The programme is based on replacing the strategic submarines and sea-based missiles, designed primarily for patrolling the Arctic. And it is a derivative of the US strategy.
According to various sources, the implementation of the program will spend from a few dozen to several hundred billion pounds. Earlier, the government designated the amount of 31 billion pounds. Opponents believe that the costs will be 167 billion pounds over three decades. And that for decades determines the dominant British foreign policy.
Of course, the nuclear missiles of the Royal Navy in the Arctic — not the best way to ensure freedom and security of the island nation, located about 3 thousand kilometers from the Barents sea. And it's not the best format of the Russian-British dialogue. However, in the Arctic London acts as the servant of Washington.
United States and therefore the UK are concerned about the activity of the Russian Navy. In British defense strategy-2015 Russia is mentioned in a negative way. In the same year 2015, published the same spirit of renewed naval strategy of the United States. As the newly appointed British Prime Minister Theresa may, it shares the views of the hawks, the Russophobes at the both sides of the Atlantic.
In April 2016 a British submarine returned to the Arctic, which is systematically combat patrol (their American colleagues never forgot this area of the World ocean).
Probably, the real sovereignty of Russia does not fit into long term plans of the West. As for mixing the real problems of the European Union and the United States, for the stable growth of income of the American military-industrial complex need a Grand just "common enemy". Such a confrontation requires a serious budget strain of the allies, and they try.
The change of generations
The United Kingdom considers its nuclear forces (represented by the Maritime component) as the most effective means of deterring aggression and ensuring national security, peace and stability.
The Trident program is the most expensive element of the British armed forces, it is four nuclear submarines of class Vanguard ("vanguard"). At least one of them is always in the patrol area, having on Board at least 12 ballistic missiles, the Trident D5, each with four warheads (the range is about 10 thousand km). The missile entered service in 1995 and can carry up to eight warheads with a capacity of 100 — 150 kilotons. Each submarine has 16 missile silos.
The submarines based on the West coast of Scotland. And if Scotland vote for secession from the United Kingdom, it would jeopardize the entire program Trident, because the construction of a new base may require two decades and 15 billion pounds (20 billion dollars).
The price of one Vanguard submarine is more than 1 billion pounds. Over time, the program is becoming more expensive, and the benefits from it are not obvious.
Lead boat of the Vanguard, commissioned in 1994 and later in 1995, 1998 and 2001-m years. Their service life is 30 years. The modernization project involves replacing in 2030 submarines new Vanguard class Successor. The UK Ministry of defence has already signed contracts with a total value of 79 million pounds with BAE Systems Maritime-Submarines for the development of the Successor submarine.
According to experts, weapons Successor will be unified with the American equipment of advanced nuclear submarines. Each new strategic submarine will receive, according to various estimates, from 12 to 16 missile silos (Trident-2 D-5 Life Extension), that is up to 40 warheads on Board. Successor with a full displacement of about 17 thousand tons will be equipped with a nuclear reactor, Rolls-Royce PWR3.
One of the problems of the customer the new submarines — the possibility of using in the distant future of strategic missiles that exist while in the form of concepts.
Contrary to popular opinion in the West, Russia can't conquer Europe (or America) through invasion and occupation. It is quite obvious, because it is pointless. However, Russia could not fail to notice the rough political pressure and a thorough modernization (2013) US nuclear Arsenal.
For 25 years, the Americans plan to replace the existing seven types of nuclear warheads at five new. The United States intends to have three types of warheads for ICBMs and sea-based and two types — airborne (free fall bomb and the cruise missile). Now we can see the connection to this dangerous process of nuclear rearmament and the UK.
American thermonuclear thermonuclear British sword and shield have minor differences (not to mention common strategy and objectives within the framework of NATO). Nuclear warheads the UK's own production (with the capacity of 100-150 kilotons, up to 500 units). However, the British ballistic missile made in USA and is actually leased from the Americans who carry out maintenance and guarantee supervision over the operation of MBR.
There are a number of military-technical agreements, evidence of combining the role of "mistress of the seas. Perhaps, at least in the new project Successor of the English engineers will be able to participate in the creation of unified launchers for their own and American submarines.
Why London is so eager to participate in the demonstration of nuclear power Washington?
Countries possessing nuclear weapons, are insured against many risks, because even in the case of aggression they can retaliation is guaranteed and repeatedly destroy the enemy with missiles of various ranges.
Let no danger, in the United Kingdom, a number of politicians strong Imperial ambitions. And yet the American political journal CounterPunch notes that the confrontation between the U.S., NATO and Russia bears the risk of nuclear war.
The danger is that when increasing the number of submarines engaged in patrolling the Arctic spaces (under the ice), increasing the likelihood of collisions. When tracking in a submerged position, the probability of such incidentcitation high. Successful outcome with no guarantees, and interpretations, and the consequences can be unpredictable.
Here, and former chief Navigator of the Navy rear Admiral Valery Aleksin, and independent French documentary filmmaker Jean-Michel carré is still convinced that nuclear submarine missile-carrying cruiser of the project 949A "Kursk" perished due to a collision with an American submarine.
Russia is acting
The region to which the efforts of the British Navy — the Arctic is a priority dostatochnymi the Maritime doctrine of the Russian Federation. And Russia intends to defend national interests consistently and multidirectional.
In 2015, the Russian Federation submitted to the UN a revised application for the expansion of the boundaries of the continental Arctic shelf by adding a hydrocarbon rich Lomonosov and Mendeleev ridges.
For intruders in the Arctic, a global hydroacoustic system for the protection of the territorial waters of Russia. The system provides three circuit — marine, terrestrial, and space. Sonar buoys and underwater sensors will relieve the situation and convey information to satellites and space contour.
On the ground control system will automatically analyze this data and give the optimal order of actions of the system operators. The ships and submarines of the potential enemy will be detected hundreds of miles and, if necessary, neutralized.
Modernizarea system Arctic air defense. In the Arctic deployed two anti-aircraft missile regiment, equipped with air defense systems s-400 "Triumph" (at the Novaya Zemlya archipelago in Yakutsk and Tiksi). To cover them placed batteries of missile and artillery systems "Armour". On the New Earth set coastal missile division, equipped with complexes "Bastion". All these units around the clock combat duty.
Expanding the network of modern garrisons and airfields on the Alexandra Land (archipelago Franz Josef land, Novaya Zemlya, the island Average, at Cape Otto Schmidt, Wrangel island, Kotelny island (Novosibirsk Islands).
Strengthening the Northern fleet, which increases a new generation of nuclear-powered icebreakers "Arktika". 16 June in St. Petersburg launched the head submarine laid down second and third. Versatile two-sedimentary nuclear icebreaker "Arktika" will be the largest and most powerful in the world. He can organize convoys through the ice shell thickness up to 3 m.
However, the Northern fleet of Russia is not confined to the Arctic. Deploy the updated satellite constellation, the replenishment of naval underwater nuclear submarines of project 955 "Borey" (ballistic missile) and project 885M "Ash-M" (with cruise missiles) contribute to the autonomy, secrecy and effectiveness of submarines in the mode of combat duty, in the previously inaccessible ocean areas. I hope London knows about it.
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