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The US and Russia in the Arctic
Material posted: Publication date: 29-05-2017

As you know, the Arctic is a special region, how little amenable to economic development and poorly suited for living. But global warming and widespread development of technology made her extremely attractive to the entire world community. The possibility of exploitation of hydrocarbon and mineral wealth, the opening of new polar routes, the organization of regular navigation – this dream of not only the Arctic countries, but many are far from the North pole regions.

The Arctic States are set to consider the Arctic as a "territory of dialogue and cooperation", which was noted at the last 29-30 March in Arkhangelsk IV International Arctic forum. Nevertheless, "the Arctic is also a strategic theatre that carries a risk of remilitarization" – as noted by the moderator of the plenary meeting of the forum John. Cutmore, anchor the U.S. channel CNBC. Relations within the Arctic Council is ambiguous. It is determined by a number of controversial issues about the division of territories of the Arctic.

It should be noted that the historically special relationship between the Russian Federation and the United States ensure the continued relevance of the issue of development dialogue between them. The Arctic is a sphere of interests of both countries, which gives reason as to cooperation and conflicts in the region. Russia and the United States are two strong powers, the relations between which have an impact on the world situation as a whole, and hence on how to develop these relations in the Arctic region in particular may depend on the fate of the Arctic and around the world.

By studying and analyzing the Arctic strategies of these two States can be understood not only the potential future of the Arctic, but also the future of the dialogue between the Russian Federation and the United States.

Having examined some literary sources covering the Arctic strategies of these two countries, we can divide them into three groups. Some authors are more optimistic and predict a possible cooperation between Russia and the United States in the Arctic. However, cooperation is possible only in those areas where the United States cannot do without Russian participation. For example, it concerns measures to ensure the safety of Maritime and air transportation in the Arctic[1] or the recent announcement of a joint collaboration[2]. The same is true for fisheries in the Arctic zone. Others are inclined to a confrontation between these two States. They determine this by the fact that the United States seeks to make the status of the Northern sea route international, which is contrary to the economic interests of Russia, the Arctic Council is considered as a platform for dialogue, but no more, while Russia is trying to expand its powers, and the American support of NATO in the Arctic region may carry negative implications for Russia, given the emerging relationship between it and NATO. Still others can't give any specific forecasts, as the Arctic question, in addition to the initial policies can affect the General mood in Russian-American relations, the efficiency of the Russian economic policy in the Arctic to attract foreign investment and technology and to sustain the United States current policy of predominantly unilateral action in the region or they will make a choice in favor of multilateral cooperation.

The first group includes work Zagorsky, A. V.[3], Chumakov D. S.[4], Fadeev A. M.[5] the Optimistic conclusions about cooperation between the United States and the Russian Federation can be done on the basis of the IV International Arctic forum, where the Russian side stressed that "comes from the fact that in the Arctic region there is no potential for conflict".

The second group of sources consists of works justifying a real threat to the US the Russian Arctic plans. This is substantiated in the works of N. With. Gudovskikh, V. V. Kuznetsov[6], N. M. Antolini[7]. Also taken into account and the US military potential and possible challenges for the Russian side associated with it. It is written in scientific-analytical report scientific redaktsii V. S. Selin, T. P. Skufyina, E. P. Bashmakova[8]and analytical article V. K. Belozerov[9].

The last group of sources consists of works by V. N. Konysheva, A. A. Sergunina[10].

It should also be noted that the primary literature to perform the comparative analysis are themselves the strategy of the Russian Federation and the United States. Only after a detailed study "the development Strategy of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation and national security for the period till 2020", "fundamentals of state policy of the Russian Federation in the Arctic for the period till 2020 and further prospect", "the foreign policy Concept of the Russian Federation", "national security Strategy of the Russian Federation", "decree of the President William Clinton in 1994, the Directive on national security in the Arctic", "Arctic roadmap U.S. Navy, the national security Strategy of the United States", "New military doctrine of Barack Obama", "National strategy of the United States in the Arctic in 2013," you can make predictions about the future of the Arctic region.

Bureeva Maria

 

[1] "Agreement on cooperation in aeronautical and Maritime search and rescue in the Arctic" dated 14 may 2011, Nuuk, Greenland

[2] "Joint statement on cooperation in case of emergencies and joint operations in the Arctic region" from March 25, 2017, Boston, USA

[3] A. V. Zagorski Russia and the United States in the Arctic. Working paper 30/2016 / [A.V. Zagorski]; [ed. by I. S. Ivanov]; Russian international Affairs Council (RIAC). – M.: NP RIAC, 2016. – 24 p

[4] Chumakov D. S. Main vectors of international cooperation in the Arctic // Bulletin of Moscow University. Series 25, International relations and world politics – 2011 - No. 2 Pp. 41-61

[5] Fadeev, A. M. assessment of the global market of energy resources and prospects for international cooperation in the development of Arctic hydrocarbon deposits the Arctic: society and economy. – 2012. - No. 8. – P. 25-33.

[6] Gudovskih N.. Kuznetsov V. V. Who will divide the Arctic? // The Bulletin of the Academy of military Sciences. – 2012. - No. 4. – S. 4-12

[7] Antyushina N. M. Arctic challenge for national and international policy – M. : Institute of Europe RAS : Rus. souvenir, 2012. – 136 p. – (reports of the Institute of Europe of the = Reports of the Institute of Europe / Federal state budget. the institution of science Institute of Europe, Russian Academy of Sciences. Sciences; No. 278)

[8] Challenges and threats to national security in the Russian Arctic. Scientific and analytical report / under nauch. edited by V. S. Selin, T. P. Skufyina, E. P. Bashmakova. – Apatity: KNTS ran, 2017. – 53 S.

[9] K. Belozerov V. Military force and the energy policy of Russia // Power. – 2009 - №1. – P. 8-13

[10] Konyshev V. N., Sergunin A. A. the Arctic policy of the USA and Russia: between rivalry and cooperation // REGNUM - https://regnum.ru/news/polit/1548715.html


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