plant is a steam generating nuclear power plant the heart, which is two more nuclear power reactors of water-cooled type OK-900А, each with a capacity of 171 Watts. The nuclear compartment is located in the middle part of the vessel, due to the high degree of avtomatizatsii work the power plant is possible without the presence of personnel compartment. As well as other key nodes of power and propulsion systems of the ship and its onboard power system. Automated control system capable of automatic notice of malfunction of the system and signaling the ship's crew. Protrombina installation of the "Arctic" consists of two independent turbine generators with a capacity of 37 500 horsepower each, they detonated five turbo generators producing 2,000 kW each. Three electric motors with total capacity of 75 000 HP rotate three four-mushroom screw with fixed pitch, providing the icebreaker the maximum speed in pure water at 18 knots (33 km/h). Also, there are emergency diesel-generator capacity of 1000 kW and two emergency diesel generators of 200 kW. Endurance 7 months. The crew of 138 people. If necessary, scientific, or any other expeditions, you can place more. The hike to the North pole on the ship was located more than 200 people.
The thickness of ice through which it can pass is not less than 5 meters. On Board is based regular ice reconnaissance helicopter MI-2. The ship was equipped with the most complete at the time the set of navigation, communication and automation of ship systems on Board.
At the moment the name "Arctic" has the head of nuclear icebreaker of project 22220 perspective (type LK-60Я) displacement 33 540 t Latest nuclear-powered ship was launched in 2016. Enter in the payroll scheduled for the year 2019.
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