Pilot support refers to the system of national security States and is an integral part of the complex Maritime security, which is state administered. In Norway, Finland, Sweden, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Greece, the leader of the world economy – China and other countries pilots are employees of state pilotage services. In the Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, France and other countries, a pilot service is organized on a nonprofit basis for system Self Employеd Pilot, and controlled by the state not less.
In Russia at the time were not implemented part 2 of the constitutional court Decision of 6 April 2004 No. 7-P, prescribing to regulate the activities of non-state pilotage organizations, which at that time were all non-profit. Because of this, there was a legal vacuum in which with 2005, the year in 15 profitable ports and oil terminals had about 20 small private pilotage companies. The result is a highly inefficient loss-making model of organization of the system of pilot schemes in the country in which the government was forced subsidizes profit two dozen private pilotage companies.
The existing legal vacuum allows today this small private pilotage companies, localized in profitable ports, overstating their expenses, via affiliated to other organizations to withdraw funds pilotage in the income of their owners. About 500 million rubles pilotage thus annually removed from the sphere of Maritime security. Even some of pilotage taking agents for the attraction for traders profitable orders – large tankers. While the other pilot service in the country are on the brink of survival.
The value of the pilotage fees in the country annually is 3.5-4 billion rubles. If you compare the two dozen private companies, most of them do not have their own fleet, carried out 1/3 cost effective and highly profitable transactions, while the share of pilotage service of the FSUE Rosmorport have the remaining 2/3 of the Postings, most of them marginal. And they both get the amount of pilotage roughly equal in size. Statistics of the last 3 years is as follows: 2017– 1 668 018/1 607 712; 2018– 1 971 068/1 728 291; 2019– 1 784 532/2 020 726 thousand rubles, private companies/FSUE "Rosmorport". At the same time, getting the same pilotage dues, organizations are guided by different laws. Rosmorport is guided by the goals of the Code of commercial navigation and provides all the ports pilotage without any discrimination for all vessels, according to global principles. While private companies under the Civil code, learn exceptionally profitable segment pilotage and extract their profits. For the year Rosmorport receives hundreds of millions of losses on pilot activities and forced them to shut out other port charges as well as go on a number of unpopular measures for the pilots, reducing their wages and undermining work. Reduced the level of recruitment of pilots, not enough modern specialized pilot boats. This situation cannot continue in a country that claims leadership in the Maritime economy. Solution of the accumulated problems is made by the members of the Federation Council draft law № 889303-7 "On a pilot service," scheduled for consideration by the state Duma in July.
In Russia, about 900 marine pilots. The number of pilotage services at each port is limited by the number of ship calls. Of course, that this area effectively in the regime of natural monopoly. And all attempts demonopolization Limani in some countries in the past, even in Ukraine.
Complex provision of safety of navigation includes: a pilot service, providing a walk-through of the dimensions of channels and fairways, navigational and hydrographic support system of vessel traffic management, port state control of ships, ship reporting system, the regulation of vessel traffic, automatic identification system, a system of identification of vessels and tracking them in the far distance. This entire complex needs to be administered by the state. Commercialization of safe navigation it is necessary to exclude by law.
In the high-tech environment, security threats become hybrid and increasingly complex complex world will have to face global challenges. A hybrid threat is a threat that originates in one area and implemented in another or several. Given the digital transformation of shipping all the components of the complex Maritime security should harmoniously complement each other. The role of pilotage services will evolve in unity with the whole complex of Maritime security, to include digital navigation, reduce its risks and vulnerabilities.
Coordinator of the project "Marine policy"
Center for strategic assessments and forecasts
(on materials of IA Regnum.ru)
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