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Experience of ice swimming to future generations
Material posted: Gornova Anna M.Publication date: 09-10-2017
Russia has more than thousand-year experience of ice navigation. This practice has no country in the world. The main task of the nation at the moment - save the process of transferring experience of ice navigation to new generations and to raise the Russian practice of navigation in ice to a new level. The project "Marine policy" publishes excerpts from the book ice captain, and scientist Emil Mikhailovich Shotzberger of "Ice road of the Arctic. The tactics of navigation in ice". The lectures of Emil Mikhailovich was educated current captains, pilot on the ice courses Makarovka. The book illustrates the possibilities of further developing the Northern sea route, designed for skippers and ship-owners having interest in the conduct of Affairs in the Arctic region, as well as for a wide circle of readers.

"Russia has more than thousand-year experience of ice navigation. This practice has no country in the world. In the middle ages the Russians have mastered the way to Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya. Russian coast-dwellers created the first ice terminology, which is used at present, they laid the foundations for the construction of ships for this voyage. Pilots pomorov a good command of the tactics of ice navigation and constantly enriched the practice experiences of future generations. Professor Wiese, in the Preface to the biographical dictionary of Russian polar seafarers wrote that no one rook have not ventured to go to Svalbard, or a New Earth without an experienced Corsica.

Swimming in the ice, compared to swimming in open water, is characterized by significant differences in the methods of ship control and requires master knowledge of many of the special issues inherent in just this kind of voyage. The main difference in the character performed by the skippers of the work lies in the fact that the Maritime environment is not water, but ice, so to be successful in this environment, the skippers should be familiar with and understand the nature of the ice and their distribution laws. When solving tactical problems, the skippers have to know the methods of analysis of the ice data, to select optimal ways, ways icebreaking and crossing the ice.

The history of formation and development of the Northern sea route has shown the role of the state, the value of science and the influence of personal factors on the processes of ice navigation.

The development of the domestic icebreaking shipbuilding made it possible to successfully solve the economic problems. Less than 10 years in the 80-ies of the last century, navigation on the Western flank of the Northern sea route increased from 4 to 11 months, and flights on the Murmansk – Dudinka began to run on a schedule. In the same period was successfully conducted experimental flights in the free navigation of the icebreaker to the North pole, the transactions of the icebreaker and transport vessel for high latitude routes, the opening of navigation in plentywood from the West and shipping of European goods to Japan via the Northern sea route. With the commissioning of the atomic lighter "Sevmorput" was planned through the Northern sea route to tie the work of sea and river ports into a single transportation network of the country, but in connection with the collapse of the Soviet Union for regular swimming with the transport of ships along the NSR was interrupted.

These processes occurred in one generation of navigators and was so rapid that officially the practice of navigation in ice is not consistent with the new technical capabilities of the vessels and, accordingly, new production tasks. The abolition of the Ministry of marine fleet of the USSR led to the fact that the experience of this generation of navigators has not been generalized in the new tactical material, and this in turn led to a lack of training programs and ultimately had a negative impact on the continuity in the formation of professionalism among the new generation of skippers. The navigation skills acquired exclusively personal character.

The events of recent decades have significantly changed the territorial, economic and geopolitical situation in our country. Russia was a Northern country, more Northern than the former Soviet Union, resulting in a place far North in the Russian economy and policy have become clearer, more meaningful. The radical geopolitical changes of the 90-ies led to a decrease in our country due to the Western and southern areas. Happened a qualitative change. The European part of Russia is almost in the inland, polyisopropene territory. At the same time arose the geopolitical processes: the growing pressure on Russia from the outside around the perimeter of the Western and southern boundaries, the destabilization and widespread terrorist activities in the Caucasus and Central Asia, i.e. Russia is facing a very tough place beyond all possible efforts on the West and South. Under unfavourable conditions, European Russia may be cut off from the outside world to the basic, traditional ways, so possession of Russia's huge territories in the North, from Scandinavia to the Bering Strait with enormous natural wealth and waters acquired special geopolitical significance.

All this part of Russia has a wide free outlets to the open space of the ocean that gives access to international sea routes. Favorable conditions for development of foreign economic relations with the countries of Northern Europe and the Asia-Pacific region may largely contribute to the successful use of the potential of the entire country, including especially Siberia and the far East. The realization of this potential is impossible without the use of the Northern sea route (NSR).

The feasibility of the revival and future development of SMEs is considered in two directions for its use. First, for the development of the domestic economy and above all the Arctic and subarctic regions, and secondly to the international transoceanic transit.

The main role in the development of economic complex of the Arctic zone of Russia is given to the marine fleet, which will have to provide:

  • the development of Arctic fields, including those offshore, hydrocarbon raw materials and sea export of oil and gas;
  • the development of export, transit and cabotage and Northern delivery of socially important goods.

For the implementation of these tasks will require icebreakers and specialized icebreaking and transport fleet. Icebreaking is carried out by the leading, or tow, which allows the ship to follow or Malkovich the ice, or in a stream, washing the bow of the ship close to the stern of the icebreaker.

For oil and gas exports will require a dedicated fleet of high ice-class and large displacement. The current practice of the icebreaking knows no cases of pilotage that are wider than the ice channel. Posting tanker or LNG carrier via the NSR two nuclear icebreakers beyond the profitability of such traffic, and also impossible due to lack of availability of icebreakers. The problem of decision under consideration.

The international TRANS-Arctic transit must perform a pivotal role for the development of infrastructure of the economic complex of the Arctic zone of the state. The most conservative estimate of the volume of transit traffic along the NSR in the medium term can be 8 – 15 million tons per year. For this, experts say, is sufficient to switch on the Northern sea route, only 10% of freight between North, North-West Europe and South East Asia that is taking place through the Suez canal, and transportation between the coast of Canada and the United States of North-Western Europe through the Panama canal.

On the first international Euro-Asian conference on transport (may, 1998, St. Petersburg, Russia) the Northern sea route is defined as an independent Eurasian transport corridor. This means that it must be a transport network that is part of the global supply chain, working in a unified system, unified standards, norms and rules on the end result of technology "door to door" and "just in time". To obtain the desired technological results necessary to achieve stability of the movement of cargoes along the NSR at any time of the year. Transit navigation on the NSR, the speed of the boat becomes the main economic indicator of the flight.

The expected significant increase in the volume of shipping along the Northern sea route, including oil products, gas condensate and other dangerous goods, the growth of shipping traffic and the beginning of the operation of large vessels with large draft require the development of new shipping routes and improvement of Maritime safety.

In the 90-ies of XX century on the background of the decline of activity in the Russian Arctic seas have been significant qualitative changes in the study of the Arctic ice cover. This was facilitated by cruises of nuclear icebreakers to the North pole and the implementation of an international program to study the Northern sea route INSROP.

For transit navigation along the NSR can be used by traditional coastal, high-latitude, TRANS-Arctic route and their combination options. The coastal trail passes through the Straits of the Arctic seas. A characteristic feature of the coastal slopes is the presence in summer, vast areas of clean water, and in winter on the contrary is dominated by cohesive landfast and drifting ice, parts of pure water are virtually absent.

The term "TRANS-Arctic transit" means the voyage from the seas of the Atlantic ocean to the Pacific ocean (or Vice versa) across the polar region.

The analysis carried out by specialists of the AARI, showed that an important factor influencing lethalman the Arctic seas with the Arctic pool is the circulation of waters in the basin, which is a single system with the currents in marginal seas and largely determines the removal of ice in the Greenland sea. In other words, in a scenario of heavy ice conditions on the slopes SMP open TRANS-Arctic path and Vice versa.

Appeared the possibility of permanent monitoring of the condition of the ice cover with satellites have shown the availability of year round swimming in solid ice. Decided potential route for oriented breaks cover in the form of cracks, leads and fractures. Shipping began to use the term "discontinuity of the ice cover (NSL)". Sailing on the NSL enabled the "Akademik Fedorov" in free swimming to reach the North pole, and m/V "Norilsk Nickel" to work long hours on the line Murmansk – Dudinka-without the help of icebreakers. Materialized the dream of the skippers of the 80-ies of the to see ice roads into solid ice. In connection with these discoveries in navigation capability of the ice there is a new definition that takes into account the nature of the breaks in the ice cover.

Work doctors of Sciences V. N. Kupetsky and B. A. Sleptsova-Shalevich allowed us to see the variability of the ice cover not only in the zonal and spatial

characteristics, but in the solar time. For sailors, polar explorers, who used to take the ice as a natural chaos of nature, it looks fantastic, so the book is for credibility ends with the practical calculation of the long-term forecast of ice conditions on the route of the SMP, made by A. G. Grigoryev.

The first major work on tactics of navigation in ice is considered to be the "Guide for navigation in ice in the White sea" N. Morozov, published in 1920, Chief Hydrographic office of the Navy. The "Guide" reflected such issues as the management of the ship in ice, towing of vessels, speed, ice navigation, features notation when sailing in ice, etc. Active development of the SMP, initiated in 30 years, demanded the establishment of guidelines for navigation in the Arctic ice. In a result published a series of works devoted to the tactics of ice navigation: M. P. Belousov, "the tactics Of ice navigation" (1940), M. K. Petrov "navigating in ice" (1955), F. Voronin "Swimming (1956), M. V. Gothic "Experience of ice navigation" (1957), A. I. Dubinin "Swimming to Antarctica" (1966). International experience was summarized in the book by V. I. Smirnov "Ice swimming and their scientific and operational services abroad" (1970), in the same year the Main administration of navigation MMF of the USSR publishes in the Hydrographic Department of the Ministry of defense, "the Practice of navigation in ice", which to this day is the guiding document and is used by captains of the ports for the investigation of the ice accidents.

In 60-ies began the transition from passive tactics to action for overcoming challenging ice conditions, but all of the above publications mainly contain recommendations as transport vessels to avoid ice damage in independent navigation or icebreaker in the composition of the caravan. Great attention was paid to the preparation of ships for navigation in ice.

In the mid 70-ies of the NSR began to work icebreakers, equipped power plant 75 thousand HP and transport ships with ice class "type of DM. Donskoy", the opportunity of active work in the ice even in winter. Separate synthesis of the tactics of ice navigation during this period was made by captains I. P. Lopatin, A. M. Kalicki, A. V. Golohvastov, V. K. Kochetkov, Y. S. by Kochavim, V. V. Mikhailichenko and others.

Planned program to provide year-round navigation in the Western part of the SMP required the generalization of progressive experience icebreaker support in the Arctic and examining tactics of navigation in ice at a new qualitative level. By order of the Administration of SMP N.G. Babich, being at the time head. sector of ice navigation the Murmansk branch CNIIMF developed and in 1982 published guidelines to skippers under the title "Questions of tactics of navigation in ice of the Western Arctic". These recommendations were approved and proposed by the Board of MMF to use as a practical Handbook for skippers operating in the Arctic and operational employees of the headquarters of marine operations. Requirements active work in the ice was dictated by the objectives of efficiency of functioning of SMEs, and in this regard there is a need of an extended interpretation of the concept of tactics of ice navigation. In this practical manual "the tactics of ice navigation is defined as the set of methods of the account of hydro-meteorological (ice) information in order to select the optimal path navigation, and pilotage methods and techniques for crossing the ice, providing the greatest safety and the efficiency of the fleet when sailing in ice". Therefore, "the correct movement of the ice," wrote A. Varnek, and the modern language of "ice mode" seas of the Western district of SMP is paid special value. The ice regime is considered specifically, as the environment of navigation affecting the efficiency of nuclear-powered icebreakers for pilotage. Operating logic is built on definitions: "performance", "optimal", "rational" analyses the factors influencing the success of decisions, for example: - "the solution to the problem of choosing the optimal path of navigation in ice, in addition to knowledge of the General laws of the ice regime, from skippers a well-developed spatial imagination, the ability to assess the situation in all variety of combinations of characteristics and dynamics of ice (to"feel" the ice), to anticipate the effects on the ice of the icebreaker or vessel. The success of the optimal way of swimming is largely determined also by the knowledge and skillful use of rational methods of crossing the ice."

In 1987 she published the book A. I. Asikainen and K. N. Chubakova "ABC ice navigation", in which the authors also referring to the tactics of ice navigation in connection with the development of shipping in the Arctic, but this book covers a very wide range of issues and intended for a wide circle of readers. Due to the fact that the book did not allow the authors to fully display all issues of the practice of ice navigation, individual sections were written in a compressed form. However, the main components of ice navigation, with which a skipper can meet in practice, are stated in the book. For these reasons, the work was called "the ABCs of ice navigation" and was intended primarily for sailors who want to conduct their ship in the ice.

Analyzing the above works, you should pay attention to the fact that almost all these books, except for RD "the Practice of navigation in ice", the first Chapter is devoted to the ice. The authors of the different acquaint its readers with the characteristics of ice and ice cover of the seas. For example, in the book by M. P. Belousov, "the tactics Of ice navigation" 7 pages (10% of the text) describes the ice cover of the seas of the USSR, in the book of A. I. Arikainen "ABC ice" in the first Chapter of "Ice as a medium of navigation" for more than 70 pages (30%) contain a description of the characteristics of ice extent and ice information, and practical guide N. G. Babich, "the tactics of navigation in ice of the Western Arctic region" describes the characteristics of the ice in the area and their effect on seaworthiness is more than 60% of the total text.

Based on this analysis the conclusion is: because ice is the medium of navigation, in matters of shipping and navigation study, and understanding of the role of ice in these processes should be given priority. You should also pay attention to the fact that ice in the training programmes for cadets of the navigation specialty was not up to date.

The next big job, which included questions of tactics of navigation in ice, was the book "the Safety of navigation in ice", written by A. P. Smirnov, in collaboration with captains B. M. Sokolov, A. V. Golohvastov and B. S. by Mingachevir and published by the publishing house "Transport" in 1993. The book was intended for the skippers of icebreaking and transport sea and river vessels, mixed vessels, as well as cadets majoring in navigation as a learning tool. In design and method of presentation, the book likely is a tutorial about what the authors stated in the abstract, but on the issues of safety of navigation and ice accidents it contains a list of existing normative documents the factors climbing accidents and gives examples of typical accidents and emergency cases, which gives this book an additional value as a practical manual.

Considering this book in the aspect of the tactics of ice navigation should pay attention to the fact that at the time of the publication of this work already had some experience of the operation of vessels of type "Norilsk" (project CA-15), which was used by the authors of this work sufficiently, but ice it is less than "ABC ice navigation". Well-written Chapter 4, in which captain V. A. Golokhvastov introduces the reader to new ways of icebreaker assistance. New icebreaking tactics described in this book remain icebreaking, they are safe for the icebreaker, and therefore do not contradict current Practice, but complement it up to modern operational requirements. But the implementation of these new ice-breaking tactics in the work of the icebreaking transport vessels appear actions that are contrary to the recommendations of current Practice even in matters of security, so to promote these techniques require theoretical evidence.

For this reason, and also due to the large volume of accumulated material, it was decided new tactics of navigation in ice to break apart. The first part of the tactic containing the main tactical theme as a set of methods for obtaining ice information to select the optimal path in the ice is offered to Your attention. This volume contains a collection of works from different scientific fields, but adapted for skippers nuclear cargo ships at special refresher courses at GMA them. ADM. Makarova on the subject of "Tactics of navigation in ice". Selection of topics was dictated by the practical experience of ice navigation of the author and the questions asked by the captains of nuclear icebreakers on courses during the discussion of the subject.

The last book on tactics of navigation in ice "the Art of ice navigation" written by captain Vladimir Abonosimov and was published in 2002. In this book the famous ice captain shares his rich experience of navigation in ice in the Eastern sector of the Arctic. The book can be used by skippers as a practical manual.

In the initial stages of work on the book, the author received critical comments from customers about the large amount of historical material. But only on this material you can get an idea of how the geographical concept of "passage" turns into a sea route and what place in this process is pioneers, the government and entrepreneurs. Only the history of Arctic exploration shows the value of the personal and human factor in achieving results. Knowledge of history allows us to understand at what level of historical development are taken now crucial for Russia, the solution and prevent repeating mistakes. The correctness of these positions is confirmed by the great interest of the sailors to the history of the Arctic because they have a history of a certain stage of development of the Northern sea route.

History of the North of Russia is a very interesting and characteristic. The North has always helped Russians to survive the periods of great wars, great turmoil and revolutionary upheaval. It is during these periods the ice swimming was a new development, and the state of new benefits. So it was during the Tatar-Mongol yoke, when Novgorod the Great began to move to Yugra, and in times of great turmoil when false Dmitry, when rapidly developed Mangazeya was built Mangazeisky marine course, and further prohibition of the king to trade with Mangazeya caused a powerful pioneering movement of Russian coast-dwellers to the East and within half a century Russia has grown territories of Siberia and the Far East, and the practice of ice navigation has been enriched with information about the North-East passage. In the first world war the government acquired a fleet of icebreakers, developed the port of Arkhangelsk and built the port of Murmansk. It is hard to imagine how much would have delayed the second world war, if it were not for Murmansk. Experts believe that if during the first world war, Russia had the experience of sailing along the Northern sea route and used it to transport a fleet to the East, the results of the Russo-Japanese war could be different. Confirmation of this will be a double transfer of forces of the Soviet Navy command during the second world war. Germany was well aware of the importance of the North for the Soviet Union and tried to restrict the activities of these communications, however, due to the lack of knowledge of the region and the lack of practice of ice navigation, actions were not decisive and did not give the expected result. An example is the battle of the battleship "Admiral Scheer" with the icebreaking ship "Dezhnev" and an artillery battery of port Dickson. The armament of a battleship to 20 times superior forces of his opponent, but the lack of practice maneuvering in such circumstances, the conduct of hostilities did not allow him to win.

At the moment Russia is once again going through hard times. The events of recent decades made the place far North in the Russian economy and politics more significant and even vital. In the Transport strategy of the Russian Federation the government has identified as the most important strategic directions for transport of the doctrine of the speedy development of the Northern sea route for transport to ensure the development of onshore and offshore hydrocarbon fields, as well as the development of export, transit and cabotage.

In the case of Arctic exploration there is no rule that says that the Arctic becomes available only when there comes a technological breakthrough, qualitatively changes the strategy and tactics of navigation in ice. The strategy is defined, but whether launched the program of technical re-equipment of the fleet tactics of tomorrow.

In the beginning of the book it was noted that the skippers 70 – 80-ies of the last century had a lot of experience of ice navigation. The accumulation of this experience, the skippers began to feel the need for a deeper theoretical knowledge of ice and ice movement rate of ships.

In the Soviet Union accumulated skippers experience periodically aggregated by special institutions, it was applied the theoretical framework, and then in the form of recommendations, guidelines, textbooks and practical manuals he has developed in the Practice of the Navy. However, this experience was not even generalized, as in the 90-ies was dismantled system of governance for the Arctic fleet and has changed the principles of functioning of the institutions. Due to the sharp, more than four times, reducing traffic in the Arctic, and for the above reasons, the process of transfer of experience of ice navigation of transport vessels was interrupted. Icebreaking transport ships left for work in warm water. Sailing cargo ships in the Arctic were sporadic, and the breakers remained in the Arctic and has continued its work mainly in the Dudinka direction.

The lack of the necessary qualifications of skippers transport vessels, as well as the desire of shipowners to maximum fuel economy resulted in the fact that towing has become the main type of icebreaker assistance. It is known that the most effective towing of heavy-tonnage vessels in ice is produced on a short tow. If the length of the tow 50 meters in the 80-ies it was considered unsafe, in the second half of the 90-ies appeared the practice of towing vessels at a distance less than 3 meters. The skipper on such transactions prohibitive is experiencing load, and the safety of the process mainly depends on personal characteristics of the operator.

At the beginning of this book was this is very important to identify the requirements for future tactics, which is that the speed of the boat when sailing along the Northern sea route is becoming a major economic factor of the flight. Previous work of the fleet in the ice was normalized after the fact. On the ice was off all the delays. Under this system, the sailors had no motivation to improve the performance of flights. For this reason, and the leaders of the fleet, and many sailors have come to firmly believe that the ice is impossible to follow a given speed. And this is the main system requirement of the transport corridor, therefore, they say, we can not afford transit. This opinion was formed from years of experience a seasonal summer service. Experience year-round navigation in the Arctic nobody in the world has, and the material presented in this book suggests that winter the way the ice is more stable and predictable, as in the spring and summer terms, and meteorology, and hydrology in the area of the Northern hemisphere is more dynamic. This suggests that year-round navigation along the Northern sea route will require new tactical and technical solutions.

Recently, in the further development of the Arctic began to be published that the solution of problems of functioning of the Northern sea route presumably lies in the mobilization of the human factor and not by further increasing the capacity of icebreakers and icebreaking transport vessels. In ice navigation tactics implemented human factor and is expressed by the ability of sailors to fulfill their strategic objectives. As mentioned above, under the present practice in the courts of this generation seafarers experience ultimate ergonomic load. Implementation of the strategic objectives of the day must lead to an increase in these loads, which in turn will affect the safety record. The simple conclusion arises that in order to improve safety in ice navigation should be possible to automate the work of sailors, bringing her to execute control functions and parameter settings of the motion.

To accomplish this task will require examination of the internal funds of human activity, reflected in experience, knowledge and skills of seafarers and coordination with external installations of this system. In other words, the practice of ice navigation, developed by sailors in the 70 – 90s of the last century, but it is not generalized and does not have tactics, should be the basis for the development of new tactics of navigation in ice and, therefore, it is the property of Russia. The bearers of this practice is decreasing the past generation, the Arctic sailors, so the main task of the nation at the moment is to keep the process of transfer of experience of ice navigation to new generations and to raise the Russian practice of navigation in ice to a new level. These goals and serves as we offer the readers of the book."

Excerpt from the book by E. M. Shotzberger "Tactics of navigation in ice. Ice road of the Arctic"


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