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"Ice road of the Arctic. The tactics of navigation in ice", Chapter 3
Material posted: Gornova Anna M.Publication date: 05-02-2020

Under the heading "Experience of ice navigation for future generations" we continue to publish chapters from the book ice captain and scientist Emil Mikhailovich Shotzberger of "Ice road of the Arctic. The tactics of navigation in ice". In Chapter 3, "Northern sea passage" shows the unique historic contribution of the Russian State in the Arctic region during the reign of Peter I. Explained in detail the history of the discovery and mapping of the Arctic and far-Eastern seas, Siberia. Describes the course of the First and Second Kamchatka expeditions. Reveals a strong personality of the Dane Vitus Bering as a caring and wise leader, paving the sea route in ice along with the Russian sailors.

The second Kamchatka expedition was one of the largest research expedition in the history of mankind carried out by the forces of a state. So there were the first maps and charts of the Northern seas. And meteorological observations of the academic detachment of the Second Kamchatka expedition were a step towards the establishment of permanent stations all over the World. Russian researchers have shown in the book as a personality sharp mind and relentless action, exceptional generosity and drive. Modern Russia summarizes the experience of sailing in the Arctic ice of many generations of Russian sailors, which is a unique historical heritage.

Chapter 3. The Northern sea passage.
3.1. According to the plan of Peter I.

At the turn of the XVII and XVIII centuries in Russia there have been important developments, which had a huge impact on the development of Russian research in the Arctic. Was opened a navigation school and a Maritime Academy, from which came many of the polar explorers. And the most important was the regular Navy, and led him put of the Admiralty Board, which was tasked to research the Northern and Eastern seas of Russia.

Cultural shifts that occurred in the first quarter of XVIII century, set the stage for the creation in Russia state scientific center — Academy of Sciences.

During the foreign travels of Peter the great, elected in 1717, an honorary member of the Paris Academy of Sciences, have repeatedly led discussions with scholars of Europe about the development of science and education in Russia. So, Leibniz in 1708 wrote a note on the "introduction to true science in the Russian state" and some years later expressed to Peter I thought about the need to explore the border between Asia and America and by asking the question, "are connected to the sea on both sides of the isthmus."

In 1718, the adviser of Peter I, Fyodor Saltykov presented to the king a note on the creation in Russia of the eight academies. The idea of Peter came to mind, and he wrote his own: "to Make the Academy". Then he added: "the Academy needs us to buy in Europe, trust and honor, proving that we have science."

23 Jan 1724 Peter I signed a Decree of the Senate on the basis of the Academy, which was to develop the Sciences and arts, learn languages, to translate books. It was created by the Department of mathematics and physics. The third division was engaged in the Humanities, including history, literature, language arts, and "the law of nature and of nature".

Despite the fact that the strength of the Russian state in the beginning of the XVIII century have been associated with war for the return of the Russian lands on the shores of the Baltic sea, the Russian government continued to equip the expedition for discoveries in the Arctic and the North Pacific ocean.

In 1711 and 1713 years were swimming Cossack I. P. Kozyrevsky to Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands. He made a drawing "Kamchadalsky Nose and sea Islands". In 1715 Mikhail Stadukhin was laid a solid Foundation Maritime communication between Okhotsk and Kamchatka. Was soon investigated the Shantar Islands, and on January 2, 1719 by decree of Peter I on the shores of the Pacific ocean was sent navigators, I. M. Evreinov and F. F. Luzhin. The king instructed them to go to Kamchatka and carefully explore local places in order to find out the question of "whether Asia converged with America." To solve this task, the surveyors had to undertake a voyage of not only South and North but also East and West.

Expedition Evreinov — Luzhin has taken science more correct than the former, data about the contours of Kamchatka and the Kuril chain of Islands, but gave no response to worried Peter the question, if Asia is connected to America or they are separated by the Strait.

In the same 1719 Peter I signed a contract with Daniel Messershmidt, instructing him to collect information on the geography and natural history of Siberia, as well as describing the monuments of antiquity, beliefs, ways of healing the Siberian peoples. In five years, a Messerschmitt, came all the way from St. Petersburg to the steppes of Mongolia and gathered a rich collection.

In 1724 Russia had embarked on a unique scope of geographical research. Peter I planned to establish a direct Maritime relations with India, to create an extensive database in the mouth of Chickens to trade with the countries of the East, to send expedition to explore the sea route from Arkhangelsk to the Pacific ocean and to clarify the question of whether there is in fact Strait, separating Asia and America.

In early January, 1725, a few weeks before his death, Peter wrote and wrote with his own hand, the mandate of the Kamchatka expedition, which according to the story of A. K. Nartov: "...I daunstopable to see and to find the sailing that, if not connected Asia North-East America... Designed to General-Admiral, giving instruction, said the following: "Bad health has forced me to stay home; I remembered now the days what thought for a long time and what other things to do to take the hurt, that is, the road through the Arctic sea to China and India." This sea map is laid the path called Anian, appointed not in vain. In my last trip I listened to from learned people that the acquisition possible. Ograda homeland security from the enemy, should try to find the glory of the state through art and science. Whether we in the study of such a happier way of the Dutch and the British, who repeatedly attempted to search the shores of the us".

He also gave an indication of the Admiralty Board to seek out those surveyors who have returned from previous expeditions to Siberia, and under the command of a worthy naval officer to send to Kamchatka. In the expedition, according to Peter, it should also detach shipbuilders, carpenters, and sailors who would build a decked boat. Especially important the king considered the participation in the expedition "the co-driver or Navigator who have been in Nordenau America."

The Admiralty Board offered in charge of the expedition to put captain Bering, as he was "in the East Indies had been and treatment of know." Peter I agreed with the candidacy of Bering. January 6, 1725, and wrote him detailed instructions for conducting Kamchatka expedition. The Secretary of the Senate Ivan Kirillovich Kirilov made a map of Siberia and Kamchatka, in which he used the shooting of surveyors I. M. Evreinov and F. F. Luzhin. Bering were ordered in Kamchatka or in another suitable location to build a two deck ship. The court should have sent to the shores of "the land that goes North" and which may "inasmuch as the end thereof, I do not know" is "part of America". Then the mariners were supposed to drive to one of the "city of European possessions". If travelers during the voyage will meet the ship European, will have to see from him, as this beach is called, to visit him, to put on the card and gathered the most important information on the places visited ("original statement"), to return to Petersburg.

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