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The marine doctrine of the Russian Federation for the period till 2020
Material posted: Publication date: 28-09-2017
Approved by the decree of the President of the Russian Federation of 27 July 2001.

I. General provisions

The development of spaces and resources of the World ocean is one of the main directions of development of world civilization in the third Millennium. The essence of the national policy of the leading Maritime powers and most States of the world community in the foreseeable future will be an independent activity and cooperation in the development of the World ocean, as well as inevitable competition in this way.

Historically, Russia - the leading Maritime power, on the basis of its spatial and geophysical features, place and role in global and regional international relations. It has earned this status thanks to its geographical location with access to three oceans and the longest sea borders as well as the huge contribution to studying of the World ocean, development of shipping, many great discoveries made by famous Russian navigators and travelers.

The marine doctrine of the Russian Federation (further is called - the Sea doctrine) is the fundamental document defining the state policy of the Russian Federation in the field of Maritime activities national sea policy of the Russian Federation (hereinafter referred to as the national marine policy).

Marine activity - is the activity of the Russian Federation in the field of study, development and use of the oceans in the interests of safety, sustainable economic and social development of the state (hereinafter referred to as - Maritime activities).

The legal basis for the Marine doctrine is the Constitution of the Russian Federation, Federal laws and other normative legal acts of the Russian Federation, the United Nations Convention on the law of the sea 1982, international treaties in the field of Maritime activities, use of resources and spaces of the World ocean.

Naval doctrine develops in relation to Maritime activities, the provisions of the national security Concept of Russian Federation foreign policy concept of the Russian Federation, Military doctrine of the Russian Federation, Concept of the shipping policy of the Russian Federation, 0снов policy of the Russian Federation in the field of naval activities for the period up to 2010 and other regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation.

The totality of forces and means of the state and the possibilities of their use for the implementation of national Maritime policy is the Maritime potential of the Russian Federation. The basis of the sea potential of the Russian Federation are: the Navy, the Maritime authorities of the border guard of the Federal border service, civil marine (hereinafter referred to as - the Russian Navy), as well as the infrastructure to ensure their functioning and development, marine economic and naval activity of the state.

Implementation of Marine doctrine should further strengthen Russia's position as a leading marine power and creation of favourable conditions for achieving the goals and objectives of national Maritime policy.

II. The essence of the national Maritime policy

National Maritime policy - the definition of the state and society goals, objectives, directions and ways of achieving national interests of the Russian Federation on the sea coast, in the inland sea waters, territorial sea, exclusive economic zone, continental shelf of the Russian Federation and in the open sea.

Subjects of national marine policy are the state and society. The government is implementing the national sea policy via the state authorities of the Russian Federation and bodies of state power of subjects of the Russian Federation. 0бщество involved in the formation and implementation of national marine policy through the representative bodies of the Russian Federation, local self-government bodies and public associations acting on the basis of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the legislation of the Russian Federation.

Main ways of activity of subjects of national marine policy are:

  • the definition of priorities of national marine policy in the short and long term;
  • the definition of the content of national Maritime policy;
  • management components of the sea potential of the state, industries and the science related to Maritime activities;
  • creation of favorable legal regime, economic, informational, scientific, manpower and other support to the national marine policy;
  • assessment of the national sea policy and its timely correction.

1. The national interests of the Russian Federation in the World ocean, goals and principles of national Maritime policy. The national interests of the Russian Federation in the World ocean

The national interests of the Russian Federation in the World ocean is the aggregate of the balanced interests of personality, society and state in the field of Maritime activities, implemented on the basis of the sea potential of the state.

To the national interests of the Russian Federation in the World ocean include:

  • the inviolability of the sovereignty of the Russian Federation, covering internal waters, territorial sea and airspace above them, on the bottom and the subsoil;
  • ensuring sovereign rights and jurisdiction of the Russian Federation exercised in the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf of the Russian Federation for the purposes of exploration, development and conservation of natural resources, both living and non-living being on the bottom, in its bowels and in the covering waters, management of these resources, energy production by use of water, currents and wind, creation and use of artificial Islands, installations and structures, marine scientific research, protection and preservation of the marine environment;
  • freedom of the high seas includes freedom of navigation, flights, fishing, scientific research, freedom to lay submarine cables and pipelines;
  • the safety of life at sea, prevention of marine pollution, control of vital sea communications, the creation of conditions conducive to the benefit of the Maritime economic activity of the population of the Russian Federation, especially its coastal regions and the state as a whole.

 

The objectives of national marine policy

The objectives of national Maritime policy are the implementation and protection of interests of the Russian Federation in the World ocean and to strengthen the position of the Russian Federation among the leading Maritime powers.

As the main objectives of national marine policy are:

the preservation of the sovereignty in the internal sea waters, territorial sea and airspace above them, the seabed and the subsoil;

realization of jurisdiction and protection of sovereign rights in the exclusive economic zone for exploration, development and conservation of natural resources, both living and non-living being on the bottom, in its bowels and in the covering waters, management of these resources, energy production by use of water, currents and wind, creation and use of artificial Islands, installations and structures, marine scientific research and preservation of the marine environment;

realization and protection of sovereign rights on the continental shelf of the Russian Federation for the exploration and development of its resources;

implementation and protection of the freedom of the high seas includes freedom of navigation, flights, fishing, scientific research, freedom to lay submarine cables and pipelines;

the protection of the territory of the Russian Federation sea areas, the protection and safeguarding of the State border of the Russian Federation of the sea and airspace above it.

The principles of national Maritime policy

To the principles of national Maritime policy consists of General provisions that apply to the subjects of national marine policy in the course of its formation and implementation.

The principles of national marine policy are:

the observance of generally accepted norms of international law and international treaties of the Russian Federation to the implementation of marine activities;

the priority of political-diplomatic, economic, informational, and other non-military means in resolving contradictions in the World ocean and elimination of threats to the national security of the Russian Federation with the ocean and sea directions;

possession of the required Navy potential and its effective use, if necessary, to force support of Maritime activities of the state;

the integrated approach to Maritime activities in General and its differentiation in certain areas taking into account the changes of priority depending on the geopolitical situation;

maintaining the components of the sea potential of the Russian Federation at the levels corresponding to the national interests of Russia, including assurance of presence of the Russian fleet in remote areas of the World ocean and the Russian researchers in the Antarctic continent;

the interaction and coordination of efforts in the formation and implementation of national ocean policies of public authorities of the Russian Federation, bodies of state power of subjects of the Russian Federation, bodies of local self-government and the concerned public associations, acting on the basis of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the legislation of the Russian Federation;

the pooling of efforts and coordination of scientific researches on problems of formation and implementation of national Maritime policy;

state control of ships sailing under the State flag of the Russian Federation, port state control, monitoring and utilization of natural resources of internal sea waters, territorial sea, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf of the Russian Federation;

the focus on construction and infrastructure development of the Russian fleet in the territories of constituent entities of the Russian Federation that are traditionally connected with navigation, unification of this infrastructure for military and business needs;

the maintenance of the Russian fleet in readiness for the challenges ahead, as well as mobilization readiness of commercial, fishing, research and other specialized fleets;

the concentration of funds and resources of the centre and regions for the development of communication between the Central and coastal parts of Russia, especially its far Eastern and Northern suburbs, in the interest of their further development;

conduct a comprehensive marine scientific research in the interests of the Russian Federation, the development of systems for monitoring the condition of marine natural environment and coastal territories;

the preservation and improvement of the system of personnel training, education and upbringing of youth;

effective promotion of the objectives of national marine policy.

 

2. The objectives of national marine policy

The objectives of national marine policy are formed in accordance with the content and based on the principles of national marine policy aimed at achieving its objectives.

The formation and formulation of the objectives of the national marine policy is carried out within its competence by the President of the Russian Federation, the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Russian Federation.

The objectives of national marine policy are short-term and long-term.

Short-term objectives are defined depending on the folding:

geopolitical conditions and the military-political situation in the world;

the socio-economic situation in the Russian Federation and its individual regions;

the economic situation in the world markets for Maritime transport services, seafood, and other hydrocarbon resources extracted from the seabed and in the subsoil thereof;

of scientific and technological process;

the effectiveness of marine activities.

This takes into account the results of the implementation of the Federal target program "World ocean", the ongoing analysis of the status and trends of development of Maritime activities of the Russian Federation and the world at large, as well as system studies on matters relating to the national security of the Russian Federation in the field of study, development and use of the oceans.

Long-term objectives constitute the content of national Maritime policy on the functional and regional directions and determined by this Marine doctrine.

Solving the problems of national Maritime policy is exercised by the Federal Executive authorities, Executive authorities of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, bodies of local self-government through the organization under their care and activities, as well as operating on the basis of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the legislation of the Russian Federation the interested public unions.

 

 

III. The content of national Maritime policy

Russian Federation implements a consistent and successive national Maritime policy by running short-term and long-term targets agreed at the functional and regional areas.

 

1. Functional areas of national Maritime policy

This sphere of Maritime activities in accordance with their functional purpose, such as: activities of the state and society in the field of Maritime transport, development and conservation of the resources and spaces of the World ocean, marine science, naval and other Maritime activities.

Maritime transport

For the Russian Federation Maritime transport is crucial in providing domestic transportation, especially in the regions where Maritime transport is the only mode of transport and foreign trade. Crucial continues to be the role of Maritime transport for the life of the far North and the Far East.

National Maritime policy in the field of Maritime transport is to implement provisions of the Concept of the shipping policy of the Russian Federation, the main objectives of which are the maintenance of the fleet and on-shore port infrastructure at a level that guarantees economic independence and national security of the state, reducing transport costs, the increase in foreign trade and transit traffic through the territory of the country.

This solves the following long term objectives:

the formation of the regulatory legal framework for Maritime activities, consistent with the norms of international law and the interests of the Russian Federation;

ensuring the competitiveness of Maritime transport, creation of conditions for attracting investments and reproduction of fixed assets;

creating prerequisites for the sustainable replenishment of the fleet, controlled by Russian shipping companies and is registered in the register of ships of the Russian Federation;

the increase in the share of the fleet of Russian shipping companies in the total traffic volume of national foreign trade and transit cargoes;

the modernization of the fleet, reducing the average age of vessels controlled by Russian shipping companies, and building new ships complying with the international standards;

the assignment of tasks fleet construction a priority task of the state, the creation of an environment enabling the construction of the fleet in domestic enterprises;

replenishment of fleet by the courts of the main classes, including the shipping container and specialized cargo, to a level where it could fully meet the needs of the country taking into account the possible transfer of part of ships in the Navy fleet in the period of mobilization;

optimal utilization of transport fleet for the Northern delivery on the basis of forecasting and accounting of navigational and hydrographic, hydrometeorological and other conditions;

maintaining world leadership in the construction and operation of nuclear icebreakers;

the development of coastal-port infrastructure, taking into account existing and future traffic volumes, condition of the cargo base and transit cargo flows, increasing the share of participation of the Russian ports in processing of such cargoes;

the increase in exports of services of domestic shipping companies and sea ports;

the development of multimodal transport of goods involving Maritime and other transport modes on the basis of the modern transport-logistic technologies;

improvement of Maritime safety, occupational safety, protection of the environment from possible adverse effects of Maritime activities, including by establishing special licensing conditions and requirements;

regulation of procedure of bringing vessels of the Russian shipping companies to ensure the mobilization needs of the state by improving the regulatory framework.

Development and conservation of ocean resources

The development of ocean resources is mandatory and a prerequisite for sustaining and expanding the raw material base of the Russian Federation and ensuring its economic and food independence.

a) Marine industrial fishing

The Russian Federation is one of the leading fishing countries in the world. The fisheries sector plays a significant role in the food complex of the country and is one of the sources of employment in most coastal regions. In the short term, the main part of the raw fish will be the biological resources of the exclusive economic zone of the Russian Federation.

For the effective development of the Russian Federation of marine biological resources and maintain its position among the leading Maritime powers in the field of industrial fisheries to address the following long term objectives:

conducting specialized research and monitoring of biological resources of the World ocean;

optimization of fishing in the exclusive economic zone of the Russian Federation, strengthening state control over fishing and management of fishing fleet, including through a monitoring system based on modern means of communication, observation and processing of information;

to optimize the management of fishery fleet based on effective prediction of the spatial and temporal distribution of biological resources available for fisheries in the waters of seas and oceans;

the development of mariculture;

the preservation and growth of traditional fishery biological resources in the exclusive economic zones of foreign States;

expansion of research and return to the fishery in the open part of the oceans with resource-saving complex processing of raw materials to the place of fishing, the creation of new technological processes and equipment for wasteless production;

revision of order in the direction of limiting the use of the Russian water bioresources on the free basis;

creation of conditions for preferential placement of orders for building fishing vessels at Russian shipyards and in the shipyards of those countries in whose economic zone the Russian fishing fleet, the introduction of the practice to repay debts to the Russian Federation by purchase of goods and services from countries of debtors, providing fishing licenses in their economic zones to Russian fishermen;

the preservation and development of state licensing of new construction and sale of ships operated in order to maintain an optimal balance between number of vessels and size of the admissible catches, as well as the systematic and rational upgrading of the fishing fleet;

increased participation of the Russian Federation in activities of international fisheries organisations in connection with the further development of processes of international coordination, international-legal regulation of fishing and increasing demands for the protection and preservation of the marine environment;

the interests of the Russian Federation in the development of fish resources and their conservation in remote regions of the World ocean, as well as the adoption and strict enforcement of agreed with the riparian countries of measures aimed at preserving populations of valuable fish species and other biological resources in the Caspian and Azov seas.

b) Development of mineral and energy resources

The prospect of depletion of hydrocarbon reserves and other mineral resources on the continental part determines the reorientation of the exploration and production of mineral resources on the continental shelf, and in the future on oceanic slopes and the bed of the oceans.

In the interest of maintaining and further expanding the raw material base, creation of strategic reserve stocks, providing prospects of development of mineral and energy resources in the oceans to solve the following long term objectives:

the study of the geological structure and determination of the resource potential of the continental shelf of the Russian Federation through the implementation of state monitoring of the geological environment, and the measurement of physical fields above the ocean floor, mapping, drilling and hoisting works from the bottom;

the development of mineral and energy resources of the World ocean;

state control and regulation of exploration and monitoring of mineral resources and mineral resources in the World ocean with account of the defense interests of the state;

development of famous fields and intensive exploration of oil and natural gas on the continental shelf of the Russian Federation;

save on the continental shelf of the Russian Federation of the explored reserves of mineral resources as a strategic reserve;

creating conditions and opportunities for the exploration and extraction of resources in deep water areas of World ocean (on the seabed and the subsoil), strengthening the mandate of the International seabed authority, the rights of the Russian Federation for the exploration and exploitation of seabed resources beyond the jurisdiction of coastal States;

the development of technologies for the generation of electric energy using tidal phenomena, coastal driving winds and wind waves, thermal gradient of water, thermal energy and currents, as well as a thermal calorific value of the biomass of algae;

the development of new technical means and advanced technologies for the exploration and development of mineral resources of the World ocean and continuation of the work in the field of special shipbuilding.

Improving scientific activities

Implementation and protection of national interests of the Russian Federation in the field of Maritime activities is provided by the achievements of the national marine science, fundamental and applied research and development related to marine activities in the oceans.

Long-term objectives in this area are the preservation and development of scientific complex providing construction of the Russian fleet, research of the marine environment, resources and spaces of the World ocean, development of research and lockmasters fleets, providing for the establishment of marine navigation, geophysical, fishery and other special maps and guides for navigation in all ocean areas, the establishment of the Federal Fund for marine cartography, and nautical charts of the Bank in digital form, restoring the production base of the domestic Oceanographic and hydrometeorological instruments.

The solution to these problems provided by continued scientific research:

continental shelf, exclusive economic zone, territorial sea and internal sea waters of the Russian Federation;

marine biological resources and ecosystem dynamics of the oceans, inland marine waters of the Russian Federation;

problems of the hydrometeorological, navigation-hydrographic, rescue, information support of activity of the Russian fleet;

hydrometeorological phenomena in the coastal seas of the Russian Federation and remote areas of the World ocean;

the influence of the oceans on the planet's ecosystem;

the natural environment and global processes and the World ocean and related fields;

the structure of the continental shallows, slopes, submarine canyons, mountains, rift valleys and ocean beds;

problems of shipbuilding, shipbuilding, marine engineering and infrastructure development of the Russian Navy;

economic, political and legal problems of the use of spaces and resources of the World ocean;

problems of construction, development and use of the Navy and other areas of naval science;

principles and practices aimed at reducing the environmental load on waters of the oceans, inland marine waters of the Russian Federation.

Implementation of the naval activities

Naval activity of the Russian Federation is the activity of the state in the study, development and use of oceans in the interests of defense and security of the country with the participation of the military component of its Maritime capacity (the Navy and organs of Sea guard of the Border service of the Russian Federation).

The main objectives, principles and priorities of the naval activities of the Russian Federation set forth in the approved by the President of the Russian Federation the policy framework of the Russian Federation in the field of naval activities for the period up to 2010.

Naval activities related to the protection and promotion of national interests and security of the Russian Federation in the World ocean, belongs to the category of the highest state priorities.

The task of responding to such threats and to safeguard the national interests and security of the Russian Federation and its allies in the oceans based on maintaining sufficient naval potential of the Russian Federation.

The Navy is the main component and basis of the sea potential of the Russian Federation, one of the instruments of foreign policy and is designed to protect the interests of the Russian Federation and its allies in the oceans by military methods, the maintenance of military-political stability in the adjacent seas, military security with marine and ocean areas.

The Navy provides deterrence against the use of military force or the threat of its use against the Russian Federation, protection of military methods the sovereignty of the Russian Federation extending beyond its land territory to the inland sea waters and territorial sea, sovereign rights in the exclusive economic zone and on the continental shelf and freedom of the open sea. In addition, the Navy creates and maintains the conditions for the security of Maritime activities of the Russian Federation in the World ocean, provides the naval presence of the Russian Federation in the oceans, the demonstration of the flag and military strength, the visits of ships of the Navy, participation in the ongoing global community military peacekeeping and humanitarian actions in the interests of the Russian Federation.

Regional deployed operational-strategic Association of the Navy: the Northern, Pacific, Baltic and black sea fleets and the Caspian flotilla are the power basis of the decision of tasks of the national sea policy in the relevant regional areas.

Quantitative and qualitative composition of fleets, and flotilla maintained at a level consistent with threats to the security of the Russian Federation on specific regional direction, and is provided by a separate infrastructure-based shipbuilding and ship repair.

The solution of problems of protection of State border of the Russian Federation of the sea provides:

the enforcement of natural and legal persons of the State border regime and border regime;

protection of internal sea waters, territorial sea, exclusive economic zone, continental shelf of the Russian Federation and their natural resources;

the tasks of the Border service of the Russian Federation on coordination of activity of Federal enforcement authorities, carrying out protection of internal sea waters, territorial sea, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf of the Russian Federation and their natural resources;

control over the activities of courts of foreign States in the internal sea waters, territorial sea, exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf of the Russian Federation;

implementation of the reached bilateral and multilateral agreements between the States on the extension of confidence-building measures in the border region, exchange of information on illegal migration and suppression of the smuggling of weapons, explosives and drugs.

 

2. Regional direction the national sea policy

Is the scope of marine activities associated with the peculiarities of individual regions of the Russian Federation and of the world, understood as the set of most significant for the Russian Federation territories and water areas with common physical-geographical, economic-geographical, political, geographic or military-geographic characteristics.

As the main regional areas of the national marine policy of the Russian Federation allocates: Atlantic, Arctic, Pacific, Caspian and the Indian ocean areas. National Maritime policy is built on the basis of their specific features.

 

The Atlantic regional direction

National sea policy of the Atlantic regional direction is determined by the growing economic, political and military pressure of NATO countries, promoting it to the East, a sharp reduction of opportunities of the Russian Federation to implement its Maritime activities.

The basis of the national marine policy in this area is long-term goals for the Baltic, Black and Azov seas and in the Atlantic ocean and the Mediterranean sea.

 

On the Baltic sea:

the development of coastal-port infrastructure, renewal of trade sea and mixed (river-sea) navigation vessels;

creation of conditions for stable economic cooperation with the Baltic sea region countries, rational joint use of marine natural resources, making comprehensive confidence-building measures in all fields of Maritime activities;

resolution of issues related to Maritime delimitation and the continental shelf between the Russian Federation, adjacent and opposite States;

providing economic and military security of the Kaliningrad region of the Russian Federation, the development of Maritime communications;

creating conditions including and with the involvement of the region's capabilities, for the deployment and use of the components of the sea potential, providing protection of sovereignty, sovereign and international rights of the Russian Federation on the Baltic sea.

 

On the Black and Azov seas:

update trade sea and mixed (river-sea) navigation ships, modernization and development of coastal port infrastructure;

improvement of legal base of functioning of the black sea fleet of the Russian Federation on the territory of Ukraine, preservation of the city of Sevastopol as its main base;

creating conditions including and with the involvement of the region's capabilities, for the deployment and use of the components of the sea potential, providing protection of sovereignty, sovereign and international rights of the Russian Federation on the Black and Azov seas;

the development of passenger traffic from the ports of Krasnodar Krai in the countries of the Mediterranean sea, as well as vnutrizonovyh ferry transport.

 

In the Mediterranean sea:

a focused course on its transformation into the zone of military-political stability and good-neighbourliness.

the maintenance of a sufficient naval presence of the Russian Federation in the region.

On the Atlantic ocean - the development and capacity of fisheries, Maritime transportation, scientific research and monitoring the marine environment.

National sea policy of the Atlantic regional direction substantially supplemented by the national sea policy on the Arctic regional direction.

 

Arctic regional direction

National sea policy on the Arctic regional direction is determined by the particular importance of providing free outlet of the Russian fleet in the Atlantic, wealth of the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf of the Russian Federation, decisive role of the Northern fleet for the defense of the States with marine and ocean areas, as well as the growing importance of the Northern sea route for sustainable development of the Russian Federation.

The basis of the national marine policy in this area is the creation of conditions for activities of the Russian fleet in the Barents, White and other Arctic seas, the Northern sea route, as well as in the North Atlantic.

Thus to solve the following long term objectives:

the study and exploration of the Arctic with a focus on the development of export industries, priority solution of social problems;

protection of the interests of the Russian Federation in the Arctic;

the creation of ice-class vessels for shipping, specialized vessels for fishing, research and other specialized fleets;

the account of the defense interests of States in the exploration and development of reserves of biological resources and mineral resources in the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf of the Russian Federation;

creating conditions including and with the involvement of the region's capabilities, for the deployment and use of the components of the sea potential, providing protection of sovereignty, sovereign and international rights of the Russian Federation in the Arctic regional direction;

the restriction of foreign naval activities in the agreed areas and zones on the basis of bilateral and multilateral agreements with the leading sea powers;

ensuring national interests of the Russian Federation in relation to the Northern sea route, centralized state management of this transport system, icebreaking services and the provision of equitable access to interested carriers, including foreign;

upgrading and safe operation of the nuclear icebreaker fleet;

the interests of the Russian Federation to the delimitation of Maritime areas and the seabed of the Arctic ocean with the Arctic States;

consolidation of efforts and resources of the Federal centre and subjects of the Russian Federation for development of the Arctic navigation, sea and river mouth ports and realization of the Northern delivery, as well as information systems that perform the specified activity.

 

The Pacific regional direction

The value of the Pacific coast for the Russian Federation is enormous and continues to increase. The Russian far East has tremendous resources, especially in the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf, while it is sparsely populated and relatively isolated from the industrially developed regions of the Russian Federation. These contradictions are compounded by the intensive economic and military development of neighboring countries in Asia and the Pacific that have a very significant impact on the economic, demographic and other processes in the region.

The basis of the national sea policy in the Pacific regional direction is the solution to long-term objectives in the Japanese, Okhotsk, Bering seas, in the North-Western Pacific ocean, in the Eastern part of the Arctic the Northern sea route:

accelerating socio-economic development of the Russian Far East on the basis of intensification of Maritime activities of the Russian Federation;

revitalization of Maritime transport in connection with the growing participation of the Russian Far East in the division of labor in the Asia-Pacific region;

intensification of exploration and exploitation of marine biological resources and mineral resources in the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf of the Russian Federation and in exclusive economic zones and continental shelves of Southeast Asia on the basis of the concluded agreements;

creating conditions including and with the involvement of the region's capabilities, for the deployment and use of the components of the sea potential, providing protection of sovereignty, sovereign and international rights of the Russian Federation at the Pacific regional direction;

the development of coastal-port infrastructure and the Russian fleet in the far East, particularly Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands;

the conclusion of the interstate agreements on limiting naval activities in the agreed areas and zones;

enhanced cooperation with countries in the Asia-Pacific region to ensure safety of navigation, combating piracy, drug trafficking, smuggling, aid vessels in distress and rescue of life at sea;

the improved utilization of existing transport infrastructure of the region for attraction to the TRANS Siberian railway transit of cargoes from South-East Asia and USA to Europe and other countries, the implementation of measures aimed at maximum development of the national cargo base in this region.

 

Caspian regional direction

The Caspian region has unique volume and quality of mineral and biological resources.

This regional long-term direction to solve the following tasks:

the definition of beneficial for the Russian Federation the international legal regime of the Caspian sea, about the use of fish stocks, oil and gas fields;

combines with the coastal States, the conservation of the marine environment;

creating conditions including and with the involvement of the capabilities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, for the deployment and use of all components of marine potential;

update trade sea and mixed (river-sea) navigation ships and the fishing fleet;

preventing displacement of Russian fleet from Maritime transport market services;

the organization of the ferry communication as a part of intermodal transport with access to the Mediterranean and Baltic seas;

development, reconstruction and specialization of existing ports.

 

The Indian ocean regional direction

National marine policy at the Indian ocean regional direction envisages the following long-term objectives:

the expansion of the Russian transport and fishing navigation and the joint with other States actions on its protection from piracy;

scientific research in the Antarctic as the main element in the implementation of the state policy aimed at the preservation and consolidation of Russia's positions in the region.

a focused course on the transformation of Indian ocean into a zone of peace, stability and good-neighborliness, provision on a periodic basis, the naval presence of the Russian Federation in the Indian ocean.

 

 

IV. Implementation of national marine policy

 

1. Administration of Maritime activities

The administration in the formation and implementation of national Maritime policy is to define the state authorities of the Russian Federation and bodies of state power of subjects of the Russian Federation of the priority tasks and content of the national sea policy for short and long term, the management components of the sea potential of the state, industries and the science related to Maritime activities, in long-term planning of Maritime activities and the construction of the Russian fleet.

The President of the Russian Federation sets out the priorities and content of national Maritime policy in the short and long term, in accordance with the Constitution, taking action to ensure the sovereignty of the Russian Federation in the oceans, protect and promote the interests of individuals, society and the state in the field of Maritime activities, manages the national marine policy.

The Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation within its constitutional authority carries out legislative activities to ensure the implementation of national Maritime policy.

The government of the Russian Federation via the Federal Executive authorities and the Marine Board supervises the realisation of the objectives of national marine policy.

The Security Council of the Russian Federation as a constitutional body under the President of the Russian Federation, identifies threats, determines the vital interests of society and the state, develop the main directions of the security strategy of the Russian Federation and World ocean.

Federal Executive authorities interact to carry out within its competence the management of Maritime activities of the Russian Federation.

 

2. Economic support

For the successful implementation of national Maritime policy is crucial to the economic security of Maritime activities of the Russian Federation, which includes:

the integrated use of economic management: regulation of credit-monetary relations, signing of public contracts, optimization of tax, antitrust and customs regimes, the implementation of differentiated public assistance;

creation of favorable conditions of the day to extrabudgetary sources of funding, including foreign investors, through improved legal and regulatory framework and targeted state support for investment projects;

creation of conditions for reorientation of fish product supplies to the domestic market;

rational development and placement components of the sea potential of the Russian Federation on the regional dimensions;

the use of means of the Federal budget and budgets of subjects of the Russian Federation on whose territory is located the Russian fleet, on the basis of priorities, ensure their effective usage;

creating conditions to attract labour force in coastal regions with unfavorable natural and climatic conditions;

the reorganization is strategically important, but ineffectively operating shipping companies and organizations of the fleet;

restriction of access of foreign capital in certain types of Maritime activities that affect the national security of the Russian Federation;

support high-tech, energy-saving and resource-saving technologies in research, development and utilization of space and resources of the World ocean;

guaranteed allocation of the necessary amounts of funding for implementation of state programs in the field of construction and development of the military component of the sea potential of the Russian Federation;

creating conditions that increase the competitiveness of the Russian fleet, ports and industries associated with the provision of their functioning;

state support of the sea educational establishments and organizations, which activity is connected with implementation of international obligations of the Russian Federation in the field of training, ensuring the safety of Maritime navigation;

state support of individual transport systems, state financing of the costs of maintenance, construction and operation of icebreakers and transport ships of the ice class, primarily with the atomic energy facilities, creation of specialized system their home;

state support of scientific research in the open part of World ocean and seas of Russia, creation of the unified system of information about the situation in the World ocean, new technological processes and equipment for wasteless production;

the maintenance and development of the domestic orbital group of space vehicles for remote Earth sensing, navigation, communication and surveillance systems of pollution monitoring of the Russian seas and ground centers for space data reception;

the development of the traditional sea branches of the economy of small peoples, populating seaside regions, creation of a sustainable system to provide food and household items.

 

3. The security of Maritime activities

Maritime activities carried out with the necessary set of specific measures to ensure its security-related features of the water element.

The security of Maritime activities include marine safety, search and rescue at sea, protection and preservation of the marine environment.

Safety of navigation is ensured by:

strict observance of relevant rules of international law and Russian legislation;

the maintenance, improvement and development of navigational and hydrographic and hydrometeorological support, creation in the Russian Federation the unified state hydrographic service;

state control over the implementation of the classification requirements to the technical condition and airworthiness of ships, their comprehensive equipment and software, training and certification of crews of vessels;

operational bringing the necessary information to the mariners.

To ensure search and rescue at sea should:

to improve the existing system of search and rescue of people at sea based on the interaction of Federal Executive bodies, having jurisdiction in the area of activities of forces and means of rescue, to provide state support for the development and operation of the system;

to develop international cooperation on search and rescue of persons at sea;

to ensure the establishment and functioning of the unified state of the global automated system of monitoring and control over the location of the Russian ships and surveillance situation in the World ocean.

Protection and preservation of the marine environment are achieved:

monitoring the state of the marine environment and integrated measures for the prevention and elimination of consequences of pollution, implementation of measures to prevent oil spills during exploration, production and transportation, construction and reconstruction of port reception facilities for the collection and recycling of waste;

stimulation of the creation and procurement of domestic equipment for the prevention of pollution and elimination of consequences of pollution of the marine environment, replenishment of the Russian fleet specialized courts for implementation of environmental activities;

infrastructure development of the domestic nuclear fleet, safe operation and improvement of technologies for utilization of nuclear ships;

the compliance of the Russian Federation of its international obligations in this area, including taking into account the possibilities of international cooperation;

the resolution of contradictions between the increase in the volume and intensity of hydrocarbon production and other resources from the seabed and the need for preservation, reproduction and extraction of biological resources of the World ocean.

 

4. Staffing

Staffing all types of marine activities is of paramount importance and involves:

creating conditions for maintaining and attracting qualified personnel in the seafarers and the management of Maritime activities;

the preservation and development of structure of education with specialization in all types of sea activities;

create a system for training of public authorities of the Russian Federation, bodies of state power of subjects of the Russian Federation in the field of Maritime activities;

the strengthening of the Russian sea traditions, expansion of the network of children's sea schools, clubs of young seamen and river transport, considering the education as the initial stage of preparation for service and working in the Russian Navy;

providing state support in the maintenance and operation of training ships, material-technical base of educational establishments of the sea profile.

 

5. Information support

Information support of Maritime activities primarily involves the maintenance and development of the global information systems that provide marine activities of Russia, including systems of navigational and hydrographic, hydrometeorological and other types of support, unified system of information about the situation in the World ocean, the state of the lighting system for surface and underwater environment based on the forces and means of the Ministry of defence of the Russian Federation, Federal service of Russia for Hydrometeorology and environmental monitoring, and other interested Federal Executive authorities of the Russian Federation for the integration and rational utilization of systems, complexes and means of various departmental subordination. Information provision is the basis for decision-making in the field of Maritime activities at all levels.

V. Conclusion

The implementation of the provisions of the Maritime doctrine of the Russian Federation will contribute to the achievement of high performance marine activities, the sustainable development of the state, protect and promote national interests and security of the Russian Federation in the World ocean, strengthening of the international authority of Russia.

Generalized criteria of efficiency of the national marine policy are:

the degree of implementation of short-term and long-term objectives of the national Maritime policy;

the degree of realization of trade, commercial, research and other specialized fleets of the Russian Federation's sovereign rights in its exclusive economic zone, continental shelf of the Russian Federation, as well as the freedom of the high seas;

the ability of the military component of the sea potential of Russia in interaction with the Armed forces of the Russian Federation, other troops and military formations to protect the interests and security of the Russian Federation. The Russian Federation, declaring the national ocean policy intends strongly and firmly strengthen its position among the leading Maritime powers.

Source: http://www.mid.ru/foreign_policy/official_documents/-/asset_publisher/CptICkB6BZ29/content/id/462098


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