This day reminds us that the possibility of cooperation with the Ocean is given to man solely on equal rights and peaceful. Head of the project "ports of inform-24" Anna Gornova talks about some of the problematic aspects and prospects of this partnership.
More than 70% of our Earth is covered with water. If you look at it from space, it is far more logical to call it a planet of oceans. The Earth's climate is changing, oceans are warming, melting the Arctic, opening the Northern sea route. Before humanity is waiting for strong ocean currents, which will change the weather. The sea level rise will affect the location of the planet, which belongs to the Ocean. Melting Arctic adds a lot of surprises.
Today the Ocean is home to billions of living organisms, one of the most important parts of the biosphere, which brings us oxygen, essential drugs, food equal in value, on land not to find. The ocean depths have been actively studied by man only in the second half of the 20th century. The depth of the deepest known scientists of the Mariana trench, nearly 11 kilometers. However, the potential of the Ocean for many years will remain for man a mystery. Among the locals of Crete and Cyprus there is a saying — the message of the lost Atlantis people of our civilization: "Knowing the ocean, people open space".
World oceans day, which is celebrated in our day, was established by a resolution of the UN General Assembly in 2008. The resolution called upon Statesusing the Straits used for international navigation and States bordering such Straits, to cooperate in matters concerning the safety of navigation, ensure safe navigation and prevent, reduce and control pollution from ships.
In many countries around the world are working on such prominent NGOs as the "Global forum on oceans, coasts and Islands", "the Ocean project, World ocean Network", etc., experts from the world wildlife Fund (WWF) has estimated the cost of the resources of the World ocean at a conservative estimate at 24.2 trillion dollars. This year the ocean delivers humanity resources at $ 2.5 trillion. However, with each passing decade, the water environment on our planet is deteriorating because of the person. Drifting Islands of garbage — modern realities faced by the crews of vessels in the open sea.
Forecasts of the UN and UNEP say that by 2050 the acidity of the oceans will be 150 % is 100 times faster than any change in acidity experienced by marine environments over the last 20 million years, leaving virtually no marine organisms time to adapt.
By the year 2100 because of rising water acidity will be destroyed about 70% of the corals are key ecosystem for most species of game fish. Serious damage to ocean ecosystems can be prevented only by reducing carbon dioxide emissions.
Negative impact on the ocean has a fishing industry. Today 90% of global fisheries are either exploited to the limit of their capacity for recovery (61%) are either already overfished (29%). Empty the bottom of the ocean as a result of excessive skimming of bottom-dwelling species. The ocean needs a precautionary approach and removeproperties human assistance. This is not to infringe on the priority of the indigenous population of coastal areas for access to aquatic bioresources, which has traditionally been a basic in their diet and activity. Otherwise, it will undermine the balance inherent nature.
One of the biggest threats, and perhaps the tragedy of the future is the consumption of marine animals, particularly dolphins, sea lions for military purposes and in the security services. This trend, which started in the early 20th century and practiced by a number of countries, has a great destructive potential to the planet, because the possibility of cooperation with the Ocean is given to man solely on equal rights and peaceful.
The ocean is a great water-way, so the special attention the international community gives to the protection of the marine environment from all forms of pollution, especially from pollution from ships. Sea country treat it with careful attention, their public policy is always firmly on the side of ecology of the sea, on what finances do not save. Pilotage and ecological services in their ports is always a priority. Because the ecology of the sea is directly dependent on the quality of the pilot, the result of which is to improve Maritime safety, prevent accidents, and, consequently, of oil spills in harbours and the approaches to them. Besides, for centuries the world's pilots were considered the elite of navigation, intelligence fleet. To this day the country with respect to this most ancient of seamanship.
For example, in USA the cost of pilotage fees on the Great lakes in recent years has increased by 114%. And by 2017, the U.S. Coast guard, despite the protests of business increases it even more by 58%. According to us law for all ships, running on internal navigable channels Great lakes pilotage compulsory. Pilotage services are provided by three private companies and is periodically indexed through a Federal law. In 2016, the number of pilots increased, their pay increased to 326 000 dollars a year, plus American pilots are provided with a convenient social package.
In Russia because of violations of the law on competition and distortions in the tariff policy and a pilot environmental services proved to be unprofitable and have the lowest rate of all port charges. Despite the fact that the official inflation rate in 2008 was 80%, the tariffs for pilotage fees in the ports of Saint Petersburg, Novorossiysk Vysotsk were indexed only twice in total by 32%. In addition, the domestic market for guide services is rampant discrimination against non-state pilotage organizations, which brought the country to the verge of bankruptcy. At this aspect you need to pay special attention to not work in the old days, with Russian scientists and specialists, when in 90-e years the intelligence of the nation was not required by the government and many of our scientists and experts were forced to go overseas.
Not better things we have in the market of bunkering companies in the sector mainly in the development of navigation and the consequences for the sea. A number of requirements to the business increases exponentially that you're spending a lot of finances, which to the ocean sometimes does not reach, Utica or in the pockets of officials, or distant from practice and duplicative projects and papers. That only is the newly minted state examination plans for spills! The result of the bunkering market in Russia collapses. Over the last quarter the reduction was as much as 3 times compared to the previous year. And when it happens the spill practices operate on a completely distant from these requirements to the algorithm, and money for a spill response as usual is not enough.
In 2011-2012, became aware released into the ocean by the American laboratory of new bacteria Cynthia, corroding everything in its path, which was intended for eating oil spills, but soon began to eat everything that comes with it. As a result, in the Gulf of Mexico reported casualties among marine animals and humans. Later, Cynthia got into the Gulf stream, lapping the Europe. These failed experiments eventually lead to tragedy and the emergence of new dangerous viruses on the planet, which in recent times we hear more often.
In conclusion, attention today require pristine vulnerable nature of the Arctic and Antarctic with regard to the regulation of the passage of vessels and commercial fishing in these vulnerable areas. A lot of concerns, and overall "creativity" of man in the ocean, including the inevitable mass attack of aquaculture.
Tags: Sea policy , Anna Gornova , Marine mammals
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