industry and the possibilities of development of the Russian tuna industry prepared for
"governmental hour" meeting of the Council of Federation of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation 23
July 2019 with the participation of the Minister of agriculture Dmitry Patrushev.
1. The history of Russian tuna fishery
The Soviet Union was one of the pioneers of the tuna fishery in the World ocean. The development of Soviet fishermen tuna fishing began in 60-e years of the XX century with the beginning of specialized research and fish expeditions in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. In 1960 the expeditionary Autonomous work of the tuna Seiners in the Indian ocean in 1962 - experimental purse-Seine fishing Kerch base head collapses, since 1964 the fisheries were of Kerch and the far East tunebase, and since 1983 - specialized purse Seine seiner far East and West basins.
The Soviet tuna fleet consisted of monobaz such as "solar beam", large tuna Seiners (BLS) of the "homeland", middle of the tuna Seiners (SST) of the "Tibiya". All of the tuna seiner of the aforementioned projects were built on obsolete projects and could not compete with foreign trawlers.
Given the potential of the fishery and for the modernization of the tuna fleet in the late 80-ies of the last century in the USSR was adopted the state program of modernization of the Soviet tuna fleet, for the construction of the Spanish shipyards 10 modern tuna Seiners type “Kauri”. In the period 1991-1993 seiner was commissioned and directed to conduct fisheries in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. In the Atlantic ocean were fishing 9 medium tuna Seiners and tuna longlining base.
Until 90-ies of the last century of the tuna fleet of the USSR was one of the largest in the world, consisted of up to 30 tuna Seiners and carried out fishing in all oceans. Overall the fishing capacity of the tuna fleet of the USSR and later the Russian Federation, amounted to 135 thousand tonnes of tropical tuna, the valuation of the annual catch in prices in 2018 would amount to over 250 million U.S. dollars.
With the collapse of the Soviet Union stopped the development of Russian tuna fisheries. In the early 90-ies of the last century, all Russian large-capacity tuna seiner, including new were withdrawn under foreign flags, the Russian tuna fishing in the Pacific and Indian ocean stopped. In the period 1992-2009, only 9 obsolete medium Seiners continued to fish under the Russian flag in the Atlantic ocean, which allowed the Russian Federation to preserve the right of fishing tropical Tunas in the Atlantic.
In 2010, due to the decision of the International Commission for the conservation of Atlantic Tunas (hereinafter ICCAT) to ban cargo operations in the open sea, and technical and moral depreciation of the last Russian seiner was decommissioned and fisheries targeting tropical Tunas in the Atlantic were stopped until the present time is not conducted.
2. The state of the global tuna industry
Tuna are among the most valuable commercial fish of the oceans, are one of the most common resources of the oceans. Tuna fishery is widely distributed in the World ocean, is one of the most important areas of the world's marine fisheries, one of the most profitable types of ocean fishing. In terms of production fishing for tuna takes the third place in the world after anchovies and mackerel.
The most common type of tuna fishing is the fishery for tropical Tunas. The modern fishery for tropical Tunas is characterized by high profitability, a high degree of regulation by international regional fisheries organisations and the low and controlled risk.
Regulation of fishing is an international Treaty organizations (hereinafter – the T-RFMO)established by the UN:
- in the Pacific ocean:
- Fisheries Commission Western and Central Pacific ocean Western & Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC);
- Inter-American tropical tuna Commission Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC);
- Commission on Tunas Indian ocean Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC);
- International Commission for the conservation of Atlantic Tunas - International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT);
- The Commission for the conservation of southern bluefin tuna Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna (CCSBT)
Tasks commissions - effective inventory management of tuna and related fish species and the long-term conservation sustainable use of tuna fisheries in all ocean areas, the effective regulation and control of fishing operations, the fight against illegal and uncontrolled fishing.
Unlike other types of ocean fishing, fishing for tropical Tunas are conducted year-round in tropical and subtropical waters of Pacific, Indian and Atlantic oceans.
The main commercial species of tropical Tunas. Commercial species of tropical Tunas – yellowfin (Yellowfin tuna), striped tuna (Skipjack tuna), bigeye tuna (Bigeye tuna), bluefin tuna (Bluefin tuna). The volume of global annual catch in 2017 only tropical Tunas exceeded 4.8 million tons, including:
- yellowfin tuna - 2.8 million tonnes (57% of total catch);
- yellowfin tuna - 1.4 million tonnes (29% of total catch);
- bigeye tuna - 0.4 million tons (8% of total catch);
- al - 0.2 million tons (4% of total catch);
- bluefin tuna - 42 thousand tonnes (1% of total catch).
Valuation of the world catch of tropical Tunas in 2017 exceeded 10.5 billion.
The main fishing areas
The volume of catches of tropical Tunas are found in tropical zones of the World ocean, including:
- Western and Central Pacific ocean – 2,535 million tons (53% yield);
- Indian ocean – 0,983 million tons (21% yield);
- The Eastern part of the Pacific ocean – 0,722 million tons (15% yield);
- Atlantic ocean – 0,493 million tons (10.5% of yield).
The main types of tuna fishing are the specialized fishing of the tuna Seiners using purse Seine nets (purse seiners tuna) and longline vessels (long liners).
The main volume is produced by specialized commercial tuna tuna Seiners equipped with purse Seine. The basis sanrego of the tuna fleet is made up of high-tech tuna Seiners by cargo capacity of 1000 - 2000 tonnes.
In 2017 the fishery for tropical Tunas in the World ocean was carried out 673 large tuna Seiners. Banernye the largest tuna-fishing fleets are fishing under the flags of the Republic of Korea – 53, Taiwan – 34 seiner, Spain – 26, Japan – 29, France 28, U.S. – 36, China – 24, the Republic of Ghana – 16, Panama – 20, Seychelles – 13.
Placement sanrego tuna-fishing fleet in the zones of responsibility T - RFMO:
- Fisheries Commission Western and Central Pacific ocean – 385 Seiners;
- Inter-American tropical tuna Commission – 236 Seiners;
- Commission Indian ocean tuna – Seiners 148;
- The international Commission for the conservation of Atlantic Tunas – 56 Seiners.
In the last decade more and more countries, including developing, actively involved in tuna fishing. Actively upgrading their synergy of the tuna fleet is almost all countries involved in tuna fisheries, and beginners of this craft. For the period 2013-2018 gg it was built 86 modern tuna Seiners, including Taiwan – 10 ships, South Korea – 8, France – 2, Spain – 4 Sweden – 4 China – 8, Papua New Guinea – 13, Mexico, the Philippines, Seychelles – 7 courts, Federal States of Micronesia – 4, Solomon Islands – 3, Ecuador 2, Venezuela, El Salvador, Cape Verde, Curacao, Kiribati – 1 ship. Program of construction of new sanrego of the tuna fleet in most countries enjoy state support and are implemented as national projects.
Global markets ice cream and tuna products from tuna
The global market for tuna is determined by factors such as growing consumer demand for processed ready to eat tuna, revenue growth and increased consumption of tuna per capita as one of the main types of products obtained from wild fish.
Global sales of commercial ice cream tuna in 2017 exceeded 10.5 billion. It is a widely purchased product for consumers, restaurants and the canning industry. Growing demand for canned and processed tuna is the main driving force of the world market of tuna. Currently, Europe dominates the list of regions importing canned and processed tuna. Middle East countries such as Saudi Arabia, Israel and Egypt, has become one of the largest importers of tuna in the world.
According to the report of the analytical company IMARC Group "the tuna Market: global industry trends, share, size, growth, opportunities and forecast for the 2018-2023 years", the world market of products from the tuna reaches the value of 11.38 billion U.S. dollars in 2023.
Research company "Grand View Research Inc" on the basis of the analysis of development trends of global market products seafood - "GLOBAL CANNED TUNA MARKET 2017-2021", predicts an annual market growth of 3.2% to 27.8 billion US dollars by 2025. The share of the global market for canned products of the tuna will make up 47.8 % of the total seafood market. Annual growth in consumption of canned products of the tuna is 4.8%. By 2025, the valuation of the world market of tuna products will be of 13.75 billion U.S. dollars.
The global market for tuna products is on the rise. Expert valuation of the global ice cream market tuna products in 2017 is 19 billion dollars in 2025 will increase to 25 billion US dollars (growth 32%).
3. Prospects of development of Russian tuna industry
Despite the fact that at the present time, the Russian fishery for tropical Tunas is not conducted, the Russian Federation retains the good prospects for the revival of the domestic tuna fishery in the World ocean and the construction of a national tuna industry.
As noted above, the tuna Seiners under the flag of Russia in 1995, have fished in all the oceans. In connection with the cessation of fishing in the Pacific and Indian oceans, currently the Russian Federation is represented only in one of the international tuna Commission International Commission for the conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT).
Despite the fact that the Russian fisheries targeting tropical Tunas in the Atlantic ocean not conducted in 2010, Russia retains the membership and the right of fishing in this Committee and can bring to fishing in the Convention area ICCAT to 9 tuna Seiners.
With the aim of reviving domestic tuna fishery provided the Foundation for the restoration and development of tuna fishing "Marlin" developed the project of development of the tuna industry within the Russian fisheries complex.
The project includes:
- the development of Russian tuna fisheries in the Atlantic ocean due to the purchase of the initial phase 2 of the tuna purse-Seine vessels with the subsequent construction of a series of high-tech purse Seine vessels;
- construction on the territory of the Kaliningrad region fish processing complex;
- create a database for the revival of Russian tuna fisheries in the Pacific and Indian oceans.
The project is export-oriented, has good export potential and meets the requirements of regional projects ensuring the achievement of the objectives indicators and outcomes of Federal projects included in the national projects defined by the decree of the President of the Russian Federation from 7.05.2018, No. 204 "On the national goals and strategic objectives development of the Russian Federation until 2024".
Analysis of the situation leads to the conclusion that, in the case of the absence of the tuna purse-Seine vessels under the flag of the Russian Federation on the fishery in the near future, quotas on catch of tuna will be distributed without the participation of Russia and the country will lose the opportunity for fishing tuna - one of the most profitable types of ocean fisheries.
Loss of opportunity for fishing stems from the fact that every year the process of fishing for tuna in the Atlantic and other oceans is becoming more regulated by the decisions of Treaty organizations and, therefore, existing still, the term "freedom of fishing in the open ocean" is becoming more relative. The long absence of the tuna purse-Seine vessels under the flag of the Russian Federation will lead to the allocation of production quotas tropical Tunas assigned to Russia among other participants in the fishery.
Currently, the fishery for tropical Tunas in the Atlantic is regulated by the multi-year programme of conservation and management of stocks of tropical Tunas (REC 16-01 TRO). In accordance with the Programme countries participating in the fishery, can produce yellowfin tuna within the total allowable catch (hereafter TAC) no distribution on the national quotas, and the most widespread of the skipjack, with no restrictions.
However, during the annual ICCAT session in 2018, the number of countries in the member countries of the Commission made proposals for changes to the Program, including the fixing of TACs for all tuna species, with subsequent allocation of the TAC into national quotas in volumes caught by purse-Seine vessels of each country for the period 2008-2017
Changes were not adopted on the initiative of EU countries (Spain, France), are actively implementing programmes to upgrade sanrego of the tuna fleet. In accordance with the expert opinion of Fund "Marlin", a new discussion of changes to the Program is possible not earlier than 2021.
Given the above, to save Russian tuna fisheries in the Atlantic ocean Russia must withdraw on tuna fishing at least 2 x tuna Seiners over the 2019 and begin to implement program for the construction of a series of tuna Seiners no later than 2020.
Prospects of tuna fisheries in the Pacific and Indian oceans
Despite the fact that Russia is not a member of the Commission for the Indian ocean tuna (IOTC) and the Commission on fisheries in the Western and Central Pacific ocean (WCPFC), the possibility of recovery of the Russian tuna fisheries in these areas is preserved through:
- the principle of continuity of the fishery (historical principle). In the Convention area of the WCPFC prior to 1994 were fishing 5 boat ship type "Kauri", in the Indian ocean – 5 Seiners type "Kauri", 2 seiner type "Rodina";
- entering the territorial sea and the special economic zone of Russia in the Convention area WCPFC;
- the big contribution of the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation in the research of aquatic biological resources of the Indian ocean. In the period of 70-80 years and until the early 90's the Soviet Union/Russian Federation implemented in the Indian ocean more than 100 research expeditions, amassing a vast array of scientific information.
Only in the Indian and Pacific oceans, the Russian Federation may take up to 12 tuna Seiners, given the 9 tuna Seiners Atlantic expedition of the tuna fleet could reach 21 vessels, with a total catch of 164 tonnes.
Valuation of the annual catch is more than 300 million U.S. dollars.
Unfortunately, to date all attempts to implement the project with the biggest Russian fishing companies were not successful due to the priority development of the latest national marine biological resources in the economic zone of the Russian Federation.
- Tuna fishing is one of the most promising types of ocean fishing. Resource status commercial tuna species is in stable condition, the demand for the products of tuna is rising steadily;
- The development of Russian tuna fishery will reduce the burden on the national aquatic biological resources, to return to the Russian fishing vessels in the previously utilized commercial areas, will increase the presence of Russian Federation in remote areas of the World ocean;
- For the preservation and development of Russian tuna fishery requires the adoption of the state programme of revival of this kind of ocean fishing, which will preserve Russia's presence in previously mastered areas of the World ocean and which is difficult to solve solely through private investment;
- The project of development of Russian tuna fishery has a good export potential and meets the requirements of regional projects ensuring the achievement of the objectives indicators and outcomes of Federal projects included in the national projects defined by the decree of the President of the Russian Federation from 7.05.2018, No. 204 "On the national goals and strategic objectives development of the Russian Federation until 2024". Target indicators of the project meet the goals and objectives established by the Federal project "the Export of agricultural products", providing increase of export of fish and seafood by 2024 to 8,471 billion (approved by the Presidium of the Council under the RF President on strategic development and national projects - the report from 24.09.2018, No. 12). The estimated average annual volume of export sales of ice cream tuna in 2020 will reach 29.7 million USD with an increase by 2024 to $ 85 million U.S. (up to 9.4% of the volume of regional exports of agricultural products in 2017);
- The project complies with the principles applicable to the preparation of regional projects outlined in the "Methodological recommendations on the preparation of regional projects" (letter to the government of the Russian Federation from 30.11.2018, No. 9861п-A6). The first phase of the project allows to optimize and to minimize the cost of subsequent events – the construction of a modern high-tech tuna-fishing fleet and onshore processing complex, capable of producing in demand in domestic and foreign markets the products of tuna with high added value. The annual export volume after starting the processing of the complex exceeds 120 million US dollars;
- Implementation of the program for the reconstruction and development of Russian tuna fisheries will:
- the creation of a domestic tuna industry, which operates a large tuna-fishing fleet and modern processing industries;
- to fully provide the Russian fish processing industry with quality raw materials, will protect the Russian consumer market from imported products, will create competitive advantages for Russian refiners who are forced to work on low-grade raw materials. The interest in the Russian market of processing of a tuna showing the global leader in processing tuna ”THAI UNION Group”;
- to create in the higher and average educational institutions of a new training program for production professionals for the tuna industry;
- to create new high-paying jobs;
- to increase tax payments to budgets of different levels and social contributions to extra-budgetary funds.
Material prepared by:
The Fund Manager "Marlene" Vladimir Eremeev,
Coordinator of the project "Marine policy" at the Center for strategic estimates and projections Anna Gornova
- 14-06-2019The electronic state of the future
- 11-03-2019How to change the world, when the Earth's population will reach 10 billion
- 09-09-2018Le Monde (France): We come to the point where globalization is too expensive
- 02-05-2018Technology: 35-forecasts to 2018
- 22-03-2018"Digital state": how they have evolved
- 04-07-2012Russia cooking oil blockade and the collapse of the scenario of the 80-ies
- 23-12-2012The Vedic understanding of state policy
- 22-11-2013In the archives of the "world government"
- 08-01-2014Of a mega-Church and their communication strategies
- 08-11-2012The main threat to peace or a recipe for success