Climate changes on a planet, and also exhaustion of readily available deposits of hydrocarbonic raw materials have made the last decades a problem of development of the deposits allocated in heavy environmental conditions, one of the most actual.
On the other hand, a modification of geopolitical balance of forces in the world, reallocation of financial, commodity and other streams between the West and the East in the XXI-st century beginning have made one of the major a problem on revising of directions of strategic transport arteries.
Specified above a reason, and also a row of other factors has led to that the subject of mastering of Arctic regions with its imposing stores of raw materials, and also new transport possibilities in the first decade of the XXI-st century became one of the most considered in the environment of the international expert community.
A row of world centres of force has hastened to declare the claims for resources of region and region as a whole.
During scale and laborious diplomatic operation to the extremity of the first decade of the XXI-st century in the arctic region it was possible to generate the international legal field which has allowed to avoid direct opposition. Thanks to creation of the Arctic Council and of some other institutes, today the international ratioes in Arctic regions are shown to mutually acceptable dialogue between the key polar states: Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Canada, Russia, the USA, Sweden. These countries were included in the capacity of the countries-constant terms into the Arctic Council and by that have ensured legitimacy of this organisation.
The status of constant terms and the attained relative well-being in the international matters in a problem of mastering of Arctic regions does not allow the states specified above having the most expressed interests in region, to lead active ekspansionistskuju a policy. However it is absolutely clear that value of Arctic regions is that what to be fulfilled with only attained status quo it is impossible and it is necessary to search for other tools which would allow to solve characteristic tasks, without calling into question the installed order of things.
By our estimations, such tool for today are the countries-observers. These are the states which anyhow have manifested the interest to mastering of Arctic regions, but not being the region countries, and by the rules installed by the countries of region, not able to claim for its resources. However they can render, nevertheless, political, economic and other affecting on a situation in region, let and not directly, and indirectly, through other areas and other designs. Today among the countries-observers is not present such which would not be the active players on international scene. Their interests in Arctic regions can often be intersected with interests in other regions of a planet, such intersections and are a subject of a diplomatic play.
Besides, during the last years among the countries-observers has appeared as well China - promptly developing geopolitical centre of force which has accurately marked out characteristic interests in Arctic regions and it is aimed to step up region mastering by all means.
mnogoaspektnost and diversity of ratioes of the sides in a problem of mastering of Arctic regions puts today some question on which solution success of the Russian arctic policy will depend before the Russian foreign policy institutes.
In these conditions the problem of understanding of "alignment of forces" and lining of new coalitions on the basis of the mutually acceptable purposes and tools of their reaching becomes the extremely important.
For this reason the fulfilled research which primal problem just also is learning of positions and strategy of the countries-observers of the Arctic Council, is today rather actual.
The fulfilled research not only has allowed to fathom better interests and motives of the countries-observers, but also to reveal some of the correlations, merging them and constant terms of the Arctic Council.
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