The world is gradually moving in the "blue economy" based on and driven by the seas and oceans occupying over 70% of the Earth's surface. More and more countries see in the "blue economy" new points of their socio-economic growth. The "blue economy" over time formed of the integrated Maritime policy of countries and the "green economy", based on ecological principles.
The rise of the sea shares stated in the national economies of many countries. The ocean and the marine economy is regarded as a new round of modern geopolitics.
For coastal countries and island States in the Maritime economy, opens new perspectives in the development of oil and gas on the seafloor, in the port construction, development of navigation, Maritime transit and logistics, fisheries and mariculture. Due to increased industrial load in the seas and oceans, the environmental requirements for fuels and industrial materials will inevitably increase, which will ensure the development of innovative technologies that will transform life on the mainland, creating a smart, clean green city. Quality of life becomes the main priority of companies.
The increased importance of the Maritime dimension in the external and internal policy of the European Union shows a tight control of implementation of the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council of the EU 2014/89/EC "On the establishment of a basis for planning marine spaces". 7 Dec 2017 cases of failure to comply with the provisions of the Directive, three countries - Bulgaria, Greece and Finland submitted to the EU court. According to Directive, by 31 March 2021. countries should develop marine spatial plans. Until 18 September 2016, the Directive obliged all countries to form management bodies responsible for its implementation, and to enact the relevant laws, regulations and administrative provisions.
Today, about 40 countries engaged in marine spatial planning (WFP). And each in their own way articulated the principles of governance of Maritime activities. The extent and format of public participation in marine spatial planning in different countries is also very different. WFP is used to organize and control the safe use of sea areas, monitoring of environmental sites and protected areas, areas of scientific research, laying of submarine cables and pipelines, regulation of coastal tourism. It is also expected that the international community can apply this tool to develop cross-border marine spatial plan for the Arctic taking into account climate change and increasing accessibility of the Arctic ocean, to control areas in the high seas, and achieving the goals of the global governance of the oceans.
In this direction Russia cannot lag. Otherwise, you will lose protectionist policies that countries are increasingly ecological methods.
With some groundwork in the marine economy include Russia?
The area of Maritime spaces under the sovereignty or jurisdiction of the Russian Federation, amounts to more than 7.5 million sq. km. and a length of the Maritime borders of over 38 000 km In July 2015, the President of Russia Vladimir Putin made changes to the Marine doctrine. The reason for this was the increasing international tensions. Today, marine activity in Russia is governed by international Maritime law, 35 Federal laws, presidential decrees, resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation within the framework of sectoral plans, the results of which are encouraging.
In recent years there has been a steady growth of transfer of freights in ports. According to the Ministry of transport, gRuzomberok seaports of Russia in 2017 reached 786,4 million tons. A new Arctic port Sabetta has become a powerful infrastructure based on the Northern sea route. Started shipment of LNG. P > answered the most important for the development of the marine fleet and related industries amendments to article 4 of the merchant shipping Code of the Russian Federation on the extension of the concept of "cabotage" aimed at securing Russia's national interests in the Arctic. The volume of cargo transportation in the waters of the Northern sea route in 2017 amounted to 9 932 thousand tons. By 2030 it is planned to increase up to 70-80 million tons per year. Created a competitive legal regime of the Russian international register of vessels, thereby increasing the number of vessels under the Russian flag. Nand the beginning of 2018 in the Russian international register of vessels was 1141 the ship with a total deadweight of more than 4.5 million tons.
Set ambitious goals in the fisheries sector. According to the Federal Agency for fishery, the amount of catch of aquatic bioresources in 2017 was a record for the industry over the past 25 years and amounted to 4.9 million tons. The state budget revenues from activities of the fishery sector exceeded 40 billion rubles. Currently entered into commercial operation a new mass target species in the far East. The industry employs more than 270 thousand people, more than one million jobs the industry creates in related fields. Updated sector Strategy in the period from 2018 to 2030 will require more than 600 billion of private investment, and this process has already begun. By 2030 a target of average annual growth of at least 5% and a doubling of industry's contribution to GDP. With the projected growth of catch – up to 5 million tons per year, upgrading about 50% of the capacity of the fishing fleet, lower average age of ships from 30 to 20 years, a gradual increase in the proportion of products with high added value up to 40%. The production of aquaculture products is expected to reach 700 thousand tons.
In 2017 unprecedented increase in the volume of investment in the infrastructure of the Far East. According to the Ministry, the residents of TOR and the free port and has invested in the economy of the Far East more than 90 billion rubles. By 2020 it is planned to create 350 new businesses with 34 thousand new jobs.
It was planned that the draft law "On Maritime spatial planning in Russia", which, in particular, aims to strengthen the geopolitical position of the country, will be submitted to the State Duma of the Russian Federation in early 2016. Moreover, the basis for this appeared in the Gulf of Finland JSC "NIIP town-Planning" conducted research work on studying the methods of the WFP, embedding it in the legal structure of the country. The work was carried out in close cooperation with German colleagues. In 2014, was prepared the concept of the bill. In parallel, the defense Ministry has drafted a law on Maritime activities.
Experts worry that the document is addressed to the problems of oil and gas complex in the Northern seas, and wear will be universal. In this regard, the planning of major coastal cities may prove to be ineffective. Under the bureaucratic approach, the inevitable inter-sectoral and inter-regional conflicts, inefficient development of the territory as a whole. Experts have repeatedly stated that the huge marine realm, the country needs a separate law on marine planning, which contained an integrated environmentally safe and sustainable environment.
Russia has good opportunities to become a leader in the marine economy. This potential is part of our genetic code, shaped by our history, our ancestors and generously provided with natural resources. It has to be implemented.
What do I need? It requires political will, financial and administrative resources. That is, to allocate finances for the implementation of Russia's national interests in the Maritime economy, to raise the status of Maritime activities in the power structure, to increase Maritime representation in power structures and public institutions. It should be noted that personnel of the Navy is the people duty and honor, irreconcilable to corruption and other negative manifestations of power, so they must be used for the solution of public problems. The mentality of the coastal population in different countries based on partnership with nature and unity. The mentality of Sea of Russia today, as never suited for addressing complex issues of international politics and should be in demand.
Ahead of expectations for the renewal of the composition of the Government in this direction seems very promising and requires the attention of the President, subject to opening for Russia. As practice shows, the main problem of Maritime activities today is mezhvedomstvennoi, which directly inhibits the solution of many problems. Happens to be even so that the decision on development of the industry adopts not the branch office. As a result, these decisions then give the opposite effect, decreases the motivation of business, and in other cases, on the contrary, have the interests of the state.
Today Russia has good economic relations with the APR countries, BRICS, who live and feel comfortable in the marine economy as a source of its concept. Geopolitical carte Blanche to Russia in the marine economy are obvious. Successful integration of Russia into the Maritime economy is one of the strategic objectives on long term and medium term. Marine economy gives Russia an excellent chance, which should effectively implement. Sea Russia unites all the political forces in the country. If the power turns to the sea, the Sea, Russia could become a powerful integrator in the international arena.
In conclusion, it is necessary to reiterate that a crucial coordination and marine spatial planning, since any activity at sea is closely connected with the shore, and at all stages of planning need to involve all stakeholders, to use all available information, including traditional knowledge and experience of the local population.
Coordinator of the project "Marine policy", Center for strategic estimates and projections
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