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Intellectual Property performance of Arctic Countries
Material posted: Publication date: 18-04-2022
Patents registration is one of the important indications of any country’s education and research quality. In this case Russia is on top in the total application but most of the Russian applications received in the Resident category and it’s far behind in the Non-resident category.

Russia is also on top in “Equivalent applications by origin” but in “PCT international applications” and “PCT national applications” category Russia is after Canada. Canada is after Russia in Total application with 36,161 in comparison to Russia with 37,957. Canada’s performance in the category of ‘Non-resident, PCT international applications and PCT national applications’ is very much better.  Other countries in the region also do very good but very far from Russia and Canada especially in Total.   In the category ‘Equivalent applications by origin total (a)’ Sweden   filed the application more than Canada. In PCT international applications (origin) and PCT national phase entry (origin) Sweden lead with a big margin in compression of other countries. Other countries like Denmark, Finland and Norway also did better in category of ‘PCT international applications (origin) and PCT national phase entry (origin)’ [1].

Table 1. Patent applications by office and origin, 2018

 

Application by office

Equivalent applications by origin

PCT international applications

PCT national phase entry

Country Name

Total

Resident

Non-resident

Total (a)

Receiving office

Origin

Office

Origin

Canada

36,161

4,349

31,812

24,483

1,914

2,422

28,396

9,450

Russia

37,957

24,926

13,031

30,696

993

963

10,159

2,496

Sweden

2,280

1,838

442

25,310

1,406

4,162

73

17,371

Denmark

1,501

1,262

239

13,385

457

1,443

93

7,496

Finland

1,487

1,387

100

11,572

1,007

1,836

24

6,507

Norway

1,674

1,082

592

6,511

346

766

544

4,000

Iceland

66

56

10

281

14

49

7

134

Source: Based on Wold World Intellectual Property Indicators 2019

In patents grant performance Russian and Norway’s performance is excellent in compression of other Russian success percentages is 94.24% while Norway secured 92.47% of total registered applications.  Tough Canada filled the application near to Russia but its success rate is very low with 64.98%.  Denmark's position is lowest with   14.12%. Russia is also in top position in terms of total patents forced with 256,419 patents.  Canada and Sweden are on number 2 and 3 with 184,559 and 100,974 patents respectively (Table 2).

Intellectual Property (Patents Grant) Performance

Table 2. Patent grant by office and origin, 2018 (total/granted)

 

 

Grants by office

Equivalent grant  by origin

In force by office

Country Name

Total

Resident

Non-resident

Total (a)

Total

Canada

36,161/23,499=64.98

4,349/2,221

31,812/21,278

24,483/13,542

184,559

Russia

37,957/35,774=94.24

24,926/20,526

13,031/15,248

30,696/23,627

256,419

Sweden

2,280/1,063=46.62

1,838/885

442/178

25,310/16,787

100,974

Denmark

2,280/322=14.12

1,838/195

239/127

13,385/6,506

62,408

Finland

1,487/533=35.84

1,387/472

100/61

11,572/8,571

52,140

Norway

1,674/1,548=92.47

1,082/545

592/1,003

6,511/3,705

37,434

Iceland

66/16=24.24

56/6

10/10

6,511/218

7,380

Source: Based on Wold World Intellectual Property Indicators 2019

Trademark Patents

Trademark  is the symbol of a company or industrial house ,  as the business grow or confidence of people grow in company  the value of trademark also grow. It also shows the success of a nation as well.  In arctic region or countries Russia is top country in trademark patent applications.  According to 2018 data of ‘World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)’ Russia applied for total 263,552 trademark patents while Canada applied for 187,642. Norway also performs well with 45,288 applications (Table 3).

Table 3. Trademark applications by office and origin, 2018

 

Application by office

Application class count by origin

Equivalent application class count by origin

Madrid international applications

Country Name

Total

Resident

Non-resident

Total (a)

Total (a)

Origin (f)

Designated Madrid member

Canada

187,642

106,328

81,314

150,905

282,739

95

n.a

Russia

263,552

203,854

59,698

261,765

299,577

1,502

15,627

Sweden

21,029

15,756

5,273

49,841

306,290

787

1,272

Denmark

10,979

6,366

4,613

25,014

187,105

594

1,152

Finland

9,429

5,556

3,873

23,208

156,919

528

929

Norway

45,288

13,935

31,353

25,536

78,641

333

8,716

Iceland

10,141

1,952

8,189

3,084

7,848

59

2,395

Source: Based on Wold World Intellectual Property Indicators 2019

In process of application Russia got the 61, 355 applications processed and got the registration of 54,342 applications which are highest in the region with 88.56% of success rate.  Out of 43760 application, Canada got registration for 24,376 application with is 55.70% of success rate. Other Arctic countries also performed well with high percentages.  Russia’s performance in Withdrawn or abandoned is also very excellent, only 483 Russian applications were Withdrawn or abandoned, while Canada’s 19,335 applications were Withdrawn or abandoned. But Russia is also on top in Total rejection with 6530 application totally rejected is very poor outcome in comparison of other, especially in comparison of Canada which is only 52 application were total rejected. Canada’s 163.218 applications are in pending while Russia’s pending applications are 35,917 (Table 4)

Table 4. Trademark office procedural

Country Name

Total applications processed

Registered

Partial rejections

Total rejections

Withdrawn or abandoned

Applications pending

Canada

43,760

24,376

7

52

19,325

163,218

Russia

61,355

54,342

na

6,530

483

35,917

Sweden

9,290

7,085

86

335

1,784

2,181

Denmark

3,003

2,632

180

120

71

746

Finland

na

na

na

na

na

na

Norway

15,238

12,516

na

182

2,540

8,600

Iceland

4,153

3,360

398

150

245

2,520

Source: Based on Wold World Intellectual Property Indicators 2019

Because Russia was leading in total application numbers and processed application therefor Russia got the highest number of trademark with 189,127 numbers of registrations.  Canada also got 62,049 trademark registrations. But Canada’s performance in non-resident registration is very high with 48.89 % of total trademark registrations while Russia’s non-resident registration percentage is 32.87%.  According 2018 data Russia is on top in Arctic region with 623,712 of total trademark in force while there are 581,561 registered trademarks in force in Canada.  Other Arctic countries especially Norway and Sweden also performed fine (Table 5).

Trademark registrations

Table 5. Trademark registrations by office and origin, and trademarks in force, 2018

 

Registration class count by office

Application class count by origin

Equivalent application class count by origin

Madrid international applications

In force by office

Country Name

Total

Resident

Non-resident

Total (a)

Total (a)

Origin (f)

total

Canada

62,049

31,709

30,340

55,111

144,455

82

581,561

Russia

189,127

126,944

62,183

192,689

232,800

1,503

623,712

Sweden

17,225

12,304

4,921

48,401

296,063

830

128,436

Denmark

10,817

6,020

4,797

24,938

147,257

567

45,849

Finland

8,950

4,955

3,995

23,614

141,546

537

100,346

Norway

43,138

10,289

32,849

19,562

65,142

333

221,209

Iceland

10,017

1,287

8,730

2,240

6,533

42

59,771

Source: Based on Wold World Intellectual Property Indicators 2019

Industrial Design

Industrial design gives a product a unique identity (in compression of other product) because of physical appearance, functionality and manufacturability.  It also shows indicate how an industrial design   is different in design and competent with different industrial product.  In Industrial Design application Russia is on top with 8,943 applications with 3,822 resident and 5,121 non-resident applications, while Canada applied for 6,818 industrial design applications, but Canada’s performance in non-residents is excellent with 6044 application and only 774 resident application. Norway also performed very well with 4,201 application with 3,646 non-resident and 555 resident applications (Table 6).

Table 6. Industrial design applications

 

Registration design count by office

Application design count by origin

Equivalent application design count by origin

Hague international application design count

Country Name

Total

Resident

Non-resident

Total (a)

Total (a)

origin

Designated Hague member

Canada

6,818

774

6,044

2,899

19,277

15

250

Russia

8,943

3,822

5,121

4,530

8,310

107

1,944

Sweden

579

457

122

5,001

50,748

343

n.a.

Denmark

452

177

275

3,149

51,398

269

274

Finland

262

157

105

1,568

21,310

71

94

Norway

4,201

555

3,646

1,413

8,373

142

3,192

Iceland

na

na

na

44

989

na

265

Source: Based on Wold World Intellectual Property Indicators 2019

Table 7. Industrial design registrations

 

Registration design count by office

Registration design count by origin

Equivalent registration design count by origin

Hague international registration design count

In force by office

Country Name

Total

Resident

Non-resident

Total (a)

Total (a)

Origin (c)

Total

Canada

5,136

656

4,480

2,239

15,766

1

42,277

Russia

8,540

3,284

5,256

3,859

6,073

37

35,898

Sweden

461

350

111

4,959

52,272

358

4,414

Denmark

389

119

270

2,842

47,365

247

855

Finland

184

117

67

1,654

23,313

73

na

Norway

3,758

551

3,207

1,370

7,196

111

10,342

Iceland

263

14

249

50

995

na

1,027

Source: Based on Wold World Intellectual Property Indicators 2019

In Industrial Design registration also Russia is on top with 8,540 registrations with 5,256 non-resident and 3,284 resident registrations but Russia is on second number in Industrial design  ‘In force by office’  with 35,898 industrial design in force.  Canada got the registration on 5,136 industrial designs with 4,480 non-resident registrations. Though in “Registration design count by office in 2019” Canada is number two after Russia but in “Industrial Design In force by office” is number one with 42,277 industrial designs.  Other Arctic countries Norway and Sweden also perform well (Table 7).

In Intellectual property “Patents, Trademark and Industrial Design” Russia’s performance is very good with competitive with Canada.  It indicate that Russia has quality education, infrastructure and other institutions to compete in intellectual property area but its performance in ‘non-resident’ category is low in comparison of ‘resident’ category. Canada’s performance is also back to back with Russia and its performance in non-resident category very good in comparison of Russia. Other Arctic countries also perform well especially in non-resident category. Russia needs to more focus on performance in ‘non-resident category’ because it will give him a global recognition and reputation.

Javed Zafar, international expert, New Delhi, India

[1] (a)Equivalent applications by origin data are incomplete because some offices do not report by origin.


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